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Scientific American 
Reference Book 



Compiled by 
Albert A. Hopkins 

and 

A. Russell Bond 



Munn Sf Company, Publishers 

Scientific American Offices 
New York 

1905 



Copyright, 1904, by 
MI;NN & COMPANY 

All rights reserved 



PRESS OF 

ANDREW H. KELLOGG CO. 
NEW YORK 



PREFACE. 



THE Editor of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN receives during the year 
thousands of inquiries from readers and correspondents covering 
a wide range of topics. The information sought for, in many cases, can 
not readily be found in any available reference or text-book. It has been 
decided, therefore, to prepare a work which shall be comprehensive 
in character and which shall contain a mass of information not readily 
procured elsewhere. The very wide range of topics covered in the 
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN EEFERENCE BOOK may be inferred by examining 
the index and table of contents. This work has been made as non- 
technical as the subjects treated of will admit, and is intended as a 
ready reference book for the home and the office. It is possible that 
in some of the tables published in the book certain inconsistencies 
may be observed. Such a condition of affairs is in some cases in- 
evitable. In procuring the figures, for example, from different De- 
partments of the Government, with reference to any subject, it has 
been found that statistics vary in certain particulars. These variations 
are due to the different methods of tabulation, or to some different 
system by means of which the figures have been arrived at. In a 
number of cases these discrepancies will be noted in the book, but they 
are not to be regarded as errors. 

The debt for advice and help has been a heavy one. The com- 
pilation of this book would have been impossible without the cordial 
cooperation of government officials, who have been most kind. Our 
thanks are especially due to the Hon. 0. P. Austin, Chief of the 
Bureau of Statistics, Department of Commerce and Labor; to the 
Hon. S. N". D. North, Director of the Census ; Prof. John C. Monaghan, 
Editor of the Consular Reports; Hon. Eugene Tyler Chamberlain, 
Commissioner Bureau of Navigation; Dr. Marcus Benjamin, of the 
Smithsonian Institution ; Major W. D. Beach, U. S. A., of the General 
Staff; Rear-Admiral Charles O'Neil, late Chief of Bureau of 



Ordnance, U. S. N. ; Hon. S. I. Kimball, General Superintendent, 
Life Saving Service; the Director of the Mint, Capt. Seaton 
Schroeder, U. S. K, Chief Intelligence Officer, U. S. N. ; many ex- 
aminers in the Patent Office; Hon. Willis L. Moore, Chief of the 
Weather Bureau ; many officials of the Agricultural Department ; Hon. 
Carroll D. Wright, Commissioner Bureau of Labor; Hon. George M. 
Bowers, and Mr. A. B. Alexander, of the Bureau of Fisheries; Prof. 
Charles Baskerville, Ph.D.; Edward W. Byrn, of Washington; Dr. 
George F. Kunz, Hon. S. W. Stratton, of the Bureau of Standards, 
and many others. 

We are also indebted to the J. B. Lippincott Co. for permission 
to use diagrams of Geometrical Constructions; to HazelFs Annual, 
Whittaker's Almanac, and the " Daily Mail Year Book/' A number 
of our diagrams are from the " Universal-Taschen Atlas " of Prof A. 
L. Hichmann. Our matter on the " Arctic Eegions " is translated 
from Dr. Hermann Haack's " Geographen-Kalender." For a number 
of our tables we must thank the excellent pocket books of D. K. Clark 
and Philip R. Bjorling, and we are also indebted to the Year Book 
issued by our esteemed English contemporary " Knowledge." 

It is hoped that this work will save many fruitless searches through 
works of reference, as the aim of the compilers has been to obtain 
matter which is not readily available elsewhere. 

NEW YORK, October 15, 1904. 



CONTENTS. 



PART I. 



CHAPTER I. 
THE PROGRESS OF DISCOVERY . . 1-16 



Division into Races. 

Total Population and Area of the 

World. 

Languages of the World. 
Progress of Discovery. 
The Distribution of Land and 

Water. 



The Cultivation of Land in all Con- 
tinents. 

The Polar Regions. 

The Antarctic. 

The Area and Population of all 
Countries. 

The Great Cities? of the World. 



CHAPTER II. 
SHIPPING AND YACHTS . . 17-51 



Summary of Shipping. 

Number and Tonnage of Vessels. 

Large and Fast Ocean Steamers. 

Motive Power and Material of Con- 
struction. 

Foreign Carrying Trade of the 
United States. 

The Panama Route. 

Dimensions of the Largest Ocean 
Steamers. 

The World's Shipping in 1903. 

The Speeds of Ocean Greyhounds. 

Record of Passengers Landed. 

The First Steamboats. 

The Largest Steamship Owners. 



Vessels having 10,000 Tons Dis- 
placement or over. 

The " Baltic." 

Comparison of Locomotives with the 
" Oceanic." 

The Supplies of the " Deutsch- 
land." 

Provisioning a Liner. 

Steam Turbines and Speed. 

The Cost of Speed. 

U. S. Life-saving Service. 

Disasters involving Loss of Life. 

Board of Life-saving Appliances. 

The Lighthouse Establishment. 

From Cruiser to Racing Machine. 



CHAPTER III. 
THE NAVIES OF THE WORLD. . . .53-90 



Construction and Classification of 

Warships. 

Navies of the World Compared. 
Relative Strength in Materiel. 
Relative Order of Warship Strength. 
Sea Strength of the Principal Naval 

Powers. 
Number of Torpedo Vessels and 

Submarines. 

Navies of the World in Detail. 
Regulations of the Naval Academy. 



List of Ships of the Navy. 

Submarine Boats. 

The Torpedo Boat. 

Torpedoes. 

The Interior -of a Battleship. 

The Turret of a Battleship. 

Submarine Mines. 

Naval Ammunition. 

Our Naval Guns in the Civil 

and To-day. 
Pay of Naval and Marine Corps. 



War 



CHAPTER IV. 
ARMIES OF THE WORLD . . 91-116 



The Army of the United States. 

Foreign Armies. 

United States Military Academy. 



Springfield Magazine Rifle. 
Sixteen-inch Gun. 
Foreign Armies. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER V. 
RAILROADS OF THE WORLD 117-136 



Railroads of the World. 
Railway Signals. 
Railroads of the United States. 
Street and Electric Railroads. 



Railway Gauges. 

Cape to Cairo Railway. 

Trans-Siberian Railway. 



CHAPTER VI. 
POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES 



137-170 



Population of Each State. 

Official Census of the United States 

by Counties. 

How Population is Sheltered. 
Areas of States. 
Population Living in Cities. 
Population of Cities of 25,000 or 

over. 
Death Rates. 



Foreign Born Population. 
Population at Work. 
Indians. 

Number of Pensioners. 
Immigration. 
Labor's Death Roll. 
Acnuisition to Territory and Center 
of Population. 



CHAPTER VII. 
EDUCATION, LIBRARIES, PRINTING, AND PUBLISHING, 



,171-184 



The Value of an Education. 
Number of Students in Schools and 

Colleges. 
Libraries of the United States. 



Printing and Publishing. 

Raw and Finished Products in 

Printing. 
Libraries of the World. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

TELEGRAPHS, TELEPHONES, SUBMARINE CABLES, WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY. 

AND SIGNALING . . .185-209 



Land Lines of the World. 
Mileage of Lines and Wires. 
Morse Code. 

Statistics of Telephone Companies. 
Telegraphic Time Signals. 
Standard Time. 
Variation of Time. 
Submarine Telegraphs. 



Wireless Telegraphy. 
International Code of Signals 
Distress Signals. 
Weather Bureau Stations. 
Distant Signals. 
Cyclones. 

Life-saving Signals. 
Weather Bureau. 



CHAPTER IX. 
PATENTS . ..211-255 



Patents in Relation to Manufac- 
tures. 

Distinguished Inventors. 

Progress of Inventions. 

General Information Regarding 
Patents. 



Abstracts of Decisions. 

Foreign Patents. 

Patent Laws of the United States. 

History of the American Patent 

System. 
Copyright Law of the United States. 



CHAPTER X. 
MANUFACTURES . . . 257-309 



Localization of Industries. 
Manufacturing in the United States. 
Merchandise Imported and Exported. 
United States Trade in 1903. 
Motive Power Appliances. 



Comparative Summary of Power. 
Iron and Steel. 

Value of Agricultural Implements. 
Summary of Progress. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XI. 
DEPARTMENTS OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT. . . 



311-325 



Department of Justice. 
Department of State. 
Department of the Treasury. 
Department of War. 
Department of Agriculture. 
Post Office Department. 
Department of Navy. 
Department of the Interior. 
Commissioner of Patents. 
Board on Geographic Names. 



Civil Service Commission. 

National Academy of Sciences. 

Interstate Commerce Commission. 

Department of Commerce and Labor. 

International Bureau of American 
Republics. 

American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science. 

National Debts. 



CHAPTER XII. 
THE POST OFFICE . . .327-336 



Postal Information. 

The Postal Service of the World. 

Suggestions to the Public. 



The United States Post Office. 
Number of Post Offices. 
Government Expenditures. 



CHAPTER XIII. 
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND BUREAUS.. 



The Nobel Prizes. 

The Pollok Prize. 

Court of Arbitration. 

Postal Union. 

Bureau of Telegraphs. 

Bureau of Weights and Measures. 

Union for the Protection of Indus- 
trial and Literary Property. 

Bureau for Repression of Slave 
Trade. 



337-342 

Union for Publication Customs 
Tariffs. 

Bureau of Railroad Transporta- 
tion. 

Bureau of Geodesy. 

Carnegie " Hero " Commission. 

Rhodes Scholarships. 

Carnegie Institution. 



CHAPTER XIV. 
MINES AND MINING . . .343-353 



Summary of the Mineral Production 
of the United States. 



Mines and Quarries. 
Clay Products. 



PART II. 



CHAPTER I. 
GEOMETRICAL CONSTRUCTIONS . .399-412 



Geometrical Figures. 
Geometrical Constructions. 



The Circle. 

Formulas for the Circle. 



CHAPTER II. 
MACHINE ELEMENTS . ..413-416 



CHAPTER III. 

MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS 417-441 

. Gearing. 

Cams and Cam Movements. 

Miscellaneous Movements. 

Drafting Devices. 

Governors. 

Springs. 

Belting. 

Types of Engines. 



Toothed Gear. 

Friction Gear. 

Chain Gear. 

Rope Gear. 

Clutches. 

Angle Shaft Couplings and Universal 

Joints. 

Ratchet Movements. 
Escapements. 



CONTENTS. 



PART III. 

CHAPTER I. 

CHEMISTRY 443-452 

Prices of French Radium. 

Melting Points of Chemical Ele- 
ments. 

Boiling Points of Chemical Ele- 
ments. 

Heat of Combustion. 

Sizes of Dry Plates. 



Table of Elements. 
International Atomic Weights. 
Common Names of Chemical 

stances. 

Specific Gravity. 
Thermometer Scales. 
Value of Rare Elements. 
Radium and Radio-Activity . 



Sub- 



CHAPTER II. 
ASTRONOMY . 453-464 



Astronomical Summary- 
Astronomical Symbols and Abbrevi- 
ations. 

Solar System. 
Greek Alphabet. 



Names of the Principal Stars. 
Magnitudes and Distances of some 

of the Stars. 
Star Map of the Heavens. 
Refractors of the World. 



PART IV. 

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 465-500 



Linear Measure. 

Land Measure, Linear. 

Land Measure, Square. 

Geographical and Nautical Meas- 
ure. 

Cubic Measure. 

United States Dry Measure. 

United States Liquid Measure. 

Apothecaries' Liquid Measure 

Old Wine and Spirit Measure. 

Avoirdupois Weight. 

Troy Weight. 

Diamond Measure. 

Household Measures. 

Foreign Weights and Measures. 

Decimal System of Weights and 
Measures. 

Approximate Equivalent of French 
and English Measures. 

Table of Metric Measures. 

French and English Compound 
Equivalents. 

To Reduce Parts to Weight. 

Mensuration. 

Circular Measure. 

Angular Measure. 

Time. 

Table of Decimal Equivalents. 

Bible Weights and Measures. 

Jewish Money. 

Roman Money. 

Time and Watch on Ship. 

Specific Gravity of Stones. 

Specific Gravity of Mineral Sub- 
stances. 

Specific Gravity of Fuels. 

Specific Gravity of Woods. 

Specific Gravity of Animal Sub- 
stances. 

Specific Gravity of Vegetable Sub- 
stances. 

Specific Gravity of Liquids. 

Specific Gravity of Gases. 

Units of Log Measure. 

Cord Measure. 

Hardness of Minerals. 

Heat Its Mechanical Equivalent. 

Steam Pressure and Temperature. 



Table of Temperature. 

Expansion of Solids. 

Expansion of Liquids. 

Strength of Materials. 

Friction. 

Water. 

Air. 

Strength of Ice. 

Weight of Balls. 

Pipes. 

Animal Power. 

Manual Power. 

Windmills. 

Force of Wind. 

Metals. Weights for Various Dimen- 
sions. 

Weight of Castings. 

Pulling Strength of Men and Ani- 
mals. 

Boiler Tubes. 

To Obtain Index of a Lathe. 

Nails. 

Rules on Gearing. 

Rules for Pulley Speed. 

Wall Paper. 

Standard Gauge for Plate. 

Electrical Engineering. 

The Ohm. 

C. G. S. Electrical Standards. 

Electromagnetic System of Electric 
Units. 

Units of Force, Pressure, Work, 
Power. 

Resistance. 

Res' stance of Metals in Standard 
Ohms. 

Heat and Electrical Conductivity. 

Resistance and Weight Tables. 

Weight per Mile of Copper Wire. 

Wire Gauges. 

Weight and Length of Iron and 
Steel Wire. 

Electrical Horse-power. 

Composition of Battery Cells. 

Table of Height and Weight. 

Table of Mortality. 

Compound Interest. 

Roman Notation. 



CHAPTER I. 



PROGRESS OF DISCOVERY. 



DIVISIONS INTO RACES. 

RACE. Location. Number. 

Indo-Germanic or Aryan Europe, Persia, India, etc 545,500,000 

Mongolian or Turanian Greater Part of Asia 630,000,000 

Semitic or Hamitic North Africa, Arabia 05,000,000 

Negro and Bantu Central Africa 150,000,000 

Hottentot and Bushman South. Africa 150,000 

Malay and Polynesian Australia and Polynesia 35,000,000 

American Indian North and South America 15,000,000 




RACES OF MANKIND. 




POINTS OF THE COMPASS. 



TOTAL AREAS AND POPULATION OF THE EARTH. 



Square 
Miles. 

(1) Asia 17,071,999 

(2) Europe 3,824,956 

(3) Africa 11,506.785 

(4) America 15,284,872 

(5) Australia and 

Oceania 3,457,667 

(6) Polar Regions 1,656,394 



Total 



52,802.673 



POPULATION. 





In 


Per Per 


Square Thousands. 


Square Square 


Kilometers. 




Mile. Kilo. 


44,216,523 


820,768 


48.0 18.5 


9,906,647 


393,486 


102.9 40.5 


29,802,603 


180,321 


15.6 6.2 


39,587,860 


146,432 


9.5 3.6 


8.955,369 


6,450 


1.8 0.7 


4,290,065 


13 


0.008 



136,759.067 1,547,470 177.808 11.6 

Hiibner's Geographisch-Statistische Tdbellen. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 





THE PROGI 


IESS OF DISCOVERY. 


Date. 


Explorer and Nationality. 


Discovery or Exploration. 


B.C. 

1400-1250 


Egyptians 


Invasions of Habesh, Arabia, Phoenicia, Syria. 


? 1350 


Greeks 


Argonautic expedition to Colchis. 


1000 


Phoenicians 


Voyages to Ophir, Gades, Britain. 


750 


Greeks. 


Extension of Colonies in the Mediterranean and Pon- 






tus Euxinus. 


700 


Samians. . . 


Spain (Tartessus) discovered for the Greeks. 


600 


Phoenicians 


Circumnavigation of Africa by order of Necho. 


500 


Himilco (Carthag.) 


Atlantic coasts of Europe. Sargasso Sea. Said to 






have visited Britain. 


1 * 


Ariaximander (of Miletus). 


Makes the first maps. 


" 


Hecatscus (of Miletus). . . . 


Writes the first geography. 


470 


Hanno (Carthag.) 


West Afri'-a as far as Cape Palmas. 


330 


Pytheas of Massilia 


? Thule, North Sea, Scandinavia. 





Nearchus (Macedon.) 


Sails from the Indus to Red Sea. 


329-325 


Alexander the Great 


Expedition to Iran, Turan, and India. 


290 


Egyptians 


Navigate the East coast of Africa. 


218 


Romans. . , 


Hannibal crosses the Alps. 


about 120 


Eudoxus of Cyzicus 


Attempts circumnavigation of Africa. 


61-58 


Romans. , 


Julius Caesar in Gaul, Germany, and Britain 


since 30 


Romans 


Extension of geographical knowledge and commerce 






as far as Central Asia. 


20 


Strabo (Greek) 


Describes Roman Empire and first mentions Thuie 






and Ireland. 


15 


Romans 


Tiberius discovers the Lake of Constance; Drusus, 


A.D. 




the Brenner Pass. 


84 


Romans 


Agricola circumnavigates Britain. 


150 
518-21 


Claudius Ptolemy (Egypt. 
Hoei-sirig (Chinese) 


Constructs his Geography and Atlas. 
Visits Pamirs and Punjab. 


671-95 


I-tsing (Chinese) 


Visits Java, Sumatra, and India. 


861 


Norsemen 


Faroe Islands. North Cape of Europe rounded. 


865 


Naddod (Norse) 


Discovers Iceland. Visited by Irish monks about 






795. 


876 


Gunnbjorn (Norse) 


Greenland coast. Rediscovered bv Erik the Red 






(9S3). 


985 


Erik the Red (Norse). . . . 


Colonizes Greenland. 


? 1000 


Lyef Erikson (son of 1 


Discovers Newfoundland (Helluland), Nova Scotia 


1154 


Erik the Red) f 
Edrisi (Sicily) 


(Markland)^and coast of New England ( Vinland)[?]. 
Geographer to King of Sicily, produces his geo- 






graphy. 


about 1200 


Arabs. . . . 


Trading merchants discover Siberia. 


1253 


Ruysbroek 


Reaches Karakorum, the ancient seat of the Mongol 






Empire. 


1271-95 


Marco Polo (Venet.) 


Travels in Central Asia, China, India, Persia. 


1290 


Genoese 


Canaries, Azores, etc. 


1325-52 


Ibn Batuta (Arab.) 


Travels through the whole Mohammedan World, N. 






Africa, E. Africa, S. Russia, Arabia, India and 






China. 


1327 


Sir John Mandeville (Er.g) 


? Travels in India. 


1415-60 


Prince Henry (Port.) 


Gives an impetus to Portuguese voyages of discovery. 


1419-20 


J. Gonzales and Martin I 
Vaz (Port.) f 


Porto Santo and Madeira discovered. 


1442 


Nuno Tristao (Port.) 


Cape Verde, etc. 


? 1400 


Cintra and Costa (Port.). . 


Coast of Guinea reached 


1474 


Toscanelli (Ital.). . . 


Sends Columbus his map showing the western route 






to Cathay (China). 


1485 


Diego Cam (Port.) 


Mouth of the Congo reached. 


1487 


Bartholomew Diaz (Port.) 


Rounds Cape of Good Hope. 


1492-98 


Columbus (Gen.) 


America, West Indies, Trinidad, Cuba, etc. 


1497-98 


Giovanni Cabot (Anglo- 1 


Sails along E. coast of America from Labrador as far 




Yen.) f 


as Florida. 


1498 


Vasco da Gama (Port.). .. 


Route to India by Cape of Good Hope. 


1499 


Amerigo Vespucci (Ital.). . 


Venezuela, and that America was not "part of Asia." 




Pinzon ( Span. ) 


Discovers mouth of R. Amazon and Cape St. Roque. 


1500 


G Cortereal (Port.). . . 


Reaches entrance of Hudson Strait, called by him 






Strait of Anian. 


> 


Alvarez Cabral (Port.). . .. 


Brazil (named bv him Ilha da Vera Cruz, being S. 






part of Bahia State). 


1502 


Columbus (Gen.) 


Central America on his fourth voyage. 


1512 


Ponce de Leon (Span.). . . 


Florida. 


1513 


Portuguese. . , 


Reach the Moluccas. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



THE PROGRESS OF DISCOVERY Continued. 



Date. Explorer and Nationality. 



A.D. 
1513 

1510 

1517 

1519-21 

1519-21 



1534 

1535 

1535-42 

1539 

about 1540 
1541 

1542 



Balboa (Span.) 

Solis (Span.) 

Sebastian Cabot (Eng.). 

Cortez (Span.) 

Magellan (Span.) 



1553 
1570 

1577-8' 



1587 
1596 

1598 
1006 

160S 

1610 

1614-17 

1616 



1618 
1642 
1643 
1645 

1660 

1673 

1725-43 

1728 and '41 

1704-66 
1768-79 



1770 

1785-88 
1789 
1792 

1795-1806 
1799-1804 

1801-1804 
1803-6 

1805-9 

1807-8 

1819 

1825 
1819 



Pizarro (Span.) 

Diego d'Almagro (Span.). 
Jacques Cartier (Fr.) 

Francesco de Ulloa (Span.) 

French 

Pizarro and Orellana I 

(Span.) ( 

Antonio de Mota 

Ruy Lopez cle Villalobos. . 

(Span.) 

Pinto (Port.) 

Sir H. Willoughby (Eng.). 

Frobisher (Eng.) 

Sir F. Drake (Eng.) 



J. Davis (Eng.). . , 

Barentz and Heemskerk I 

(Dut.) j 

Mendana (Span.) 

Quiros (Span.) 

Torres (Span.) 

Champlain (French). , . . . 

H. Hudson (Eng.) 

Spillbergen (Dut.) 

W. Baffin (Eng.) 

LeMaire and Schouten I 

(Dut.) ( 

Dirk Hartog (Dut.). . , ... 
G. Thompson (Eng. mer.). 
Abel Tasman (Dut.). . . . ' 

Vries (Dut.) 

Deshnev (Cossack) 

French 

Marquette and Joliet (Fr ) 

Russians 

Bering (Dan.) and I 
Tishirikov (Rus.). . . . f 

Byron (Eng.) 

Capt. Cook (Eng.) 



James Bruce (Scot.). . . . . 

Liakhov (Russian) 

La Perouse (French) 

A. Mackenzie (Scot.) 

Vancouver (Eng.) 

Mungo Park (Scot.) 

Alex, von Humboldt I 

(Ger.) f 

Flinders (Eng.) 

Krusenstern (Rus ) 

Salt (Eng.) 

Klanroth (Ger.) 

Sir E. Parry (Eng.) 

Sir J. Franklin J 

Richardson and Back > 

(Eng.) \ 

Long(U. S.) 



Discovery or Exploration. 



Crosses Isthmus of Panama and discovers Pacific 
Ocean. 

Reaches La Plata. 

Hudson Strait. 

Conquest of Mexico. 

First to circumnavigate the globe. Passes through 
the Strait of Magellan, crosses the Pacific, and dis- 
covers the Philippines. 

Completes the Conquest of Peru. 

Conquers Chili. 

Gulf of St. Lawrence. Ascends river to Hochelaga 
(Montreal). 

Explores Gulf of California. 

Continent of Australia seen by French sailors. 

Amazon River. 

First reaches Japan. 

Discovers Pelew Islands, and takes possession of 
Philippine Islands for Spain. 

Visits Japan. 

Novaia Zemlia. 

Labrador and Baffin Land. 

Second circumnavigation of the globe, and first saw 
Cape Horn. Explored W. coast of N. America 
nearly as far as Vancouver Archipelago. 

Davis Strait. 

Spitzbergen, Bear Islands, etc. 

Discovers Marquesas Islands. 

Tahiti (Sagittaria), and other South Sea Islands. 

Torres Strait. Dutch reach Australia. 

Discovers Lake Ontario. 

Hudson Bay and discoveries in N. America. 

Circumnavigation of the globe. 

Enters Baffin Bay. 

Round Cape Horn. 

West coast of Australia. 

Sails up Gambia. 

Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) and New Zealand. 

Explores E. coast Japan, Saghalien, and Kurile Is. 

Rounds East Cape of Asia from the Kolyma to the 

Anadyr. 

Lake region of the St. Lawrence discovered. 
Exploration of the Mississippi from the north. 
Exploration of the coasts of Siberia. 

Bering Strait and the NW. coast of America. 

Circumnavigation of the globe 

Voyages round the world. Hydrographical surveys 

of the Society Islands, Sandwich Islands, E. coast 

of Australia, Cook Strait in New Zealand, Antarctic 

Ocean, NW. coast of America, etc. 
Sources of the Blue Nile. 
Discovers New Siberian Islands. 
North of Japan, Saghalien, etc. 
Exploration of the Mackenzie River. 
Vancouver Island circumnavigated. Discovered by 

Perez, 1774. Exploration of NW. coast of America. 
Journeys and explorations in the Niger districts. 

Explorations in South America and "Cosmos." 
Southern coasts of Australia. 

Surveys in Sea of Japan and Sea of Okhotsk, Sagha- 
lien, etc. 

Visit to Abyssinia 
Exploration of the Caucasus. 
Parry Archipelago. 

Coppermine and Mackenzie Rivers explored. 
Exploration of Rocky Mountains 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




THE UNKNOWN WORLD, 1800. 
THE PROGRESS OF DISCOVERY Continued. 



Date. 


Explorer and Nationality. 


Discovery or Exploration. 


1819 


Wm. Smith (Eng.) 


South Orkney Islands and South Shetlarids. Visited 






by Weddell in 1822. 


1823 


Wrangel (Rus.) 


Discovers Wrangel Land. 


1823 


Denham and Clapperton I 
(Eng.) f 


Lake Chad. 


1825-26 


A. G. Laing (Scot.) 


Reached Timbuktu from Tripoli. 


1827-8 


Ren> Caillie (French). . . . 


Journey from Kakandy to Timbuktu and Morocco. 


1829 


Sturt (Eng.) 


Descends the Murrumbidgee and discovers the Mur- 






ray River. 


1830-32 


Biscoe (Eng.) 


Enderby Land and Graham Land. 


1830 




Royal Geographical Society founded in London. 


1831 


Sir J. C. Ross (Eng.) 


Magnetic North Pole. 


1832 


Laird and Oldfield (Scot.). 


Exploration of the Niger and Benu6. 


1833-35 


Sir G. Back (Eng.) 


Great Fish River. 


1835 


Sir F. Schomburgk (Ger.). 


Explorations in Guiana. 




THE UNKNOWN WORLD, 1900. 

The black areas are unexplored. 

The shaded portion represents the radius of a three weeks' 
1800 and 1900. 



journey from London in 
Bartholomew's Atlas. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



THE PROGRESS OF DISCOVERY Continued. 



Date. Explorer and Nationality. 



1837 

1837-40 

1839 

1839 

1840 

1841 
1841-73 
1844-45 

1845 

1848 
1849-55 

1850 

1852-4,1861 

1856-59 

1858 

1860 

1862 
1862-63 
1864-66 

1867-72 
1868-71 

1869 

1870-1886 

1871-75 

1872 

1872-76 

1872-76 

1873 
1874-75 

1876 
1876-90 

1876 

1878-79 
1878-89 

1878-85 
1878-92 

1879 

1881-85 
1885 

1886 
1887 

1893-96 

1897 
1893-97 
1895-96 

1896 
1896-98 

1897 

1897 

1898-99 

1899 

1900 

1900-02 



Discovery or Exploration. 



Wood (Eng.) 

D'Urville (French) I 

J. Balleny (Eng.) i 

Eyre (Eng.) | 

Triimmer - j 

Sir James C. Ross ( Eng. ). . j 
D. Livingstone (Scot.). . . i 

Leichhardt (Ger.) i 

Sir John Franklin (Eng.). ! 
Rebmannand Krapf (Ger.)j 
Richardson and Earth { i 

(Eng. -Ger) f j 

Sir R. M'Clure (Irish) 

SirC. R. Markham(Eng.). 

Du Chaillu (French) 

Sir R. Burton (Scot.). . . . 
Speke and Grant (Brit.). . ! 

Sir S. Baker (Eng.) ; 

M'Douall Stuart (Scot.). . i 
W. G. Palgrave(Eng-). . . 
G. Rohlfs (Ger.) 

Richthofen (Ger.) 

G. Schweinfurth (Ger.). . , 

G. Nachtigal (Ger.) 

Prejevalsky (Rus.) 

Leigh Smith (Eng.) 

Payer and Weyprecht ( 

(Austrian) ( 

"Challenger" Expedi- ) j 

tion (Brit.) U 

Ernest Giles | 

Warburton (Irish) | 

Lieut. Cameron (Eng.).. . . 

De Breeze (French) 

H. M. Stanley (Eng.) 

Sir Geo. Nares and | 

A. H. Markham(Eng.) f 

Nordenskjold (Swed.). . . . 

Thomson (Scot.) 

Major Serpa Pinto (Port.). 
Emin Pasha (Ger.) 

Moustier and Zweifel j 
(Swiss) f 

Greely (U. S.) 

Wiesmann (Ger.) 

Junker (Rus.-Ger.) 

Peary (U. S.) 

Capt. Younghusband I 
(Eng.) f 

Nansen (Norw.) 

Jackson (Scot.) 

Sven Hedin (Swed.) 

Pr. Henri d'Orlans 

Donaldson Smith (Scot.). . 

Capt. Marchand 

Andree (Swed.) 

D. Carnegie 

De Gerlache (Belgian).. . . 

Major Gibbons 

Borchgrevink (Brit. Ex.). 
Duke of Abruzzi (Ital.).. . 
Sven Hedin (Swed.).. . 



Sources of the Oxus. 

Adelie Land. Reached 66 30' S. lat. 

Balleny Islands, 60 44' S. lat. 

Discovers Lake Torrens, S. Australia, and in 1841 

journeys from Adelaide to King George's Sound. 
Remains of ancient Nineveh. 

Victoria Land, with volcanoes Erebus and Terror. 
Thirty years' travel in Central South Africa. 
Crosses Australia, Moretcn Bay to Port Essington. 
Sails on his last voyage never to return. 
Mt. Kilima Njaro. Sighted Mt. Kenia. 

Western Sudan and Sahara. 

Northwest Passage. 

Explorations in Peru. 

Basin of Ogowt' River, W. Africa 

Lake Tanganyika 

Victoria Nyanza. 

Explores Lpper Nile. Discovers Albert Nyanza. 1864. 

Crossed Australia. 

Journeys in Central and Eastern Arabia. 

Journey in W. Sudan by Ghadames, Murzuk, and 

Wadai to R. Niger. 

Extensive travel and exploration in China. 
Exploration of the Jur. Niam-Niam, and Monbuttu 

countries. 
Explorations in Lake Chad region and Central Sudan 

States. 

Journeys in Mongolia. Tibet, etc. 
Exploration of N. part of Spitzbergen. Vaigats Is. 

Franz Josef Land. 

Explores the depths of the oceans. 

Traverses Northwest Australia. 
Crosses Western Australia from East to West. 
Crosses Equatorial Africa. 

Explorations in the Ogowo and Gabun region. 
Congo Basin; Mt. Ruwenzori; Forests on the Aru- 
wijni, etc. 

Grant Land. Penetrated as far N. as 83 20' lat. 

Northeast passage. 

Journeys through Masai Land, British South Africa, 

Sokoto, Morocco, etc. 
Twice crosses Africa. 
Travels and Surveys in Equatorial Africa. Discovery 

of Semliki River, etc. 

Sources of the Niger. 

Grinnell Land and NE. coast of Greenland. 
Across Africa from West coast, Congo Basin. 
Welle-Mobangi, etc. 
North Greenland. 

Travels from Pekin to Kashmir. 

Hviotenland, etc.; reached his "Farthest North" in 

lat. 86 13' 6" N. 

Surveys and explorations in Franz Josef Land. 
Explorations in North Central Asia. 
Travels in Tonkin and China. 
Explores region of Lake Rudolf. 
Travels from Upper Mobangi to Fashoda. 
Attempt to cross over the North Pole in a balloon, 

with fatal results. 

Crosses Western Australia from S. to N. 
"Belgica," first ship to winter within Antarctic circle. 
Explorations in Congo and Zambezi headwaters. 
Reached lat. 78 50' S. via Victoria Land. 
Reached lat. 86 33' N. via Franz Josef Land. 
Important Journey in Central Asia. 



Bartholomew's Atlas. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



STEPPES, HEATHER, 
[CAPABLE DF CULTIVATION BUT FALL 
TABLELAND LOWLAND. 
45Hir 



OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE 



DESERTS 
MOUNTAIN CHAIN 
ANDOTHER UNPROD 
DISTRICTS 



STEPPES, PASTURES ETC. 

PRAIRIES, LLANOS, PAMPAS 
"II II I SAVANNAS 



UNTAIN CHAIN 
ICEBQU^ODISTRI 



^UNPRODUCTIVE DISTRICTS 

sSSvvsvvc ->-- 




DISTRIBUTION OF LAND AND WATER OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE AND THE DIVISION 
OF LAND IN FIVE CONTINENTS. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



TOTAL AREAS AND POPULATION OF THE POLAR REGIONS. 

Population. 
In Per Per 

Thou- Square Square 
sands. Mile. Kilo 



Square 

Square Kilo- 

Miles, meters. 

1,103,554 2,858,210 
34,015 88,100 



(1) Under no sovereignty 

(2) Danish possessions on Greenland. .. . 

(3) British possessions: 

Arctic Island in North America. . . 502,354 1,301,100 
South Georgia 1,573 4,075 

(4) Russian possessions in the Arctic 

Ocean (New Siberian Islands) 14,895 38,580 



0.3 
0.00 



0.00 



1,656,391 4,290,065 13 0.3 0.1 

Hubner's Geographisch-Statistische Tabellen. 




MAP OF THE ARCTIC REGIONS. -Bartholomew's Atlas. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



THE POLAR REGIONS. 



National emulation, more particu- 
larly since the great success of Nan- 
sen, seems to have played the chief 
role in all the recent researches un- 
dertaken in the vicinity of the poles. 

No fewer than three expeditions were 
organized in 1902 for the main purpose 
of reaching the North Pole. Otto 
Sverdrup, the Norwegian, with Nan- 
sen's old ship, the "Fram," started in 
through Smith Sound ; Lieut. Robert 
E. Peary, of the United States navy, 
pursued a like course ; while Mr. E. B. 
Baldwin, also an American, selected 
Franz Josef Land as his point of de- 
parture, although Prince Luigi, of Sa- 
voy, had only just vainly attempted it. 

The expedition led by Capt. Sver- 
drup was incontestably the most suc- 
cessful, says Dr. Herman Haack in his 
Geographen Kalender. As early as 
1898 his expedition was already under 
way. He spent the first winter north 
of Cape Sabine, where, by means of 
extended sledge journeys, he explored 
the fiords of Hayes Sound, in 
the following spring even advancing 
as far as the west coast of Elles- 
mereland. Finding the ice condi- 
tions no more favorable in 1899 
than in the previous summer, he 
abandoned forthwith his former plan 
and fixed upon Jones Sound as the 
starting point for his investigations, 
in the hope of finding on the west 
coast of Ellesmereland a better and 
freer water course to the north than 
the narrow neck of Smith Sound can 
afford, which is so easily obstructed by 
the pack ice from the Pole. Sverdrup 
met with difficulties in Jones Sound 
also, for he could push no farther 
forward than Inglefeld had reached in 
1852, and so he took up his second 
winter quarters at the point where the 
coast of Ellesmereland seemed to bend 
northward, under north latitude 76 
deg. 29 min. and west longitude 84 
deg. 24 min. 

The sledge journeys of the fall of 
that year established the fact that 
Ellesmereland extended much farther 
westward than was supposed, and was 
separated from North Kent only by 
the Belcher Channel, a small arm of 
the sea. In the spring of 1900 Sver- 
drup continued the exploration of the 
west coast of Ellesmereland, where he 
discovered a deep fiord, while his as- 
sistant, Isachsen, examined a large 
body of land lying to the west of it. 
The "Fram" being free from ice in 



August, the passage through Jones 
Sound was continued, but the ship 
was soon fast again in the Belcher 
Channel near the westernmost point of 
Ellesmereland, and Sverdrup estab- 
lished his third winter quarters under 
latitude 76 deg. 48 min. and longitude 
89 deg. The fall of 1900 and the 
spring of 1901 were devoted to sledge 
journeys. 

Sverdrup himself continued his ex- 
ploration of Ellesmereland, examining 
anew and more thoroughly the fiord 
which he discovered the year before, 
after which he turned northward and 
succeeded in reaching the most west- 
erly point occupied by him in the 
spring of 1899, to which he had then 
proceeded from Smith Sound. 

Isachsen proceeded westward and 
discovered north of North Cornwall 
two larger islands, exploring their 
southern coasts till they turned to- 
ward the north. Under latitude 79 
deg. 30 min. and longitude 106 deg., 
he reached his farthest western limit, 
from which point neither to the west 
nor to the north was any land visible, 
and from the character of the floating 
ice it was not probable that any land 
existed in either direction. In July of 
that year the north coast of North 
Devon was explored in boats. 

All attempts to get the "Fram" out 
of the ice having failed, Sverdrup was 
compelled to pass a fourth winter in 
1901-2 in this region, during which 
other extended sledge journeys were 
undertaken. Following the west coast 
of Ellesmereland, Sverdrup attempted 
to reach 80 deg. 16 min. N., 85 deg. 33 
min. W., the farthest point attained by 
Lieut. Aldrich, of the English Polar 
Expedition of 1875-76, on the west 
coast of Grinnell Land, coming down 
from the north. He was not success- 
ful, however, though he penetrated as 
far north as 80 deg. 37 min., which 
was but a short distance from the goal. 
Sledge journeys undertaken by other 
participants in the expedition resulted 
in the exploration of the west coast of 
North Devon. In the beginning of 
August, 1902, when the "Fram" was 
again free from ice, Sverdrup started 
immediately upon his homeward way, 
reaching Stavanger on the 19th of Sep- 
tember. The chief result of this ex- 
pedition was the discovery of large 
land areas west of Ellesmereland, and 
since the discovery of Franz Josef 
Land no such extension of our knowl- 



to 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



edge of these regions has been sig- 
nalized. 

Lieut. Robert N. Peary, U- S. N., 
conceived a plan of reaching the North 
Pole by sledge journeys, accompanied 
by no one but Esquimaux and his 
black servant Ilenson. For this pur- 
pose it became necessary to establish, 
well to the south, a point of departure 
that could be reached every year by a 
ship, which could supply fresh pro- 
visions and new outfittings, that were 
to be pushed toward the north and de- 
posited in caches along the coast. The 
weak point of the scheme lay in the 
fact that the advance to the farthest 
points already reached required so 
much time for so small a sledge 
crew that further penetration into 
the unknown must be undertaken 
at an advanced season of the 
year, when the stability of the ice 
made such a movement questionable. 
The winter of 1898-99 Peary passed at 
Etah, on the eastern shore of Smith 
Sound, in order to interest the abo- 
rigines in his plan, buy dogs, and per- 
fect other preparations. After his 
ship, the ''Windward," reached him 
with fresh supplies in the fall of 1899, 
he was transported to Cape Sabine, 
which he had fixed upon as the start- 
ing point and base of the expedition. 
Here he passed the winter of 1899- 
1900. In the spring of 1900 he under- 
took a sledge journey straight across 
Ellesmereland, and in the fall of that 
year established a line of depots to- 
ward the north. In the spring of 1901 
he made the first energetic move to- 
ward the Pole, which led him from 
Grant Land in the direction of Green- 
land. He passed the most northern 
point, 83 deg. 24 min., reached by 
Lockwood in the Greely expedition of 
1882, and fixed, under latitude 83 deg. 
39 min., the northern extremity of 
Greenland. He followed the coast to- 
ward the east until it began to bend 
decidedly to the southeast in the direc- 
tion of Independence Bay, thus estab- 
lishing the insular nature of Green- 
land. 

On his return he made a dash for 
the north and reached 83 deg. 50 min., 
the highest point thus far attained on 
the American side of the polar archi- 
pelago. During the spring of 1902, 
Peary even exceeded this. Starting 
from Cape Hekla, the northernmost 
point of Grant Land, he proceeded over 
the ice as far as 84 deg. 17 min., while 
Capt. Markham, in 1870, succeeded 
only in reaching 83 deg. 20 min. from 
this side. From the European side, 



however, Capt. Cagni, of the Italian 
expedition, starting from Franz Josef 
Land, attained the advanced position 
of 80 deg. 34 min. 

Peary was obliged to make his dash 
in April, and, as was the case with 
Markham, he found the ice in a very 
unsatisfactory condition; the immense 
hummocks of compressed drift-ice in- 
creased the difficulties of travel for 
both dogs and men. There were no 
traces, however, of the unchangeable 
paleocrystic ice mentioned by Mark- 
ham, for on the return Peary met with 
numerous open places and channels 
which caused serious delays. No land 
was visible to the north of either 
Greenland or Grant Land. In spite of 
the unsuccessful termination of his ex- 
pedition, Peary is still convinced that 
the best point of departure is from the 
American side of the archipelago, and, 
moreover, that, with an early start 
from Grant Land, the Pole may be 
reached by sledge. Though Sverdrup 
and Peary added to our knowledge of 
the Polar regions, the third expedition 
fitted out by Mr. Ziegler, an American, 
and under the direction of Mr. Bald- 
win, who started from Franz Josef 
Land for the Pole, was closed without 
definite results. Several small islands 
w-ere discovered ; the hut in which 
Nansen and Johansen lived in 1895-0 
was again found ; some scientific 
events were noted ; meteorological 
sketches and photographs of the 
Northern Lights were made, and yet 
the finality of the expedition was a 
fiasco. No earnest attempt to reach 
the Pole was made. Serious friction 
between Baldwin and Fridtjof, the 
sailing master of the expedition, is re- 
sponsible for the unsuccessful termina- 
tion. 

Among the most important of the 
Polar expeditions is that led by Baron 
Toll, a Russian, for the discovery and 
exploration of the island either exist- 
ing or supposed to exist to the north 
of the New Siberian Islands. Having 
twice before, in 1880 and 1894, visited 
the northernmost of these islands, Toll 
left Europe again in 1900 in the steam- 
ship "Sarja" upon a similar quest. 
Upon entering the Sea of Kara, he did 
not pick up the ship which was bring- 
ing him coal, and since both the con- 
dition of the ice and the open sea were 
favorable to his designs, he preferred 
not to wait for it. Cape Tscheljuskin, 
the extreme northern point of Asia, 
and the intended termination of the 
first summer's journey, was not 
reached, but the condition of the ice 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



11 



compelled him to put into Colin-Archer 
haven, at the entrance to the Taimyr 
Straits, on. September 26, where he 
passed the winter. 

Failing in two attempts to gain, the 
mouth of m the Jenissei by crossing the 
land, Lieutenant Kolomeizoff finally 
reached it by following the coast. Dur- 
ing the spring of 1901, the extent of 
Taimyr Bay was carefully explored 
upon sleds, and through the discovery 
of the hut in which Lapten spent the 
winter of 1840-1, as well as by reach- 
ing the most northern station of the 
Middendorf expedition of 1843, the 
mouth of the Taimyr River was def- 
initely fixed. The "Sarja" could not 
proceed till August 25. Cape Tschel- 
juskin was safely rounded and the 
course set for the location where, ac- 
cording to Toll's observation in 1886, 
the distant Polarland, seen as early as 
1811 by Sannikow, to the north of 
Kotelny, ought to be. This point was 
passed without sighting the supposed 
land, and a few miles before reaching 
Cape Emma, the southernmost point 
on Bennett Island, discovered by the 
"Jeannette" expedition, the ice became 
so packed that further progress north- 
ward was impossible. On the return 
voyage the ship cruised again in the 
vicinity of the supposed Sannikow 
land, but without sighting it. On Sep- 
tember 24, 1901, the "Sarja" froze in 
at the island of Kotelny, in Nerpitscha 
Bay, where the expedition passed the 
winter. Whether or not Sannikow 
and Toll were deceived as to what they 
saw cannot yet be determined. It is 
quite possible that they may have mis- 
calculated the distance and that the 
island may lie farther north in a sec- 
tion not touched even by Nansen's 



drift in the "Fram" during the long 
winter night of his journey in 1893-4. 
Being unable to get coal from the Lena 
River, the "Sarja" became unfit for 
long journeys ; accordingly Toll re- 
solved upon sledge journeys to the 
north, similar to those undertaken 
from the "Fram" by Nansen. The 
geologist, Birula, began such a journey 
May 11, intending to explore the larg- 
est of the New Siberian Islands. On 
June 5 Toll followed him, accompanied 
by the astronomer Seeberg and two 
Jakuts, but touched only at the north- 
ernmost point, Cape Wyssoki, which 
he left on July 13, crossing the ice for 
Bennett Island. Toll left Lieut. F. 
Mattheissen in charge of the "Sarja," 
but August 21 arrived before any 
earnest effort could be made to proceed 
to_New Siberia and Bennett Land to 
bring back the sledge parties. About 
Kotelny and Faddejew the ice was so 
thick that these islands could be passed 
neither to the north nor the south, and 
since the open season was fast drawing 
to a close, Mattheissen brought the 
"Sarja" back to the Lena, where he 
anchored in the bay of Tiksi Septem- 
ber 8. Being too deep of draft to 
steam up the river, the "Sarja" was 
abandoned, and the crew, together 
with the scientific collection and in- 
struments, were transferred to Jakutsk 
on the small steamer "Lena." 

It was expected that Toll and Bi- 
rula would return to the mainland at 
the beginning of winter, but Birula re- 
turned in 1903, in good health, without 
having seen Toll. Perhaps the condi- 
tion of the ice between Bennett Land 
and New Siberia prevented Toll's re- 
turn, and it was held that he would at- 
tempt it again in the spring of 1903. 



THE GREAT [LAURENTIAN] LAKES. 



Lakes. 


Length, 
Miles. 


Breadth, 
Miles. 


Area, 
Sq. Miles. 


Height 
above Sea, 
Feet. 


Superior 
Huron (with Georgian Bay).. 


390 
400 


100 
160 


31,420 
24 000 


602f 
5761 


St. Clair 


25 


25 


360 


570f 


Erie. . . 






1fl 000 




Ontario 


190 


52 


7 330 


240 


Michigan 


345 


58 


25 590 


578f 













Lake Michigan is wholly within the United States and is connected 
with Lake Huron by the Strait of Mackinaw. 

^ ' Statistical Year Book of Canada. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



ANTARCTIC EXPLORATIONS. 
Though the quest of the North Pole 
has monopolized the world's attention 
for more than a century, it has of late 
not been entirely without a rival. 
The British expedition broke the 
farthest-south record by reaching the 
latitude of 82 deg. 17 min. Mr. Borch- 
grevink previously held the record at 
78 deg. 51 min. 



THE BRITISH EXPEDITION 

sailed from London in July, 1901, on 
the Discovery, under command of Capt. 
Scott, R. N. Fearful lest the currents 
might destroy the expedition, a rescu- 
ing party was dispatched in 1902 un- 
der Lieut. William Cqlbeck, who took 
part in the Borchgrevink South Polar 
expedition. The rescuers on the Morn- 




MAP OF THE ANTARCTIC REGIONS. 

Bartholomew's Atlas (with additions.) 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



18 



ing left Wellington, December 6, 1902, 
and returned to the same place March 
25, 1903, bringing reports of the suc- 
cessful work of the main expedition. 
The Discovery reached Cape Adare, 
the northernmost point of Victoria 
Land, January 9, 1902, and followed 
the coast south ; from Mt. Erebus the 
ship skirted the wall of ice, discovered 
by Ross, as far as longitude 105 deg. 
E., where it turned more to the north. 
Behind the ice wall reared the high- 
lands covered with glaciers which Ross 
had sighted. 

Under 67 deg. N. and 152 deg. 30 
min. E. the ship reached its farthest 
point, whence it returned to Victoria 
Land to go into winter quarters in 
MacMurdo Bay, near the volcano Mt. 
Erebus, in longitude 174 deg. E. 

Sledge journeys began in September, 
1902. The one led by Captain Scott 
marched for three months, attaining a 
point under 82 deg. 17 min., which sur- 
passed Borchgrevink's 78 deg. 50 min. 
by nearly 3^ deg. A second sledge 
party, commanded by Lieutenant Armi- 
tage, turned westward of Erebus, and 
during a march of fifty-two days 
reached an elevation of 9,000 feet. This 
is the more noteworthy since all the 
dogs died, supposedly from spoiled pro- 
visions. The Morning found the Dis- 
covery still in winter quarters, and 
when the rescuers departed the Dis- 
covery seemed still fast in the ice. 

Late in 1903 the Morning and the 
whaler Terra Nova were refitted and 
started on a second expedition to the 
relief of the Discovery. The latter 
was found on February 14 and the 
three vessels returned to Lyttleton, 
New Zealand, on April 1, 1904. Among 
the chief results of the expedition was 
the discovery that Mount Erebus and 
Mount Terror are on a small island, 
and that there is a large land mass 
lying west and southwest of the ice 
barrier, with ice plateaus 9,000 feet 
in height and peaks which reach to 
14,000. It was discovered that the ice 
barrier is afloat, though fed from land, 
and that high land lies to the southeast 
of the hitherto unknown extremity of 
the barrier. 

THE GERMAN EXPEDITION, 

which entered the ice-pack south of the 
Indian Ocean on February 13, 1902, 
left it on April 9. 1903, and returned 
from a voyage highly fruitful of scien- 
tific results, although not comparable 
with the voyage of the Discovery in 
sensational experiences. Incidentally 
it. has swept away the Termination 
Land of Wilkes, passed the winter in 



the close pack, carried out numerous 
and important sledge journeys, discov- 
ered new land (called Kaiser Wilhelm 
II. Coast), and actually reached land 
in the solitary peak called the Gauss- 
berg. Balloons were used successfully 
during the expedition. The farthest 
south was 66 deg. 2 min., and the 
ship was frozen for many months in 
ice 30 feet thick. 

THE SWEDISH EXPEDITION, 

under Captain Otto Nordenskjold, left 
Europe in October, 1901, and entered 
the Antarctic regions in February, 
1902. The ship returned from the 
Falkland Islands to Graham's Land in 
March, 1902, went south again in the 
southern summer of 1902-1903. With 
the assistance of the Swedish govern- 
ment the Norwegian steamer Frithjof 
was dispatched for the relief of the 
Antarctic, whose commander, by the 
way, is Captain Larsen, well known 
for his Antarctic voyage in the Jason. 
To the Republic of Argentine, which 
sent the gunboat Uraguay, belongs the 
honor of having rescued the Swedish 
expedition, which was found at Snow 
Hill on Louis Philippe Land in des- 
perate straits, their vessel having been 
crushed by the ice and sunk on Febru- 
ary 12, 1903. 

THE SCOTTISH EXPEDITION, 

on the Scotia, under the command of 
Mr. W. S. Bruse (formerly of the 
Jackson-Harmsworth expedition), set 
sail on November 3, 1902, for what is 
known as the Weddell quadrant of the 
Antarctic regions, with the intention 
of following in the wake of Captain 
Jas. Weddell, who reached a high 
southern latitude in open sea. This 
route was advisedly selected, as the 
Scottish expedition is devoting its at- 
tention to oceanographical work. Cap- 
tain Robertson, the well-known whal- 
ing skipper, commanded the Scotia. 
Contrary to expectation, the Scotia 
wintered in the ice, and no further 
news of her has yet been received. 

THE FRENCH EXPEDITION, 

under the command of Dr. Charcot, 
sailed from Havre in August, 1903, to 
explore Alexander Land. The origi- 
nal plan of the expedition was to ex- 
plore Nova Zembla, but just then the 
Swedish expedition was causing a 
great deal of anxiety, and it was de- 
cided to direct the expedition toward 
the South Pole in search of Norden- 
skjold. The rescue of the Swedish ex- 
pedition then left Dr. Charcot free to 
make explorations in Antarctic re- 
gions. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 

AREA AND POPULATION OF THE PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES 

COMMERCE WITH 

Revised and Corrected by the Bureau of 



Countries. 


Area and Population. 


Area. 


Population. 


Popula- 
tion per 
Square 
Mile. 


Argentina 
Australasia: Commonwealth 
New Zealand 
Austria-Hungary 


Sq. Miles. 
1,135,840 
2,972,573 
104,751 
241,333 
2' 115,903 
2 125,430 
11,373 
703,604 
3,219,000 
951,333 
38,080 
3,048,710 
23,000 
46,774 
46,250 
49,200 
7,225 
279,901 
1,532,420 
504,773 
43,000 
15,360 
116,000 
383,900 
144,255 
207,054 
184,474 
51,000 
3,375,602 
461,196 
208,830 
1,025,829 
25,014 
10,204 
1,766,642 
110,646 
147,655 
13,458 
84,400 
767,060 
12,563 
736,400 
124,130 
97,722 
628,000 
713,859 
36,038 
50,700 
8,660,395 
18,045 
18,630 
236,000 
194,783 
172,876 
15,976 
1,115,046 
121,371 
8a 3,025,600 
115,000 
72,210 
593,940 


4,794,000 
3,772,000 
788,000 
45,405,000 
2a 26,151,000 
2a 19,254,000 
6,694,000 
1,816,000 
14,334,000 
14,434,000 
3,744,000 
5,457,000 
313,000 
1,647,000 
775,000 
19 500,000 
1,007,000 
3,051,000 
407,253,000 
9 4,000,000 
1,573,000 
2,465.000 
1,204,000 
9,734,000 
2,744,000 
38,962,000 
4,739,000 
1,900,000 
26,427,000 
18,346,000 
58,549,000 
13,543,000 
2,434,000 
1,294,000 
294,361,000 
32,475,000 
45,862,000 
2,706.000 
9 12,000,000 
13,545,000 
5,347,000 
35,736,000 
2,263,000 
636,000 
8 9,500,000 
4,610,000 
5,429,000 
5,913,000 
141,000,000 
610,000 
2,536,000 
5,000,000 
18,618,000 
5,199,000 
3,356,000 
24,932,000 
41,961,000 
80,372,000 
7,590,000 
959,000 
2,445,000 


4.22 
1.27 
7.52 

188.14 
225.63 
153.51 
588.59 
2.58 
4.45 
15.17 
98.33 
1.79 
13.61 
35.21 
16.76 
10.16 
139.38 
10.90 
265.76 
7.92 
36.58 
160.48 
10.38 
25.36 
19.02 
188.17 
25.69 
37.25 
7.83 
39.78 
280.36 
13.20 
97.31 
126.81 
166.62 
293.50 
310.60 
201 . 07 
142.18 
17.65 
425.61 
48.53 
18.23 
6.51 
15.13 
6.46 
150.65 
116.63 
16.28 
33.80 
136.12 
21.19 
95.58 
30.07 
210.07 
22.36 
345 . 73 
26.56 
66 .-00 
13.28 
4.12 


Hungary 
Belgium 
Bolivia 


Brazil 
British colonies, n. e. s 
Bulgaria. 


Canada 
Central America: Costa Rica 
Guatemala 
Honduras 
Nicaragua- 
San Salvador. . 


Chile 


China 
Colombia. . . . 


Cuba 
Denmark 
Ecuador. . 


Egypt 


Finland 


France . 


Algeria 
Tunis 
French colonies, n. e. s 
French East Indies 6 


German Empire 
German colonies. . 


Greece. . 


Haiti 


India, British 7 
Italy. . . 


Japan 
Formosa 
Korea. . 


Mexico 
Netherlands 


Dutch East Indies 


Norway 
Paraguay 


Persia 


Peru 


Portugal . 


Roumania [[[[ 
Russia 
Santo Domingo 
Servia 

Siam ': 
Spain 
Sweden 


Switzerland 


Turkey. ... 


United Kingdom 


United States 


Philippine Islands 


Uruguay 


Venezuela 


Total 


41,414,336 


1,508,659,000 





Exclusive of intercolonial commerce, but including gold and silver. 2 Including gold 
French Africa Includes French possessions in India and French Indo-China, viz., 
the feudatory States. Included under Sweden. Exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



15 



OF THE WORLD, THEIR TOTAL FOREIGN COMMERCE, AND 
THE UNITED STATES.. 

Statistics, Department of Commerce and Labor. 



Foreign Commerce. 



Commerce with the 
United States. 









Excess of 


Exports from 


Imports into 


Year. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


Exports ( + ) or 


United States 


United States 








Imports ( - ). 


to. 


from. 




Dollars. 


Dollars. 


Dollars. 


Dollars. 


Dollars. 


1902 


99,433,000 


173,205,000 


+ 73,772,000 


9,808,529 


10,396,873 


1902 


i 203,644,000 


1 213,713,000 


+ 10,069,000 


28,101,784 


2 13,845,001 


1902 


255,121,000 


2 66,403,000 


+ 11,282,000 






1902 


349,228,000 


388,460,000 


+ 39,232,000 


6,672,580 


10,093,346 














1902 


459,472,000 


371,620,000 


"-'" 87,852,'oob' 


43,515,'l'l2" ' 


17,912,084' ' 


1902 


5,587,000 


11,076,000 


+ 5,489,000 


76,926 


1,731 


1902 


113,288,000 


177,323,000 


+ 64,035,000 


11,155,565 


71,583,086 


1902 


475,370,000 


280,744,000 


194,626,000 


57,886,757 


22,875,024 


1902 


13,751,000 


20,011,000 


+ 6,260,000 







M903 


224,814,000 


196,161,000 


28,653,000 


i23,472,'4'l6' ' 


54,660,410 


1902 


4,415,000 


5,661,000 


+ 1,246,000 


1,697,043 


3,291,545 


1900 


3,018,000 


7,134,000 


+ 4,116,000 


1,128,418 


2,190,145 


1902 


1,672,000 


2,357,000 


+ 685,000 


969,963 


1,136,220 


1901 


2,185,000 


3,243,000 


+ 1,058,000 


1,364,518 


2,199,313 


1902 


2,624,000 


3,926,000 


+ 1,302,000 


868,329 


583,459 


1902 


48,336,000 


67,846,000 


+ 19,510,000 


3,753,222 


7,155,839 


1902 


198,364,000 


134,720,000 


- 63,644,000 


22,698,282 


26,182,113 


1898 


10,695,000 


18,487.000 


+ 7,792,000 


2,923,404 


3,140,043 


3 1903 


58,826,000 


77,849,000 


+ 19,023,000 


21,769,572 


62,341,942 


1902 


116,726,000 


85,730,000 


30,996,000 


14,812,900 


68,494 


1902 


7,029,000 


8,811,000 


+ 1,782,000 


1,347,850 


1,823,166 


1902 


73,229,000 


87,081,000 


+ 13,852,000 


667,577 


10,854,628 


1902 


45,191,000 


30,117,000 


6,074,000 


( 4 ) 


( 4 ) 


1902 


848,026,000 


820,671,000 


- 27,355,000 


70,497,327 


87,895,253 


1902 


64,228.000 


60,804,000 


3,424,000 


5 386,758 


5461,102 


1901 


12,483,000 


7,551,000 


- 4,932,000 






1901-2 


46,808,000 


35,806,000 


11,002,000 


2,785,418 


1,088,493 


1902 


41,964,000 


40,677,000 


- 1,287,000 


62,361 


3,873 


1902 


1,340,178,000 


1,113,313,000 


- 226,865,000 


174,264,495 


111,999,904 


1901 


8,969,000 


4,497,000 


4,472,000 


30,949 


11,702 


1902 


26,034,000 


15,466,000 


10,568,000 


369,919 


1,229,144 


1901 


5,500,000 


12,760,000 


+ 7,260,000 


1,956,343 


1,127,641 


1902-3 


255,614,000 


408,396,000 


+ 152,782,000 


4,866,683 


51,831,665 


1902 


342,718,000 


284,177,000 


58,541,000 


33,135,512 


33,612,864 


1902 


135,322,000 


127,326,000 


7,996,000 


21,622,603 


40,597,582 


1902 


5,030,000 


6,881,000 


+ 1,851,000 






1902 


6,744,000 


4,142,000 


2,602,000 


257,130 




3 1903 


74,690,000 


88,200,000 


+ 13,510,000 


42,227,786 


'2 61,802 ,'902" 


1902 


867,308,000 


732,975,000 


- 134,333,000 


74,576,164 


20,899,588 


1901 


86,894,000 


98,724,000 


+ 11,830,000 


2,210,963 


15,343,948 


1902 


77,779,000 


45,687,000 


32,092,000 


( 8 ) 


( 8 ) 


1902 


2,270,000 


3,787,000 


+ 1,517,000 


14,815 


3,890 


1902 


23 703 000 


13 243 000 


- 10 460 000 






1902 


21,062,000 


17,938,000 


3,1241000 


2,573,289 


2,826,493 


1902 


60,044,000 


30,710,000 


29,334,000 


2,915,897 


3,229,813 


1902 


54,686,000 


72,340,000 


+ 18,654,000 


138,635 


65 


1901 


305,614,000 


392,215,000 


+ 86,601,009 


7,518,177 


7,262,757 


1901 


2,987,000 


5,224,000 


+ 2,237,000 


1,700,371 


3,361,319 


1902 


8,650,000 


13,920,000 


+ 5,270,000 




33,149 


1902 


15,782,000 


21 103 000 


+ 5 321 000 






1902 


175,487,000 


161,297,000 


14,190,000 


i5, 976, 788' ' 


8,787,621 


1902 


134,605,000 


105,154,000 


29,451,000 


9,530,137 


4;193,307 


1902 


217,803,000 


168,741,000 


49,062,000 


203,357 


19,864,767 


1898-99 


117,134,000 


59,072,000 


58,062,000 


354,457 


2,359,830 


1902 


2,571,416,000 


1,379,283,000 


-1,192,133,000 


523,773,397 


180,249,114 


3 1903 


1,025,719,000 


1,392,231,000 


+ 366,512,000 






31903 


32,972,000 


33,122,000 


+ 150,000 


' '4,'038,'909' ' 


"ii, 372,584" 


1902 


24,565,000 


33,656,000 


+ 9,091,000 


1,549,812 


2,830,069 


1898 


8,560,000 


14,900,000 


+ 6,340,000 


2,736,726 


6,609,919 




11,621,366,000 


10.266,667,000 


-1,354,699,000 


1,356,965,925 


1,003,224,820 



and silver. 2a N ot included in total. 3 Year ending June 30. 4 Included under Russia. 
Cochin China, Tonkin, Annam, Cambodia, and Laos. 7 Including area and population of 
a Estimated. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




CHAPTER II. 



SHIPPING AND YACHTS 



SUMMARY OF SHIPPING. 



The growth of our merchant marine 
is slow, and is in no sense commensu- 
rate with our phenomenal advance- 
ment in manufactures and commerce. 
At the same time, it is a fact worthy 
of note that the documented tonnage 
of the United States on June 30, 1903, 
for the first time in our history exceed- 
ed 6,000,000 gross tons register, com- 
prising 24,425 vessels of 6,087,345 
gross tons. These figures do not in- 
clude 1,828 yachts of 74,990 gross t9ns. 
The total shipping of the United King- 
dom for 1902 was 20,258 vessels, of 
15,357,052 gross tons (vessels of Brit- 
ish colonies number 15,533 of 512,268 
net tons). On January 1, 1902, the to- 
tal shipping of the German Empire was 
6,024 vessels of 3,503,551 gross tons. 
The shipping of the United Kingdom 
and Germany is largely employed in 
developing foreign trade. The ship- 
ping of the United States is almost 
wholly a part of our domestic trans- 
portation system. On June 30, 1903, 
5,141,037 gross tons were engaged in 
transportation and coastwise trade, 
879,264 gross tons were devoted to 
foreign trade, and 67,044 to fisheries. 
The distribution of our tonnage on 
June 30, 1903, was: Atlantic Ocean, 
3,157,373 gross tons; Pacific Ocean, 
812,179 gross tons; the Great Lakes, 
1,902,698 gross tons ; Mississippi sys- 
tem, 215,095 gross tons. Our ship- 
ping on the Pacific has increased more 
rapidly than on the Atlantic. In re- 
gard to motive power, 3,408,088 gross 
tons were propelled by steam, and 1,- 
965,924 gross tons were sailing ves- 
sels, and 713.333 gross tons of canal- 
boats and barges were variously pro- 
pelled. As regards the materials of 
construction, 2,440,247 gross tons were 
of Jron and steel construction, and 3,- 
647,098 gross tons were of wood. The 
following table shows the geographical 
distribution, motive power, and ma- 
terial of construction of American 
shipping June 30, 1903. 



American Shipping. 


Number. 


Gross 
Tonnage. 


GEOGRAPHICAL DIS- 
TRIBUTION. 

Atlantic and Gulf coasts. 
Porto Rico 


17,218 
59 


3,149,711 

7,662 


Pacific coast 
Hawaiian Islands 
Northern lakes 
Western rivers 


2,575 
69 
3,110 
1,394 


775,859 
3(5,320 
1,902,638 
215,035 


Total 

POWER AND MATERIAL. 

Sail: 
Wood 
Iron and steel . . 


24,425 

16,187 
184 


6,087,315 

2,391,017 
288,240 








Total. . . 


16,371 


2,679,257 


Steam : 
Wood 


6,675 


1,256,031 


Iron and steel 


1,379 


2,152,007 


Total. . . . 


8,054 


3,418,088 


Canal boats. . 
Barges 

Total 

CONSTRUCTION DURING 
THE YEAR 1903. 

Geographical distribution. 
Altantic and Gulf coasts . 
Pacific coast. 


695 
2,840 

3,535 

847 
191 


78,406 
634,927 

713,333 

244,860 
43,336 


Northern lakes . . . .' 
Western rivers 


123 
150 


136,844 
11,112 


Total 

Power and material. 
Sail: 
Wood . 


1,311 
466 


436,152 

77 795 


Steel 
Steam : 
Wood 


4 
451 


12,184 
31,674 


Iron and steel 


100 


240 107 


Canal boats 
Barges : 
Wood 
Steel. . . 


19 

267 
4 


2,215 

66,249 
5,928 


Total. . 


1,311 


436,152 



17 



18 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



During the years 1902 and 1903, 
nearly 100,000 tons of large ocean-go- 
ing steamers have been added to our 
registered fleet. 

The subject of the losses of vessels 
from various causes is a most impor- 
tant one. During the year ending 
June 30, 1903, 487 vessels of 107,084 
gross tons were reported. The num- 
ber and rig of vessels lost is shown 
bv the annexed table : 



nearby countries. The excellent light- 
house system of the American coast and 
care in navigation have, however, over- 
come liability to accident from the na- 
ture of our trade along the coasts. 
Collision differs totally from stranding 
in that, for its prevention, one must 
look to the navigating officers. The 
figures show that superior care and in- 
telligence are possessed by the navi- 
gating officers of American steamers. 



Rig. 


Stranded. 


Collision. 


Fire. 


Foun- 
dered. 


Aban- 
doned. 


Total. 


Steam 


21 


8 


49 


28 




106 


Sail 


153 


25 


61 


107 


13 


359 


Unrigged 


7 


3 


2 


10 




22 
















Total 


131 


36 


112 


145 


13 


487 



The very heavy percentage of loss 
of steamers by tire discloses unsatis- 
factory attention to duty in the hold 
or insufficient fire apparatus, or both. 
The table given includes lost American 
vessels of all sizes on the rivers and 
lakes of the country, as well as salt 
water. For comparison of the relative 
losses of the merchant shipping of the 
United States and foreign nations, the 
most complete figures are those of the 
"Bureau Veritas." They cover only 
sea-going steamers of over 100 gross 
tons and sea-going sail vessels of over 
50 net tons. The proportion of for- 
eign vessels on the ocean is so great 
and of American vessels so small that 
the figures do not clearly disclose the 
relative security of navigation under 
various flags and laws. Figures show 
that American sea-going vessels from 
1896 to 1903 have been less liable, to 
accident but more liable to total loss 
than foreign steamers, while American 
sea-going sail vessels have been more 
liable both to accident and loss than 
foreign sea-going sail vessels. The 
losses of both steamers and sail vessels 
of all nations are due, of course, more 
to stranding than to any other cause, 
as it accounts for 47 per cent, of the 
losses of American sea-going steamers 
and 53 per cent, of the losses of 
American sea-going sail vessels. 
The losses of foreign steamers are 
44 per cent., and the losses of for- 
eign sail vessels 46 per cent. There 
is a special reason why American ves- 
sels are more liable to stranding 
than the vessels of other nations which 
conduct the world's deep-sea trade. 
American vessels are seldom found in 
midocean on long voyages. Their 
course is usually along our own coasts 
in the domestic trade, or in trade with 



The third cause of loss and accident 
in the order followed by the "Bureau 
Veritas" is fire. The element of di- 
rect human responsibility in the case 
of fire is considerably greater than in 
cases of collision, where fog and the 
fault of the second party to the colli- 
sion may produce disaster, and is 
much greater than in cases of strand- 
ing, where fog, defective charts, and 
an inadequately lighted coast add to 
the perils which stress of weather al- 
ways creates. Afloat or ashore fire 
seems usually to be a peril to life and 
property, to be guarded against only 
by a higher degree of men's watchful- 
ness or by better extinguishing ap- 
pliances. Each vessel is separated 
usually by the water from every other 
vessel as buildings ashore are not sepa- 
rated, so that extra precautions should 
produce better results with ships than 
with buildings. The American steam 
fleet contains a considerable propor- 
tion of wooden hulls, while foreign 
steamers are usually steel. Still it is 
not pleasant to notice that while the 
loss of 18 per cent, of lost American 
steamers may be charged to fire, the 
loss of only 4 per cent, of lost for- 
eign steamers is charged to this cause ; 
that while 8 per cent, of damaged 
American steamers suffered from fire, 
only 5 per cent, of foreign vessels came 
from this cause ; that 4 per cent, of 
lost American sail vessels were burned 
and only 2 per cent, of lost foreign 
sail vessels were burned. The only re- 
lieving feature of these particular fig- 
ures is that the proportion of accidents 
from fire to American sail vessels 3 
per cent, of the total was the same as 
to foreign vessels. The situation dis- 
closed may be corrected. Whether that 
correction should come from the under- 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



19 



writers or from the Government in its 
legislative or executive branch is not 
now considered. 

Collision to a great extent, and fire 
to a greater extent, cause loss or acci- 
dent to vessels mainly through lack of 
skill and vigilance of the officers and 
crew. Except where caused by unu- 
sual storms or waves vessels founder, 
on the other hand, on account of struc- 
tural weakness of the hull. This 
weakness may be inherent and the 
fault of the builder, or it may be due 
to age and inadequate repair, the fault 
of the owner. In rare cases a new ves- 
sel, splendidly built, may yield to the 
tempest. The separation of causes of 
loss by the "Bureau Veritas" into 
foundered, abandoned, and missing, 
while proper enough from the point of 
view of the statistician, is not wholly 
satisfactory to those required to deal 
with facts from the point of view of 
possible remedy. The three classes, 
foundered, abandoned, and missing, 
really constitute one class for remedial 
purposes. That class consists of ves- 
sels which, on account of defects of 
the hull, are lost at sea. Most of 
them founder. Some of them are 
abandoned by their crews and the ship 
does not actually. go down before their 
eyes. All of these ultimately go down 
except the proportion kept afloat by 
their cargoes, such as lumber-laden 
schooners. This small proportion con- 
stitutes the class known as "derelicts." 
Leaks (defects in a vessel's bottom) 
cause about 2 per cent, of the accidents 
to American steamers and to foreign 
steamers. Leaks, again, cause 20 per 
cent, of the accidents to American sail 
vessels, and only 15-per cent, of the 
accidents to foreign sail vessels. 

Stress of weather or storms ac- 
counted for 10 per cent of the acci- 
dents to American steamers, 13 per 
cent, of accidents to foreign steamers, 
30 per cent, of accidents to American 
sail vessels, and 35 per cent, of acci- 
dents to foreign sail vessels. Doubt- 
less the excellent system of weather 
reports and storm warning along the 
American coasts helps to produce this 
favorable showing for American ves- 
sels. The principal cause of accidents 
to American steamers lies in the en- 
gines and boilers to which 29 per cent, 
of our steamer accidents are charged, 
compared with 24 per cent, for for- 
eign steamers. Collision (31 per cent.) 
is the principal cause of British steam- 
er accidents; stranding (31 per cent.) 
of German accidents. Accidents to 
engines and boilers may be due to de- 



fective original construction, to inade- 
quate repairs, or to faults of the men 
in charge of them. Generally speak- 
ing, American machinery holds a 
high place in the world's esteem, and 
while positive evidence is not at hand, 
it still seems probable that American 
marine engines and boilers are equal 
to those of foreign make. If that be 
so then the large proportion of acci- 
dents from engines and boilers must 
proceed from one or both of the other 
two causes mentioned. The returns 
of the number of men including mas- 
ters required to man the documented 
fleet of merchant vessels and yachts 
of the United States report crews ag- 
gregating 135,828 men, 88,249 men be- 
ing engaged on steamers, while the 
crews of sailing vessels number 45,- 
030 men, and unrigged boats require 
2,549 men to man them. These fig- 
ures are onlv for the crews reported. 

Returns for 1903 show that 3,086 
American steam vessels, including 
yachts, aggregating 2,994.866 gross 
tons, are propelled by engines aggre- 
gating 2,369,202 indicated horsepower. 
The figures indicate an annual con- 
sumption of about 10,000,000 long tons 
of coal for fuel on these steamers, and 
the employment on board of about 20,- 
000 men as firemen and trimmers. The 
tgtal number of steam vessels (includ- 
ing motor launches) on June 30, 1903, 
was 8,801 of 3,459,644 gross tons, so 
that the figures stated cover 86 per 
cent, of our steam tonnage, including 
yachts. In the navy 207 steam vessels 
of 206,953 tons (displacement) are 
propelled by engines of 624,745 indi- 
cated horse-power. Condensed from 
the Report of the U. S. Commissioner 
of Navigation. 



Flag Day. Flag Day is June 14. 
"Old Glory" was' 127 years old on June 
14, 1904. 



NATIONAL SWISS RAILWAYS. 

Four of the chief railway lines in 
Switzerland the Central Suisse, the 
Nord Est, the Union Suisse, and the 
Jura-Simplon have been nationalized. 
There only remains the St. Gothard 
Company. The existing concession 
will be renounced 1905, and the pur- 
chase price fixed on the basis of the 
average returns of the 10 years pre- 
ceding 1894-1904. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



STATEMENT OF NUMBER AND NET AND GROSS TONNAGE 
STEAM AND SAILING VESSELS OF OVER 100 TONS, OF 
THE SEVERAL COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD, 

AS RECORDED IN LLOYD'S 
REGISTER FOR 1903-4. 



OF 



Flag. 


Steam. 


Sail. Total. 


Num- 
ber. 


Net Tons. 


Gross 
Tons. 


N b ^ m - Net Tons. 


Num- Ton- 
ber. nage. 


British: 
United Kingdom 
Colonies. 


7,530 
1,023 


8,233,721 
466,732 


13,410,894 

782,688 


1,622 
959 


1,478,677 
334,115 


9,152 
1,982 


14,889,571 
1,116,803 


Total 


8,553 

862 
349 


8,700,453 

810,003 
756,470 


14,193,582 

1,220,995 
1,001,072 


2,581 

2,119 
56 


1,812,792 

1,259,986 
129,903 


11,134 

2,981 
405 


16,006,374 

2,480,981 
1,130,975 


American (United States) : 
Sea. . 


Lake 
Total 


1,211 


1,566,473 

44,678 
348,461 
103,459 
84,110 
42,164 
38,807 
24,703 
283,490 
387,800 
584,180 
1,720,106 
205,996 
448,704 
366,232 
9,070 
570,869 
27,035 
32,642 
354,539 
461,333 
308,623 
57,970 


2,222,067 

70,862 
557,745 
156,559 
132,107 
67,186 
60,491 
38,550 
483,968 
613,219 
1,153,761 
2,794,311 
325,895 
704,109 
585,542 
15,210 
935,229 
43,138 
51,217 
578,343 
720,822 
502,581 
92,869 
23,330 


2,175 

99 
29 
2 

90 
59 


1,389,889 

24,918 
20,952 
488 
22,979 
36,572 


3,386 

218 
296 
114 
318 
108 
45 
53 
799 
458 
1,355 
1,898 
391 
1,226 
1,586 
48 
2,218 
129 
200 
1,299 
595 
1,514 
341 
47 


3,611,956 

95,780 
578,697 
157,047 
155,086 
103,758 
60,491 
40,874 
581,247 
658,845 
1,622,016 
3,283.247 
378,199 
1,180,335 
726,818 
18,888 
1,653,740 
51,399 
101,304 
809,648 
764,447 
721,116 
154,494 
28,663 


Argentine. . 


119 
267 
112 
228 
49 
45 
41 
385 
360 
717 
1,425 
199 
365 
544 
32 
962 
92 
48 
573 
459 
750 
125 


Austro-Hungarian 
Belgian 
Brazilian 
Chilean 
Chinese. .... 


Cuban 
Danish. 


12 
414 

98 
638 
473 
192 
861 
1,042 
16 
1,256 
37 
152 
726 
136 
764 
216 
15 


2,324 
97,279 
45,626 
468,255 
488,936 
52,304 
476,226 
141,276 
3,678 
718,511 
8,261 
50,087 
231,305 
43,625 
218,535 
61,625 
5,333 


Dutch 


French 
German. . . 


Greek 
Italian. . 


Japanese 
Mexican 
Norwegian 
Philippine Islands 
Portuguese 


Russian 
Spanish 
Swedish. . . 


Turkish 
Other countries 

Total, including coun- 
tries not specified. . . . 


17,761 


16,822,466 


27,183,365 


12,182 


6,459,766 


29,943 


33,643,131 



THE WORLD'S LARGE AND FAST OCEAN STEAMSHIPS. 

The following table shows the sea- 
going screw steamships in the world of 
12 knots or upward, and of 2,000 gross 
tons or more, recorded in Lloyd's Reg- 
ister on July 1, 1903, including a few 
vessels building at that time. While 
in tonnage these vessels are about one- 
fourth of the world's sea-going steam 
tonnage, in efficiency, due to their size 
and speed, they represent more nearly 
one-third of the effective ocean-carry- 
ing power of the world in the general 
foreign and colonial carrying trade, 
and probably 85 per cent, of the 
world's foreign passenger trade. 





1 


903. 


Speed. 


Num- 






ber. 


Tons. 


Twenty knots and over 
Under 20 and over 19 knots . 


20 
9 


236,114 
63,219 


Under 19 and over 18 knots. 


24 


191,454 


Under 18 and over 17 knots. 


56 


378,197 


Under 17 and over 16 knots. 


80 


550,315 


Under 16 and over 15 knots. 


98 


509,479 


Under 15 and over 14 knots. 


154 


766,719 


Under 14 and over 13 knots. 


379 


1,886,602 


Under 13 and over 12 knots. 


502 


2,079,775 


Total. . 


1.322 


G.661.874 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



21 




22 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



The following table classifies these vessels in 1903, according to speed and 



Speed in Knots. 



-riag. 


20 


19 

" 2" 

'"2" 
4 
1 


18 


17 


16 


,5 


14 

80 
9 
27 
3 

"5" 


13 


12 


Total. 


British 
German 


7 
5 
4 
2 
2 


17 
3 
3 


25 

"V 
19 


40 
7 
15 
5 
2 
2 


38 
8 
26 
1 
2 
2 


197 
38 
28 
42 
2 
6 


308 

68 
17 
39 
20 

7 


712 
140 
129 
113 
32 
23 
1 
38 
45 
24 
3 
28 
13 
10 
6 
3 
2 


American 
French 


Russian. 


Spanish 
Roumanian 
Italian 


" "l" 






1 

2 
2 
3 

" "l" 


9 
3 
3 

"5" 

1 


6 

7 
2 

" fl" 

"9" 


10 
24 
11 

"3" 

9 

" 6" 

3 


12 
6 
6 

' '14 ' 

2 
1 

" 2" 










3 








Danish 
Dutch 












































Argentine 
Total ". 


























20 


9 


24 


56 


80 


98 


154 


379 


502 


1,322 



MOTIVE POWER AND CHIEF MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION 
THE WORLD'S MERCHANT MARINE. 

MOTIVE POWER. 



OF 





Total 


Vessels. 




Steam. 




S 


ail. 


Year. 


Num- 
ber. 


Tons. 


Num- 
ber. 


Gross 
Tons. 


Net Tons. 


Num- 
ber. 


Net Tons. 


1890. . , 
1895 


32,298 
30,368 


22,151,651 
25,107,632 


11,108 
13,256 


12,985,372 
16,887,971 


8,295,514 
10,573,642 


21,190 
17,112 


9,166,279 
8,219,661 


1900. . . 
1903. . . 


28,422 
29,943 


29,043,728 
33,643,131 


15,898 
17,761 


22,369,358 
27,183,365 


13,856,513 
16,822,466 


12,524 
12,182 


6,674,370 
6,459,766 



















Recorded in Lloyd's, 100 tons or over. 
CONSTRUCTION. 



Year. 


Total Vessels. 


Steam. 


Sail. 


Num- 
ber. 


Tons. 


Num- 
ber. 


Gross Tons. 


Num- 
ber. 


Net Tons. 


1890 


1,362 
794 
1,285 
1,336 


1,646,809 
1,211,615 
2,268,938 
2,346,315 


880 
629 
966 
900 


1,328,541 
1,114,019 
2,046,339 
2,218,600 


482 
165 
319 
436 


318,268 
97,596 
222,599 
285,340 


1895 


1900 
1902 



Vessels built in the world (over 100 tons), according to Lloyd's (including vessels not 
recorded in Lloyd's). 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



FOREIGN CARRYING TRADE UNITED STATES. 



The following statement of the 
value of imports and exports carried 
in United States and in foreign ves- 
sels, and the tonnage of entries and 



clearances from 1821 to 1903, is fur- 
nished by the Bureau of Statistics, 
Treasury Department : 







Imports. 






Exports. 




Fiscal Year 


In Cars and 
Other Land 
Vehicles. 


In American 
Vessels. 


In Foreign 
Vessels. 


In Cars and 
Other Land 
Vehicles. 


In American 

Vessels. 


In Foreign 

Vessels. 


1821 .... 




$58,025,890 


$4,559,825 




$55,175,572 


$9,798,410 


1825 




91,902,512 


4,437,563 




88,799,749 


10 735 639 


1830 




66,035,739 


4,481,181 




63,882,719 


9,966,789 


1835 




135 288 865 


14; 606 877 




94,135,191 


27 558 386 


1840 




92,802,352 


14,339,167 




105,622,257 


26,463,689 


1845 ... 




102,438,481 


14,816,083 




86,942,442 


27,704,164 


1850 




139,657,043 


38,481,275 




99,615,041 


52,283 679 


1855 




202,234,900 


59,233,620 




203,250,562 


71,906,284 


1860 
1865 
1870 
1875 
1880 
1885 
1890 
1895. . . . 


$13id83',859 ' 
15,142,465 
21,149,476 
40,621,361 
33,201,988 


228,164,855 
74,385,116 
153,237,077 
157,872,726 
149,317,368 
112,864,052 
124,948,948 
108,229,615 


134,001,399 
174,170,536 
309,140,510 
382,949,568 
503,494,913 
443,513,801 
623,740,100 
590,538,362 


' 871304,376 ' 
5,838,928 
24,183,299 
32,949,902 
49,902,754 


279,082,902 . 
93,017,756 
199,732 324 
156,385,066 
109,029,209 
82,001,691 
77,502,138 
62,277,581 


121,039,394 
262,839,588 
329,786,978 
501,838,949 
720,770,521 
636,004,765 
747,376,644 
695,357,830 


1900 


44 412 509 


104,304,940 


701,223 735 


110 483,141 


90,779,252 


1,193,220 689 


1903 


66,208,195 


123,666,832 


835.844,210 


138,851,301 


91,028,200 


1.190,258,178 



Note. The amounts carried in cars and other land vehicles were not separately stated 
prior to July 1, 1870. Exports are stated in mixed gold and currency values from 1862 to 1869 
inclusive. 



The following table shows the dis- 
tances by the proposed Panama route 
from some of the principal seaports of 



PANAMA ROUTE. 

North and South America, Europe and 
Africa, to San Francisco and Val- 
paraiso. 



(Nautical miles.) 



From 


Panama 
Route, 
San Fran- 
cisco. 


Panama 
Route, 
Valpa- 
raiso. 


From 


Panama 
Route. 
San Fran- 
cisco. 


Panama 
Route. 
Valpa- 
raiso. 


Halifax . . 
Portland. . . . 


5,604 
5,471 


5,210 
4,781 


Hamburg 
Bremen. . . . 


8,423 
8 419 


7,729 
7 725 


Boston 


5,425 


4,735 


| Amsterdam 


8 202 


7 508 


New York. 


5278 


4,584 


Antwerp . 


8 172 


7 478 


Philadelphia 


5,267 


4,573 


Havre 


7 959 


7 265 


Baltimore. . . . 


5,320 


4 626 


Marseilles. ... 


8 367 


7 673 




4 915 


4 221 


London 


8 145 


7 451 


Savannah. . . . 
Key West 
Pensacola 
Mobile. 


4,920 
4,428 
4;696 
4,723 


4,226 
3,744 
4,002 
4,029 


Liverpool 
Glasgow 
Dublin 
Lisbon . 


7,907 
7,890 
7,823 
7 502 


7,213 

7,186 
7,129 
6 813 


New Orleans. . . . 


4,732 


4,038 


Gibraltar 


7 677 


6 983 


Galveston. . 


4,833 


4,139 


Barcelona. . . 


8 191 


7 497 


Havana 


4 365 


3 671 


Naples . 


8 663 


7 969 


San Juan (P. R.). . .. 
Buenos Ayres 


4,335 
8,732 


3,641 
8,038 


Trieste 
Constantinople 


9,358 
9,514 


8,664 
8,820 


Montevideo. . . , 


8,632 


8,038 


Alexandria 


9,482 


8,788 


Rio Janeiro 


7,642 


6,948 


Port Said . 


9 610 


8 916 


St. Petersburg 
Stockholm 
Copenhagen 


9,238 
8,940 
8,503 


8,544 
8,246 
7,809 


Palermo 
Free Town 
Cape Town 


8,605 
7,160 
9,760 


7,911 
6,468 



* New York to San Francisco via Magellan Straits, 13,090. 



24 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



PANAMA 
NICARAGUA 



'OTAL LENGTH. 

186. 53 Mius 



IfNGTH \SffARPNESSOF CUftVATURE 

TOTAL LENGTH ^^. 
TOTAL NO. Of DEGREES 77/ 







LOCKS. 



* //&. 



+ 90. 




SUMMIT LFVEL //Of 7 




MEAN SEA LEVEL 0. 



T/ME OF TffANSf T 

sgLBg-= 
>k-k 




JAN ? 9PM 

! 
-378 KNOTS GAIN ->? 



FO# /& KNOT VESSEL 



DIAGRAM SHOWING SUPERIOR ADVANTAGES OP THE PANAMA CANAL 
OVER THE NICARAGUA CANAL. 

PANAMA, SUEZ, AND CAPE OF WORLD'S OUTPUT OF TONNAGE. 



\J\J\JLJ \^\j\. rr^ ivv^uiruo. 

The following table gives the dis- 
tance from New York to ports named 
by the routes specified : 


From 


Via 
Pan- 
ama. 

10,908 
10,828 
9,692 
11,412 
9,911 


Via 
Suez. 


Via Cape 
of Good 
Hope. 


New York to 
Tientsin 
Shanghai. . . . 
Tokyo 
Manila 
Melbourne . . . 


12,914 
12,187 
13,019 
11,435 
12,737 


15,063 
14,446 
15,178 
13,555 
12,206 


There are 47 steamships engaged in 
cable-laying and repairing. 


The longest submarine telephone 
cable is on the London-Brussels route. 
It extends from St. Margaret's Bay to 
La Panne, a distance of 54 miles. 



Countries. 


1903. 


1902. 


United Kingdom 
Germany 
United States 
Holland 
France 
Italy 
Norway and Sweden . . 
Belgium 
Denmark . . . 


Tons. 
1,409,630 
261,003 
493,144 
71,423 
107,431 
52,380 
61,057 
17,301 
23,849 


Tons. 
1,619,040 
272,350 
314,900 
91,120 
189,930 
49,900 
34,330 
14,560 
22 440 


Austria-Hungary 
Russia 
Spain and Portugal. . . . 
Greece. . . 


37,208 
63,726 
2,040 

72 


20,900 
2,740 
2,040 
200 


Canada 
Japan (European) 
China (European) 
Hongkong (European). 
Singapore (European). . 
Other countries 


13,252 
35,411 
6,631 
4,309 
2,379 
16,000 


13,500 
35,570 
3,820 

'3,'obo' 
10,000 



London Statist. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



DIMENSIONS OF THE LARGEST FAST OCEAN STEAMERS. 



The largest and in many respects 
the highest type of marine architecture 
is to be found in the modern ocean 
greyhound for transatlantic trade. In 
recent years the rival companies have 
vied with each other in the effort to 
excel, and steamships of larger size, 



greater speed, and more perfect equip- 
ment have followed each other, until 
it would seem that the limit had been 
reached. In the accompanying table 
the largest and most recent steamers 
are placed in comparison with the 
"Great Eastern." 



Name of Ship. 


Date. 


Length 
over All. 


Beam. 


Depth. 


Draught. 


Displace- 
ment. 


Maxi- 
mum 
Speed. 


Great Eastern 
Paris 


1858 

1 ss.s 


Feet. 

692 
560 


Feet. 

83 
63 


Feet. 
57* 
42 


Feet. 
25* 

26* 


Tons. 
27,000 
13 000 


Knots. 
12 
20 


Teutonic 
Campania 


1890 
1893 


585 
625 


57* 
65 


42 
41* 


26 

28 


12,000 
19,000 


20 
22 


St. Paul 
Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse. 
Oceanic. .... 


1895 
1897 
1899 


554 
649 
704 


63 
66 
68 


42 
43 
49 


27 
29 
32* 


14,000 
20,000 
28,500 


21 
22.35 
20 


Deutschland 


1900 


686* 


67$ 


44 


29 


22,000 


23.5 


Baltic 


1904 


725| 


75 


49 


30* 


40,000 


20 



SPEEDS OF OCEAN GREYHOUNDS. 



The following tables show the fast 
recorded times in which journeys have 
been made between English ports and 



those of the United States, Canada, 
India, China, Burmah, Australia, 
South Africa, and the West Indies. 



The Atlantic 
Record. 


Line or Company. 


Timing of Record Run taken 
between 


Dis- 
tance, 
Nauti- 
cal 
Miles. 


Record 
Run. 


Speed, 
Knots 

Hour. 


De u t s c h 1 and 
(16,500). 
Kronprinz Wil- 
helrn (15,000). 
Kaiser Wilhelm 
II. 
Lucania(12,952) 


Hamburg - Amer- 
ican. 
North -German 
Lloyd. 
North- German 
Lloyd. 
Cunard. 


New York (Sandy Hook) and 
Plymouth (off Eddystone). 
New York (Sandy Hook) 
and Plymouth. 
New York (Sandy Hook) and 
Plymouth (off Eddystone). 
Queenstown (Daunt's Rock) 


2,982 
2,978 
3,112 
2 779 


D. H. M. 

E. 5 7 38 
E. 5 8 18 
E. 5 11 58 
W 5 7 23 


23.36 
23.21 
23.58 
21 81 


St. Paul (11,629) 


American 


and New York. 
Southampton and New York 


3 046 


W. 6 31 


21 08 


Teutonic 

(10,000). 
Minneapolis 
(13,402). 
New England 
(11,400). 
Tunisian 
(10,576). 


White Star. . . 
Atlantic Transport 
Dominion 
Allan 


Queenstown (Daunt's Rock) 
and New York. 
(Off) Dover and New York 
(Sandy Hook). 
Queenstown (Daunt's Rock) 
and Boston Light. 
Rimouski and Moville (Ire- 
land) via Belle Isle. 


2,778 
3,265 
2,636 
2,307 


W. 5 16 31 

W. 8 2 31 
W. 6 12 42 
E. 6 5 20 


20.34 
16.80 
16.62 
15.5 



E. = Sailing eastward. W. = Sailing westward. 



-Daily Mail Year Book, 1904 



RECORD OF ATLANTIC PASSENGER SERVICE TO NEW YORK. 



Year. 


No. of 
Pas- 
sages. 


Cabin. 


Steerage. 


Total. 


Year. 


No. of 
Pas- 
sages. 


Cabin. 


Steerage. 


Total. 


1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 


852- 
901 
812 
826 


99,223 
90,932 
80,586 
107,415 


252,350 
192,004 
219,651 
303,762 


351,573 
382,936 
300,237 
411,177 


1900 
1901 
1902 


838 
887 
922 


137,852 
128,143 
139,848 


403,491 

438,868 
574,276 


541,343 
567,011 
714,124 



Daily Mail Year Book, 1904. 



26 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



RETURN OF PASSENGERS LANDED AT NEW YORK BY FIVE 
PRINCIPAL LINES. 





19 


32. 


19 


31. 


19 


00. 


Line. 


Cabin. 


Steerage. 


Cabin. 


Steerage. 


Cabin. 


Steerage. 


North-German Lloyd 
Hamburg- American 
White Star 
Cunard , 


27,767 
20,098 
18,402 
16,308 


110,697 
98,988 
40,225 
23,650 


22,960 
20,977 
18,167 
17,783 


101,384 
78,560 
30,483 
19,943 


26,577 
23,657 
14,948 
20,000 


92,143 
72,245 
29,370 
22,751 




14,456 


20,658 


12,110 


12,511 


16,435 


16,884 

















Daily Mail Year Book, 1904. 



FIRST STEAMBOATS, PIONEER SAILINGS, AND 
EARLIEST LINES. 



1707. Denis Papin experimented on River 
Fulda with paddle-wheel steamboat. 

1736. Jonathan Hulls patented designs 
similar to modern paddle boat. 

1769. James Watt invented a double-acting 
side-lever engine. 

1783. Marquess of Jouffrey made experi- 
ments in France. 

1785. James Ramsey, in America, propelled 
a boat with steam through a stern-pipe. 

1785 Robert Fitch, in America, propelled a 
boat with canoe-paddles fixed to a moving 
beam. 

1787. Robert Miller, of Edinburgh, tried 
primitive manual machinery. 

1788. Miller, with Symington, produced a 
double-hull stern-wheel steamboat. 

1802. Charlotte Dundas, the first practical 
steam tugboat, designed by Symington. 

1804. Phoenix, screw-boat designed by 
Stephens in New York; first steamer to make 
a sea voyage. 

1807. Clermont, first passenger steamer con- 
tinuously employed; built by Fulton in U. S.A. 

1812. Comet, first passenger steamer con- 
tinuously employed in Europe ; built by Miller 
in Scotland. 

1818. Rob Roy, first sea-trading steamer in 
the world, built at Glasgow. 

1819. Savannah, first auxiliary steamer, 
paddle wheels, to cross the Atlantic; built in 
New York. 

1821. Aaron Manby, first steamer (English 
canal boat) built of iron. 

1823. City of Dublin Steam Packet Co. was 
established. 

1824. General Steam Navigation Co. was 
established at London. 

1824. George Thompson & Co. (Aberdeen 
Line), were established. 

1825. Enterprise made the first steam pass- 
age to India. 

1825. William Fawcett, pioneer steamer of 
the P. & O. S. N. Co. 

1830. T. & J. Harrison (Harrison Line) were 
established at Liverpool. 

1832. Elburkah, iron steamer, took a private 
exploring party up the Niger. 

1834. Ltoyd's Register for British 
Foreign Shipping established. 



and 



1836. Austrian Lloyd Steam Navigation Co. 
established at Trieste. 

1837. Francis B. Ogden, first successful 
screw tugboat; fitted with Ericsson's pro- 
peller. 

1838. Archimedes, made the Dover-Calais 
passage under two hours, fitted with Smith's 
propeller. 

1838. R. F. Stockton, built for a tugboat, 
fitted with Ericsson's propeller, sailed to 
America ; first iron vessel to cross the Atlantic ; 
first screw steamer used in America. 

1839. Thames, pioneer steamer of the Royal 
Mail Steam Packet Co. 

1839. George Smith & Sons (City Line) 
were established at Glasgow. 

1840. Britannia, pioneer steamer of the 
Cunard Line. 

1840. Chile, pioneer steamer of the Pacific 
Steam Navigation Co. 

1845. Great Britain, first iron screw steamer, 
precursor of modern Atlantic steamer. 

1845. Thos. Wilson, Sons & Co., Ltd. (Wil- 
son Line), established at Hull. 

1847. Pacific Mail Steamship Co. established 
in America. 

1849. Houlder Brothers & Co. established 
at London. 

1850. Bullard, King & Co. (Natal Line) es- 
tablished at London. 

1850. Messageries Maritimes de France es- 
tablished. 

1850. Inman (now American) Line, estab- 
lished at Liverpool. 

1851. Tiber, first steamer of the Bibby Line, 
established 1821 at Liverpool. 

1852. Forerunner, pioneer steamer of the 
African Steamship Co. 

1853. Union Steamship Co. was established 
(now Union-Castle Line.) 

1853. Borussia, first steamer of the Ham- 
burg-American Packet Co., established 1847. 

1854. Canadian, first steamer of the Allan 
Line, established 1820. 

1855. British India Steam Navigation Co. 
was established. 

1856. Tempest, first steamer Anchor Line. 
1858. Bremen, first Atlantic steamer of the 

Norddeutscher Lloyd, established 1856. 

1858. Great Eastern launched into the 
Thames. Jan. 31; commenced. May 1, 1854. 
Whittaker's Almanac. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



NUMBER OF VESSELS OVER 5,000 TONS EACH, AND PARTICULARS 
OF LARGEST VESSELS BELONGING TO EACH COUNTRY. 



Country. 


No. 

7 
2 

1 
5 
39 
139 
437 

13 
8 
21 

14 
9 
2 
54 

751 


Ship's Name. 


Gr. Tons. 


Speed. 


Owners. 


Austria 
Belgium. . . . 
Brazil 
Chile 


Austria 
Vaderland 
Rio Gallejos 
Rancajua 
United States 
La Savoie 
Kaiser Wilhelm II. 
Cedric 
Keramiac 


7,588 
11,899 
2,987 
5,975 
10,100 
11,884 
19,036 
21,035 
4,700 
12,531 
6,025 
6,444 
4,434 
7,297 
6,875 
5,383 
21,000 

*u 


124 

16 
* 
* 
16 
21 
23i 
17 
* 

15 

* 

14 

* 

20 
19 

* 

# 

nder 12 K 


Austrian Lloyd. 
Red Star Line. 
Hamburg S. American SS. Co. 
S. American Nav. Co. 
Forende Dampskibs, Copenhagen. 
Compagnie Gdn. Transatlantique. 
Norddeutscher Lloyd. 
White Star Line. 
M. S. Vagliano. 
Holland-American Line. 
L. Capuccio & Co. 
Nippon Yusen Kaisha. 
McLaren & McLaren. 
Russian Vol. Fleet Assn. 
Compania Transatlantica. 
A. Johnson. 
Gt. Northern Steamship Co. 

nots. 


Denmark. . . 
France 
Germany. . . 
Gr. Britain. . 
Greece 
Holland. . . . 
Italy 
Japan 
Norway. . . . 
Russia 
Spain 
Sweden 
UnitedStates 

Total .... 




Aki Maru 
Afton 


Moskva 
Alfonso XI I 
Kronprins Gustaf.. 
Minnesota 



FROM STEAM PACKET TO STEAM PALACE. 

(1) Wood Paddle-boats. (3) Iron Screw Steamers. (5) Steel Twin-Screw Steamers. 



(2) Iron 



(4) Steel 



Date 


Name of Steamer. 


Owners. 


Remarks. 


1833 

1838 

1840 


Royal William. . .(1) 

Sirius 
Great Western 
Royal William (2) . . 


Quebec & HalifaxS.N.Co. j 

British and Amer.S.N.Co. . 
Great Western S.N.Co. . . . 
Transatlantic SS. Co 


From Pictou (N.S.), 1st to cross the 
Atlantic. 
From Cork, 1st departure from U. K. 
Bristol, 1st built for Atlantic. 
Liverpool, 1st departure. 
Liverpool 1st carried British mails. 


1849 
1854 


Atlantic 


Collins " . 
Allan 


New York, 1st carried U.S. mails. 
Glasgow, 1st steamer of Line. 


1856 


Tempest 


Anchor ' 
Hamburg-American Line 


1st 
Hamburg 1st 


1858 


Adriatic 
Bremen 


Collins Line 
Norddeutscher Lloyd 


Last Sailing of Line. 
From Bremen to New York. 


1856 
1862 


Persia (2) 


Cunard 


1st Cunard iron paddle steamer. 
Last 










1845 
1850 
1858 
1868 
1869 
1871 
1873 


Great Britain. . . . (3) 
City of Glasgow 
GREAT EASTERN. . . . 
Italy 
City of Brussels. 
Oceanic (1st) 
Pennsylvania . . 


Great Western S.N.Co. . . . 
Inman Line 
East. and Australian SS.Co. 
National Line 
Inman " 
White Star Line 
American " 


1st Atlantic iron screw steamer. 
1st to carry steerage passengers. 
Paddle wheels and propeller. 
1st Atlantic ss. with comp. engines. 
1st " steam steering gear. 
1st with'midship saloon, &c. 


1874 


Britannic 


White Star " 


1st to exceed 5 000 tons Great Eastern 


1875 


City of Berlin .... 


Inman " . . 




1879 
1882 


Arizona 
Alaska 


Guion. . 


Watertight compartments floated her. 


1883 


Oregon 


j " " (1) > 
) Cunard " (2) f 


Sunk outside New York; every one 
saved by N. D. Lloyd ss. Fulda. 


1879 
1881 


Buenos Ayrean. . (4) 
Servia 

City of Rome. . . . 


Allan Line 
Cunard " 
j Inman (1) Line I 


1st Atlantic steel steamer.* 
1st Cunard 


1884 


America. . 


1 Anchor(2) " f 


i e wi ree unne s. 




j Umbria 1 


Cunard " .... 


1st with 20 knots speed 


1886 


Aller 


Norddeutscher Lloyd 


1st triple-expansion express ss.f 


1888 
1889 


I City of NewYork(S) 
1 City of Paris 
j Teutonic 1 
) Majestic.. . . f 


Inman &International(l) ( 
American Line (2) f 

White Star Line 


1st twin-screw ocean expresses. J 
1st to exceed 10,000 tons.G.E.excepted 

Designed as mercantile cruisers. 


1890 
1892 


Fiirst Bismarck 
La Touraine 


Hamburg-American Line . 
Compagnie Ge"nerale Trans. 


1st under 6 days from Southampton. 
Record Havre to New York, 6$ days. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



29 



FROM STEAM PACKET TO STEAM PALACE Continued. 



Date 


Name of Steamer. 


Owners. 


Remarks. 




j Campania . . \ 


~ , T . ( 


Lucania: highest day's run 562 knots 


1893 


{ Lucania ) 


Cunard Line < 


Liverpool to New York records. 


1895 


J St. Paul 1 
j St. Louis f 


American 


Largest express steamers ever built in 
America. 


1897 
1899 
1900 


KaiserWilhelm d. Gr. 
Oceanic 
Deutschland 


Norddeutscher Lloyd 
White Star Line 
Hamburg-American Line . 


Record day's run, 580 knots. [tons. 
Balanced engines. 1st to exceed 15,000 
Fastest ocean steamer in the world. 


1901 


CELTIC. . . . 


White Star Line 


1st to exceed 20,000 tons. 


1902 
1903 
1904 


KRONPRINzWlLHELM 

Kaiser Wilhelm II. . . 
Baltic 


Norddeutscher Lloyd 
Norddeutscher Lloyd 
White Star Line 


Largest express steamer in the world. 
Largest ss. in the world 726x76x49. 



* Union Co. of N.Z.'s Rotomohana, 1,763 tons, was first ocean steel ss. 1879. 

t Martello, 2,432 tons, of Wilson Line, was first Atlantic cargo triple-expansion ss. 1884. 

j Netting Hill, 3,921 tons, of Twin-screw Cargo Line, came out so engined, 1881. 



REDUCTION OF PASSAGE. 


PROGRESS IN LENGTH. 


Days. Tons. 


Feet. Tons. 


1862. Under 9 from Q'town.Scotia 3,871 


1838, 1st to exceed 200 Great Western 1,340 


1869 


8 


CityofBruss', 3,081 


1845 




300 Great Britain 2,084 


1882. 


7 


" Alaska 6,400 


1858 




680 Great Easternl8,918 


1889. 


6 


City of Paris 10,669 


1871 




400 Oceanic (1). . 3,807 


1894. 


5 


Lucania 12,950 


1881 




500 Servia 7,392 


1897. 


6 


' S'ton. Kaiser Wil- 


1893 




600 Campania. . . 12,952 


. helm derGr 14,349 


1899 




700 Oceanic (2). . 17,247 


1903. ' 5} " Cherb'gDeutschland 16,502 


1904 




725 Baltic 23,000 



LARGEST STEAMSHIP OWNERS IN THE WORLD. 
Owners of over 100,000 gross tons in order of tonnage. 



LINES. 


Head Office. 


Total 
Tonnage. 


Over 
" 20 

knots 


KNOTS. 


Under 
12 
knots 


13 
E 


20 


19 
1 

'2 


IS 

2 

12 

'i 
i 


17 


1C, 

4 

f) 
5 
4 
2 

'2 

'4 
'2 

4 
3 

4 

3 
1 

'e 

3 

3 
1 
2 


15 


14 

'8 

25 
11 
2 

(i 
1 
3 

1 

"i 

2 
2 

'5 

2 
<> 

'6 

'? 
2 
1 


13 


12 


Hamburg-American . . 
Norddeutscher Lloyd. 
Brit. Ind. Steam N.Co. 
P. & O. Steam N. Co. . 
Union-Castle 
Leyland 
White Star 
A Holt 


Hamburg 
Bremen 
London 
London 


650,000 
583,000 
432,000 
349,000 
314,000 
281,000 
260,000 
263,000 
248,000 
239,000 
237,000 
236,000 
208,000 
231,000 
203,000 
189,000 
189,000 
180,000 
170,000 
169,000 
160,000 
151,000 
149,000 
138,000 
135,000 
134,000 
130,000 
129,000 
125,000 
124,000 
115,000 
109,000 
108,000 
108,000 
105,000 
105,000 
102,000 
100.000 


1 
3 

'i 

'2 

'2 


> i 
I 

'2 
'2 

4 


'2 

4 
8 

'3 

10 

'i 
'9 


1 

7 
21 
1 

"4 
'3 

'2 
1 
9 
3 

"i 

1 
6 

14 
1 
1 

"i 


7 

23 
23 
11 
4 
9 
13 
24 
23 
2f> 
6 
11 
12 
11 
1 1 
4 
23 
3 
3 
4 

'4 
4 

'4 

4 
3 
1 
3 
2 
4 


16 

23 
3S 
9 
20 
20 
1 
13 
4 
7 
19 
4 
13 
13 
11 
21 
9 
2 

7 

"7 

2 
2 
5 
7 
9 

3 

14 
25 
11 
2 


93 
50 
11 
5 
13 
12 

15 
41 
11 
47 
93 
75 
65 
41 
24 
5 
6 
13 
15 
45 
3 
109 
6 
18 
15 
20 
9 
4 
17 
5 
17 
36 
38 
19 
23 
51 
33 


125 
122 
125 
59 
49 
47 
27 
55 
78 
58 
72 
113 
102 
107 
71 
49 
37 
25 
23 
52 
45 
41 
119 
19 
30 
30 
32 
19 
' 15 
35 
34 
28 
40 
38 
36 
23 
66 
33 


London 
Liverpool 
Liverpool 
Liverpool 
Tokio 
Paris 
Liverpool 
Liverpool 
Hull 
Rome 
Trieste 
Glasgow 
Liverpool 
Philadelphia. . . . 
Montreal 
Paris 
Bremen 
Liverpool 
Copenhagen 
London 
Glasgow 
Glasgow 
Hamburg 
Liverpool 


NipponYusen Kaisha 
Messageries Maritimes 
Ellerman Lines, Ltd. . 
Elder, Dempster &Co.. 
Wilson 
Navigazione Gen.Ital. 
Austrian Lloyd 
Clan 


Harrison 
American. . . 
Canadian Pacific Ry. . 
Comp. Gene". Trans. . . 
Hansa 
Pacific Steam N.Co. . . 
For.Damps. Selskab. . 
Atlantic Trans. Co. . . 
Anchor . . . . 


'2 








Allan 
Hamb'g S. American . 
Cunard 






i 


2 
4 


i 
i 


1 
"2 


Dominion Line 
Lamport & Holt 
Chargeurs Re"unis .... 
Kosmos. . . 


Liverpool 
Liverpool 
Paris 
Hamburg 
Newcastle-on-T. 
West Hartlepool 
London 
Hamburg 
St. Petersburg. . . 
London 










Prince 










2 




R. Ropner & Co 
Royal Mail S. P. Co. . 
Deutsch-Australische. 
Russ.Steam N.&T.Co. 
Shell 






8 


3 






1 


5 


















15 



Whittaker's Almanac. 



30 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



OCEAN STEAMERS. 



16 Knots and over. 
Country. 



Number belonging to each 



Country. 


20 knots 
& above. 


19 knots. 


18* kts. 


18 knots. 


17* knots. 


17 kts. 


16 knots. 


Total. 


Austria 
Belgium 














2 
1 


2 

1 


France 
Denmark 
Germany 


'5 


2 
'2 


i 


i 


12 


7 


'3 
4 


21 
3 
13 


Great Britain. . . 
Italy 


9 




1 


15 


8 


17 


40 
4 


90* 
4 


Japan 


2 


4 








3 


2 

2 


5 

8 


Spain 
United States. . . 


'5 


1 




'3 


'2 


12 


2 
18 


3 
40 




21 


9 


2 


19 


22 


39 


78 


190 



*P. & O., 21; R. Mail, 11; Union-Castle, 10; White Star, 8; Cunard, 7; Pacific S. N. Co., 7; 
Orient, 5; Atlantic Transport Co., 3; Dominion, 3; Elder, Dempster, 3; Canadian Pac. Rail., 3: 
Union of N. Zealand, 3; Allan, 2; Khedivial Mail Co., 2; Anchor, 1; International Nav. Co., 1. 
N.B. There were on June 30, 1903, only 1,446 ocean steamers in the world capable of a sea- 
speed of at least 12 knots per hour, of which 751 were British. See article on " Baltic " on page 32. 

OCEAN STEAMERS. 20 Knots and over. In order of Tonnage. 



Built 
in 


Names. 


Owners. 


Gross 
Tons. 


Dimen- 
sions. 


Spd. 


Builders. 


1902 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1897 
1893 
1893 
1897 
1900 
1900 
1895 
1895 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1889 
1890 
1884 
1884 
1898 
1898 
1898 
1898 


* Kaiser Wilhelm II ... . N.D. Lloyd. . . 
Oceanic 'Whit.fi Star 


19,360 
17,274 
16,502 
14,908 
14,349 
12,950 I 
12,950 f 
12,480 

11,869 
11,864 | 
11,629 | 
10,798 1 
10,786 | 
10,147 1 
9,984 f 
8,278 
8,128 1 
8,120 f 
7,297 1 
7,270 f 

1,728 


678x72x38 
685x68x44 
662x67x40 
640x66x43 
627x66x35 

601x65x37 
581x63x44 
563x60x35 

535x63x37 
527x63x22 

565x58x39 
528x51x36 
501x57x38 

487x58x26 
300x37x17 


23} 
21 
23* 
23 
22* 

22 
22 
20 

21 
20 

20 
20 
20 

20 
20 


StettinV.Co. 
Harland&W. 
Stettin V. Co. 

Fairfield. 
Schichau. 
Owners. 

Cramp&Sons. 
Clydebank. 

Harland&W. 
Stettin V.Co. 
Fairfield. 

Clydebank. 
Caird & Co. 


Deutschland 
Kronprinz Wilhelm 
Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse 
Campania 
Lucania 
Kaiser Friedrich 
La Lorraine j 
La Savoie f 


Hamburg-American 
N D Lloyd. 


Cunard. . 




F. Schichau 
Com. Gdn. Trans. . . 

International Mer-j 
cantile.Marine. Co. | 

White Star ........ 


St. Louis j 
St. Paul j 
New York 
Philadelphia (ex Paris) . . . 
Majestic. . ' 
Teutonic 
Kaiserin Maria Theresa. . . 
Umbria 
Etruria 




N. D. Lloyd 
Cunard 

Russ. t Voi.Flt. Ass'oc. 
P. & O 


Moskva 


Smolensk. . . 


Isis 1 


Osiris f 



* Kaiser Wilhelm II. H. P. 38,000 ; room for 775 1st class, 342 2d class, and 770 3d class pas- 
sengers and crew of 620. 

SHORT TRIP STEAMERS (British and Foreign). 20 Knots and over. 

BRITISH BOATS. 

*Connaught, Leinster, Munster, Ulster, all 23* knots 4 

Empress Queen 22, Pr. of Wales 21, Queen Vict'ia 21 3 

France 21*. Sussex, Tamise, Manche, all 2H,Arundel 5 

Brighton (turbine engines) 1 

Banshee 21, Cambria, Anglia, Hibernia, Scotia 4 

Britannia, Cambria, Westward Ho 3 

La Marguerite 20*, Royal Sovereign 2 

King Edward (turbine engines), Queen Alexandra. . . 2 

Total. . , .24 



Owners. 

City of Dublin Steam Packet Co. 
Isle of Man Steam Packet Co. 
London, B. &. S. C. Railway. 
London B. & S. C. Railway. 
London & North-Western Railway. 
P. A. Campbell, Ltd. 
Fairfield S. & E. Co., Ltd. 
John Williamson. 



FOREIGN BOATS. 

Belgian Government : 3, 22 kts. ; 3, 21 kts. . . . 
Cie. des Chemins de Fer du Nord of France. . 

Zeeland Steamship Co. of Holland 

Central Railroad Co., New Jersey, U. S 



Total .12 



Dover Ostend Service. 
Dover Calais Service. 
Queensborough Flushing Service. 
New York The Highlands. 



1 The four fastest short-trip steamers in the world. 



Whittaker's Almanac. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



31 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



THE NEW WHITE STAR LINER "BALTIC" -THE 
VESSEL IN THE WORLD. 



LARGEST 




THE FOUR UPPER DECKS OF THE "BALTIC." 

The success of the "Oceanic" 
showed that the most remunerative 
type of craft for the transatlantic 
traffic is the vessel of a medium speed, 
maintained under all varying condi- 
tions, but of a tremendous tonnage. 
Although speed may be an important 
desideratum from one point of view, 
such a qualification is in reality only 
appealing to a limited quota of pas- 
sengers, the bulk of travelers prefer- 
ring greater comfort and steadiness of 
the vessel, especially in rough weather. 
Each of the two vessels built after the 
"Oceanic" has marked an increase in 
size and tonnage upon its predecessor. 

The latest liner, the "Baltic," sur- 
passes in size anything that has thus 
far been attempted, though it is by no 
means the finite, for Messrs. Harland 
& Wolff have declared their readiness 
to build a vessel of 50,000 tons. The 
realization of such a vessel is de- 
pendent upon the capacity of a dock 
to accommodate it. 

The length of the "Baltic" over all 
is 725 feet 9 inches. This is an in- 
crease upon the length of the "Celtic" 
and "Cedric" of 25 feet. The beam is 
the same, being 75 feet ; the depth, 49 
feet. The gross tonnage is 23,000 
tons, an increase of about 3,000 tons. 
The cargo capacity is about 28,000 
tons, and the total displacement at the 
load draft approximates 40,000 tons. 

The total complement of passengers 
is 3,000 passengers, and a crew of 
about 350. The general arrangement 
of the ship is similar to the other two 
vessels of this type a continuous 
shade deck running fore and aft, with 
three tiers of deckhouses and two 
promenade decks above same. On the 



upper promenade deck is the first-class 
smokeroom and library, and the two 
houses below contain the deck state- 
rooms. All the first-class accommo- 
dation is situated amidships. 

The vessel is not speedy. In the 
case of the "Oceanic" a speed of 20 
knots can be maintained, but in the 
subsequent vessels this was reduced to 
about IG 1 ^ knots. The "Baltic" will 
approximate the same speed, with a 
great reserve of power, to enable this 
rate of traveling to be maintained 
even under adverse conditions. 

The "Baltic" is fitted with engines 
of Harland & Wolff's quadruple-expan- 
sion type, developing about 13,000 
I. H. P. The engines are arranged on 
the balance principle, which practical- 
ly does away w T ith all vibration. The 
twin engines and twin screws afford 
another element of safety to the ship 
and passengers, and the possibility of 
danger is reduced to a minimum. 

The maiden trip of the "Baltic" was 
made without incident. Her trip oc- 
cupied 7 days 13 hours and 37 min- 
utes. She left Liverpool at 5 P. M. 
on June 29, 1904, and by 8:21 had 
passed Rock Light on her way to 
Queenstown. Her daily runs were : 
July 1, 312 knots; July 2, 395 knots; 
July 3, 403 knots ; July 4, 417 knots ; 
July 5, 387 knots ; July 6, 407 knots ; 
July 7, 414 knots. 

The engines ran from seventy-eight 
to eighty revolutions a minute, while 
the forty-eight furnaces consumed only 
235 tons of coal a day. Her engine 
and fireroom force is comparatively 
small fourteen engineers, fifteen oil- 
ers, thirty-six firemen, twenty-six coal 
passers, two storekeepers, two stew- 
ards and one winchman making up the 
three watches. 



Electricity on Shipboard. Among 
the later developments of electricity 
is that on shipboard. The most com- 
plete installation of this kind is that 
on the "Kronprinz Wilhelm." Here 
all the cabins have telephones, in ad- 
dition to the electric light, and call 
bells. The first-class cabins and 
the dining-room are heated by elec- 
tric stoves. A system of bulkhead 
telegraphy enables the captain in a 
moment of danger, caused by collision, 
to see, while on the bridge, whether 
all the water-tight doors are closed. 
There are forty such doors, and each 
one falls into place. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



33 




Copyright, 1904, by Munn & Co. 



THE QUADRUPLE SCREW TURBINE CUNARDEUS OF 1906 COMPARED 

WITH THE PARK ROW BUILDING, TRINITY CHURCH, THE 

WHITE STAR STEAMSHIP "BALTIC" OF 1871, AND 

THE FIRST CUNARD STEAMSHIP 

"BRITANNIA" OF 1840. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



AMERICAN FREIGHT LOCOMOTIVES AND THE ENGINES OF THE 
"OCEANIC" A COMPARISON OF HORSEPOWER. 

We are told that "Comparisons are 
odious," and the statement would 
seem to be based upon a fairly cor- 
rect estimate of human nature ; but 
as soon as we get outside of the range 
of human susceptibilities and apply 
our comparisons to insensate things, 
comparisons become not only extreme- 
ly interesting, but at times a valua- 
ble means of increasing our general 
knowledge and our sense of the prop- 
er relative proportion of things. 

The pictorial comparison to be 
found here is based upon one of the 
mammoth freight locomotives which 
are being turned out in considerable 
numbers just now by the leading loco- 
motive works of the country. In addi- 
tion to the usual information as to 
dimensions and construction, Mr. R. 
Wells, the superintendent of the Rog- 
ers Locomotive Works, has favored us 
with particulars of some novel ex- 
periments which he carried out to de- 
termine the exact location of the cen- 
ter of gravity of this locomotive above 
the rails. He has also given us particu- 
lars of its horsepower and freight- 
hauling capacity on a level road, and it 
occurs to us that a comparison of the 
relative power of one of these engines 
when working up to its maximum indi- 
cated horsepower with the maximum 
indicated horsepower of the "Oceanic," 
the second largest steamship in the 
world, will be attractive to that sec- 
tion of our readers that likes to have 
its facts enlivened occasionally with a 
touch of the fanciful and curious. 

The locomotive shown is an extreme- 
ly powerful Consolidation which was 
recently built by the Rogers Company 
for the Illinois Central Railroad for 
use on one of the divisions of their line 
where the grades are somewhat heav- 
ier than on the divisions connecting 
with it. It was designed to haul 
trains of a maximum weight of 2,000 
tons over grades of 38 feet to the mile. 
The cylinders are 23 inches in diam- 
eter, by 30 inches stroke ; the drivers 
are 57 inches in diameter and they 
carry 198,000 pounds weight of the 
locomotive out of a total weight of 
218,000 pounds. The boiler, which is 
of the Belpaire type, is 80 inches in 
diameter at the smoke-box ; the fire- 
box measures 42 inches by 132 inches, 
and there are 417 2-inch tubes which 
are 13 feet 8 inches in length. There 
are 252 square feet of heating sur- 
face in the fire-box, and 2,951 square 



feet in the tubes, making a total heat- 
ing surface of 3,203 square feet. The 
tender is exceptionally large, the ca- 
pacity of the tank being 5,000 gallons, 
while the coal space has a capacity of 
10 tons. 

The increase in the diameter of lo- 
comotive boilers which has taken place 
of late years has necessitated their be- 
ing carried above the tops of the 
wheels, with the result that the cen- 
ter of the boiler is in some recent loco- 
motives as much as 9 feet above the 
rails. To the uninitiated these im- 
mense machines have an exceedingly 
top-heavy appearance, and it looks as 
though their stability would be endan- 
gered, especially when they are run- 
ning at high speed around a curve. 
Before sending this engine out of the 
shops, the Rogers Locomotive Com- 
pany made an experimental test to 
determine the exact location of its cen- 
ter of gravity. The result is certain- 
ly surprising, for although the top of 
the boiler is fully 9 feet above the 
rails, the center of gravity was found 
to be only SO 1 /^ inches above the top 
of the rails, that is to say, about 6% 
inches below the top of the driving 
wheels. As a matter of fact, the 
great bulk of the boiler is very decep- 
tive to the eye, and one is liable to for- 
get that the greatest concentration of 
weight lies in the heavy frame, the 
wheels, the axles, cranks and running 
gear, and the heavy saddle and cylinder 
castings. The test was made by sus- 
pending the engine on the upper sur- 
face of two 3-inch steel pins or jour- 
nals as pivots, the one at the front be- 
ing located 6 inches in front of the 
cylinder saddle, and the one at the rear 
6 inches back of the boiler, both pivots 
being, of course, the same distance 
above the rails and on the vertical cen- 
ter line of the engine. After several 
trials, points of suspension were found 
which were in line with the center of 
gravity, which, as thus determined, 
was found to be 50^ inches above the 
top of the rail. As the bearing points 
of the drivers on the rails are about 
56 inches apart, the base on which the 
engine runs must be 1.1 times as wide 
as the height of the center of gravity 
of the engine above the rails. It is 
evident from this test that the center 
of gravity of such a locomotive could 
be raised still higher without endan- 
gering the stability of the engine under 
the ordinary conditions of service. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



35 




Copyright, 1CCO, by Munn & Co. 

A COMPARISON OF MARINE ENGINE AND LOCOMOTIVE POWER. 



36 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



A COMPARISON OF MARINE ENGINE AND 
LOCOMOTIVE HORSEPOWER. 

In order to secure a basis for com- 
parison of the power of a modern 
freight locomotive with that of a mod- 
ern steamship, we have chosen the 
"Oceanic." This truly gigantic ship, 
which exceeds the "Great Eastern" in 
length and in displacement, is 704 
feet in length, and on a draft of 32 M> 
feet displaces 28,500 tons. As the 
depth of water in the entrance chan- 
nels to New York Harbor will not 
accommodate a vessel drawing that 
amount, for the purpose of this com- 
parison we will suppose that the 
"Oceanic" is drawing 30 feet, at 
which draft she would displace about 
26,000 tons. On this displacement 
her engines will indicate about 28,000 
horsepower when driving the vessel at 
a speed of 22 land miles an hour. 

Now, it is estimated that the big 
Rogers Consolidation could haul about 
3,250 tons weight of train at a speed 
of 22 miles an hour, on the level, and 
that while doing this work it would in- 
dicate about 1,760 horsepower. Here 
then we have a basis of comparison, 
and we may apply it in two ways. 
Either we may ask how many of these 
locomotives would have to be crowded 
into the hold of the "Oceanic," and 
coupled to her main shafts, in order to 
drive her through the water at 22 
miles an hour, or we may determine 
how many of these locomotives it 
would take to haul the "Oceanic" if 
she were placed upon a movable cradle 
of the kind designed by Captain Eads 
for his Tehuantepec Ship Railway. 
In the first case, we know that when 
the main shafts of the "Oceanic" are 
making about 90 turns a minute, the 
engines are indicating about 28,000 
horsepower, which is their maximum 
capacity. On the other hand, we 
know that when the drivers of one of 
these locomotives are making about 
350 turns a minute, and the maxi- 
mum tractive effort is being exerted 
at the periphery of the wheels, it is 
indicating about 1,760 horsepower, 
which represents its possible maximum 
indication at that speed. If now the 
sixteen necessary locomotives (the 
number being found by dividing the 
horsepower of the ship by the horse- 
power of the locomotive) were ar- 
ranged in two lines, one above each 
main shaft, and the tractive effort of 
the drivers transmitted by means of 
friction wheels to the shafts, the speed 
of the rotation being reduced by in- 
termediate gearing, in the ratio of 150 



to 90, we should have the conditions 
shown in the engraving on the pre- 
vious page, where the locomotives, in 
double phalanx, are shown grinding 
merrily away at their unwonted task 
of driving a modern transatlantic liner. 

To determine how many Rogers 
Consolidations it would take to haul 
the "Oceanic" over a ship railway 
whose grade is perfectly level, we will 
neglect the weight of the cradle and 
assume that its rolling friction is the 
same as that of a weight of loaded 
freight cars, equal to that of the ship. 
The displacement (that is, the weight 
of the water which the ship displaces 
at a given draft) on a draft of 30 feet 
would be about 26,000 tons, and di- 
viding this amount by 3,250 tons, 
which is the maximum weight of train 
which one locomotive can haul at 22 
miles an hour, we find that it would 
take just eight locomotives to haul 
the "Oceanic" by rail at a speed of 22 
miles an hour. This result is par- 
ticularly interesting as showing how 
quickly the resistance of the water to 
the motion of the ship increases with 
the speed. As a matter of fact it 
increases as the cube of the speed, 
with the result that, although the 
"Oceanic" could be moved at a canal- 
boat speed of 2^2 miles an hour by 
less locomotives than it would take to 
haul it at that speed on land, at a 
speed of 22 miles an hour it requires 
just twice the power on the water that 
it would on the land. 

The "Oceanic," as she rests upon the 
ship railway cradle, represents both 
the dead and the live load ; that is to 
say, the ship and the cargo. With a 
view to showing graphically what an 
enormous mass is represented by her 
26,000 tons displacement, attention is 
drawn to the sketch showing an 
equivalent weight in loaded box cars 
of 40,000 pounds capacity, each of 
\vhich with its load would weigh about 
thirty long tons. If this weight were 
made up into two separate trains each 
train would contain 433 cars and 
would be about three miles in length. 



Between Brussels and Charleroi 
there is a length of nearly 30 miles of 
canal served by overhead wires. The 
motor "tractors" run on the rough 
canal towpath, with plain wheels of 
hard steel. In another style on the 
Finow and the Tetlow Canals, the 
"tractor" runs on a single rail by the 
pair of wheels on one side, and on the 
towpath by a plain pair of wheels on 
the other side. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 37 




Copyright, 3901, by Munn & Co. 

SUPPLIES OF THE " DEUTSCHLAND.' 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUPPLIES OF -THE " DEUTSCHLAND." 



Not by any means the least im- 
pressive evidence of the huge size 
to which the modern transatlantic 
steamship has grown is to be found 
in the graphic representation, now 
presented, of the bewildering amount 
of provisions that have to be taken 
aboard for a single trip across the 
ocean. A mere tabulation of the vari- 
ous kinds of food which go to re- 
plenish the ship's larder, during the 
few days which she spends in port, 
fails to convey any adequate idea of 
the vast amount of stores taken 
aboard. Our pictorial representation 
is, of course, purely imaginary, par- 
ticularly as regards the live stock ; 
the beef, mutton, game, etc., being re- 
ceived on the ship in the dressed condi- 
tion, no live stock whatever being car- 
ried. The drawing was made up from 
a list of the actual amount of pro- 
visions carried on a recent eastward 
trip on the Hamburg-American liner 
"Deutschland," and the number of live 
stock which contributed to meet 
the supplies for one voyage was es- 
timated from the actual number of cat- 
tle, sheep, etc., that would be required 
to make up the total weights in dressed 
meats. With the exception of the live 
stock, the provisions are shown in the 
actual shape in which they would be 
taken on board. 

The dimensions of the vessel are : 
Length, 686 feet ; beam, 67 feet, and 
displacement, 23,000 tons; her highest 
average speed for the whole trip is 
23.36 knots, and she has made the 
journey from Sandy Hook to the 
Lizard in five days seven hours and 
thirty-eight minutes. In considering 
the question of feeding the passengers 
on a vessel of this size, the thought 
is suggested that here are other hun- 
gry mouths w r ithin the hull of the ship 
besides those to be found in the din- 
ing saloons of the passengers and the 
messrooms of the crew ; mouths that 
are so voracious that they require 
feeding not merely at the three regular 
meal hours of the ship, but every hour 
of the day and night, from the time 
the moorings are cast off at one port 
until the vessel is warped alongside at 
the other. We refer to the 112 fur- 
naces in which the fuel of the sixteen 
boilers in the boiler-room is consumed 
at the rate of 572 tons per day. Now, 
although the voyage from New York 
to Hamburg lasts only six or seven 
days, according to the state of the 
weather, the bunkers of the ship are 



constructed to hold a sufficiently large 
reserve of coal to cover all contin- 
gencies, her total coal capacity being 
about 5,000 tons ; and at each voyage 
care is taken to see that they are 
pretty well filled. 

The total number of souls on board 
of the vessel when she has a full pas- 

up of 
cabin, 300 second cabin, 300 steerage 



senger list is 1,61 7, made up of 467 first 



and a crew of 550, the crew compris- 
ing officers, seamen, stewards and the 
engine-room force. Sixteen hundred 
and seventeen souls would constitute 
the toltal inhabitants of many an 
American community that dignifies 
itself with the name of "city," and it is 
a fact that the long procession which 
is shown in our illustration, wending 
its way through the assembled pro- 
visions on the quay, by no means rep- 
resents the length of the line were the 
passengers and crew strung out along 
Broadway or any great thoroughfare 
of that city. If this number of people 
were to march four deep through 
Broadway, with a distance of say 
about a yard between ranks, they 
would extend for about a quarter of a 
mile, or say the length of five city 
blocks. 

To feed these people for a period of 
six days requires, in meat alone, the 
equivalent of fourteen steers, ten 
calves, twenty-nine sheep, twenty-six 
lambs, and nine hogs. If the flocks of 
chickens, geese and game required to 
furnish the three tons of poultry and 
game that are consumed were to join 
in the procession aboard the vessel, 
they would constitute a contingent by 
themselves not less than 1.500 strong. 
The ship's larder is also stocked with 
1,700 pounds of fish, 400 pounds of 
tongues, sweetbreads, etc., 1,700 dozen 
eggs and 14 barrels of oysters and 
clams. The 1,700 dozen eggs packed 
in cases would cover a considerable 
area, as shown in our engraving, while 
the 1,000 brick of ice cream would re- 
quire 100 tubs to hold them. Of table 
butter there would be taken on board 
1,300 pounds, while the 2,200 quarts of 
milk would require 64 cans to hold it, 
and the 300 quarts of cream 8 cans. 

In the way of vegetables there are 
shipped on board 175 barrels of pota- 
toes, 75 barrels of assorted vegetables, 
20 crates of tomatoes and table celery, 
200 dozen lettuce : while the require- 
ments of dessert alone would call for 
4 1-4 tons of fresh fruits. For making 
up into daily supply of bread, biscuits, 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




40 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



cakes, pies, and the toothsome odds- 
and-ends of the pastry cook's art, there 
are taken on board at each trip 00 bar- 
rels of flour, each weighing 195 pounds, 
this item alone adding a weight of 8% 
tons to the cooks' stores. To this also 
we must add 350 pounds of yeast and 
(500 pounds of oatmeal and hominy. 

Under the head of liquids the most 
important item is the 400 tons of 
drinking water, whose bulk is ade- 
quately represented by the circular 
tank shown in our engraving. This is 
supplemented by 12,000 quarts of wine 
and liquors, 15,000 quarts of beer in 
kegs, besides 3,000 bottles of beer. 
Last, but not by any means least, is 
the supply of 40 tons of ice. 

Of course, it will be understood that, 
as in the case of the coal, it is not to 
be supposed that all of this supply will 



be consumed on the voyage. There 
must be a margin, and a fairly liberal 
margin, of every kind of provision. 
Moreover, the extent to which the 
larder and cellar are emptied will vary 
according to the condition of the voy- 
age. In tempestuous weather, where 
the trip is a succession of heavy gales, 
and the dining room tables are liable 
to be practically deserted for two or 
three days at a stretch, the consump- 
tion will be modified considerably. 
Stormy voyages of this character, 
after all, occur at infrequent intervals, 
and as a rule the supplies are pretty 
well consumed by the time the pas- 
sage is over. 

Now, haying dealt with the general 
food supplies, we will deal with the 
food supplies of another large liner for 
a single trip. 



PROVISIONING THE " KRONPRINZ WILHELM " FOR A SINGLE 
TRANSATLANTIC TRIP. 



The Book of Genesis does not record 
the tonnage of the huge vessel which 
finally stranded on Mount Ararat, af- 
ter finishing the most wonderful voy- 
age ever described in the annals of 
mankind. But it is quite safe to as- 
sume that the dimensions of the Ark, 
that old-time floating storehouse, are 
exceeded in size by the largest of 
steamships now crossing the Atlantic. 

Not the least striking evidence of 
the size of these modern monsters of 
the deep is afforded by the vast quan- 
tities of food which must be taken 
aboard for a single six-day trip across 
the Atlantic. For the 1,500 passen- 
gers and the several hundred men con- 
stituting the crew, carloads of food 
and whole tanks of liquids are neces- 
^sary. To enumerate in cold type the 
'exact quantities of bread, meat, and 
vegetables consumed in a weekly trip 
would give but 'an inadequate idea of 
the storing capacity of a modern liner. 
We have, therefore, prepared a picture 
which graphically shows by compari- 
son with the average man the equiva- 
lent of the meat, poultry, and bread- 
stuffs, as well as the liquors used. 
Each kind of food has been concen- 
trated into a giant unit, compared 
with which the figure of the average 
man seems puny. 

On the "Kronprinz Wilhelm," of the 
North German Lloyd Line, which 
steamship we have taken for the pur- 
pose of instituting our comparisons, 
some 19,800 pounds of fresh meat and 



14,300 pounds of salt beef and mut- 
ton, in all 34,100 pounds of meat, are 
eaten during a single trip from New 
York to Bremen. This enormous quan- 
tity of meat has been pictured in the 
form of a single joint of beef, which, 
if it actually existed, would be some- 
what less than 10 feet high, 10 feet 
long, and 5 feet wide. If placed on 
one end of a scale, it would require 
about 227 average men in the other end 
to tip the beam. 

For a single voyage the "Kronprinz 
Wilhelm" uses 2,640 pounds of ham, 
1,320 pounds of bacon, and 506 pounds 
of sausage in all, 4,466 pounds. 
Since most of this is pork, it may 
well be pictured in the form of a ham. 
That single ham is equivalent in 
weight to 374 average hams. It is 
7% feet high, 3 feet in diameter and 
2 feet thick. 

The poultry eaten by the passen- 
gers of the steamer during a trip to 
Bremen or New York weighs 4,840 
pounds. Suppose that we show these 
4,840 pounds of poultry in the form 
of a turkey, dressed and ready for 
the oven. The bird would be a giant 
10 feet long, 8 feet broad, and 5 feet 
high. 

Sauerkraut, beans, peas, rice, and 
fresh vegetables are consumed to the 
amount of 25,320 pounds. Packed for 
market, these preserved and fresh vege- 
tables would be contained in 290 bas- 
kets of the usual form, which piled up 
make a formidable truncated pyramid- 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



41 



The quantity of eggs required is no 
less startling than the quantity of 
vegetables, for some 25,000 are needed 
to satisfy the wants of passengers and 
crew. Eggs are usually packed in 
cases, 30 dozen to the case. The 
"Kronprinz Wilhelm," when she leaves 
New York or Bremen, must therefore 
take on board 69 of these cases, which 
have been shown in a great pile, 23 
cases high and 3 cases wide. 

The bakers of the ship find it neces- 
sary to use 33,000 pounds of flour dur- 
ing the trip. In other words, 169 bar- 
rels are stowed away somewhere in the 
hold of the big ship. 

Besides the foods already enumerat- 
ed, 1,980 pounds of fresh fish and 330 
pounds of salted fish are eaten during 
the six-day voyage. The total amount 
of 2,310 pounds would be equivalent 
to a single bluefish 20 feet long, 5 feet 
in greatest diameter, and 1% feet 
broad. Such a fish compares favor- 
ably in length, at least, with a good- 
sized whale. 

The potatoes required far outweigh 
any other single article of food con- 
tained in the storerooms ; for their en- 
tire weight is 61,600 pounds. If it 
were possible to grow a single tuber of 
that weight, it would have a height of 
14 feet and a diameter of 7 feet. 

The butter, too, if packed into a sin- 
gle tub, would assume large dimen- 
sions. This single tub would contain 
6,600 pounds, and would be 6 feet 
high. 



Of dried fruit, 2,640 pounds are eat- 
en, and of fresh fruit 11,000 pounds, 
in all 13,640 pounds. If this fruit 
were all concentrated into a single 
pear, its height would be 7 feet, and 
the width at the thickest part 5 feet. 

Whole lakes of liquids are drunk up 
by the thirsty passengers and crew. 
No less than 425 tons of fresh water 
are required, which occupy 14,175 cu- 
bic feet and would fill a tank 25 feet 
in diameter and 30 feet high. The 
1,716 gallons of milk used for drinking 
and cooking would be contained in a 
can 6 feet 1 inch in diameter and 11% 
feet high. The gallons and gallons of 
wines, liquors, and beer consumed 
should dishearten the most optimistic 
temperance advocate. Under the joy- 
pus title of "beverages" the following 
items are to be found in the purser's 
account book : 

Champagne 850 bottles. 

Claret 980 bottles. 

Madeira, sherry, etc.... 135 bottles. 
Rhine and Moselle wines.1,700 bottles. 

Rum and cordials 760 bottles. 

Mineral water 5,250 bottles. 

Beer in kegs 2,960 gallons. 

Beer in bottles 600 bottles. 

Suppose these things to drink were 
contained in one claret bottle. Some 
idea of the hugeness of this bottle may 
be gained when it is considered that its 
height would be over 24 feet and its 
diameter over 6 feet. 



THE ATLANTIC LINERS. 

NEW CUNARDERS - PASSENGERS CARRIED - PRICE OF SPEED - ATLANTIC TRUST. 



TIIE NEW CUNARDERS. The most 
notable event in shipping circles during 
1903 was the government agreement 
with the Cunard Company, for the 
building of two vessels of higher 
speed than any liners in existence. It 
is an eminently desirable and satisfac- 
tory arrangement from the British 
point of view, and the development of 
its scientific and technical aspects will 
be followed with an intensity of in- 
terest which can perhaps only be par- 
alleled within living memory by the 
construction of the "Great Eastern." 
The reasons for this we shall note di- 
rectly. 

CUNARD AGREEMENT. Ten years 
have elapsed since the "Campania" 
and "Lucania" made the last British 
record of 22 knots, since which period 
five German liners have eclipsed the 
performance of these ships. It is con- 



fidently believed that the Cunard Com- 
pany will be able to exceed the limits 
imposed by the government terms of 
a minimum average ocean speed of 
24% knots an hour in moderate weath-* 
er. This will be a knot above the 
"crack" German vessels. 

Subject to certain very fair condi- 
tions, the government will advance a 
sum not exceeding $3,000.000 for the 
building of the two new vessels. This 
will be secured by a charge upon the 
whole of the company's assets. It is 
to be advanced in instalments on the 
inspector certifying the attainment of 
certain stages of progress in the work, 
and the sum will have to be repaid in 
twenty yearly instalments. 

For the mail service the company 
will receive $340.000 per annum, with 
extra payment for mails weighing over 
100 tons (or 4,000 cubic feet measure- 



42 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



ment), carried in any one week. The 
plans for the vessels are not yet made 
public. 

THE FAST BOATS. That the new 
departure will pay seems assured, be- 
cause statistics show that the fastest 
boats, notwithstanding their higher 
rates, attract more passengers than the 
slower boats do. The latter are just 
as comfortable, and the cuisine is the 
same, yet a knot or two more in speed 
doubles and trebles the first-class pas- 
sengers, to whom in many cases time 
is money. 

Thus, in one week in April, 1903, 
the "Kaiser Wilhelm II." left New 
York with 521 first-class, and 355 sec- 
ond-class passengers, while on the 
same day a vessel of the American 
Line left with only 82 first-class and 
72 second-class passengers. On one 
day in May the "Kronprinz Wilhelm" 
left with 380 first and 187 second class 
passengers, while on the following day 
a White Star liner took 149 first and 
ICO second class. Such significant 
contrasts might be largely multiplied. 

"CEDRIC" RECORD. The big fast 
ships suffer less from rough weather 
than the smaller, slower ones, and that 
apart from speed attracts. The sur- 
geon of the "Cedric," next to the larg- 
est liner, reported that on her maiden 
voyage not a single passenger was sea- 
sick. A wine glass, brimming full, 
was placed on the edge of a sideboard, 
and left undisturbed throughout the 
voyage, but not a drop was spilled, 
nor did the glass move. 

THE PRICE OF SPEED. The in- 
creased price that must be paid for 



speed is a matter that lies in a nut- 
shell. The reason is that a slight ad- 
vance in speed requires an immense 
increase in engine power and vast coal 
storage. These increase the displace- 
ment, which again makes still greater 
demands on the power required. By 
the time these are provided for, there 
is no cargo space left worth mention- 
ing. There the limit to size for that 
speed is reached, and to obtain higher 
rates involves bigger vessels. This, 
too, explains why improvements in the 
design of and economical working of 
engines and boilers is so eagerly sought 
after with a view to reduce the cubical 
space required for these in the hull, 
and is also one reason why steam tur- 
bines are being put on vessels of in- 
creasingly large dimensions. 

COST IN COAL. The Admiralty 
Committee on "Subsidies to Merchant 
Cruisers" have issued some tabular 
statements which show the price of 
speed in a very graphic way. From 
one of these we see that while a 20- 
knot steamer consumes 2,228 tons of 
coal on a 3,000 mile voyage, a 26-knot 
one will be expected to consume 6,131 
tons ; and that the 19,000 horsepower 
of the first must give place to the enor- 
mous total of 68,000 horsepower for 
the last. The cost again of the vessel 
is $1,750,000 in the slower ship, and 
$6.250,000 in the swifter. A heavy 
price truly to pay for the extra six 
knots ! But the investment is a good 
one on passenger liners as the previ- 
ous paragraph shows. The next table 
shows these and other points in a 
striking manner : 



Speed, in knots j 20i 21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


Time of voyage (chronom- 
eter hours) 


150 143 


136 


130 


125 


120 


115.5 


Prime cost, dollars 


l,750,000i 2,000,000 


2,350,000 


2,875,000 


4,250,000 


5,000,000 


6,250,000 


Indicated horsepower. . . . 


19,000 


22,000 


25,500 


30,000 


40,000 


52,000 


68,000 


Length, in feet 


600 


630 


660 


690 


720 


750 


780 


Displacement tonnage. . . 


13,000 


15,000 


17,300 


19,800 


22,400 


25,400 


28,500 


Coal, in tons 


2,228 


2,456 


2,912 


3,058 


3,900 


4,876 


6,131 


Steam pressure, pounds 
















per square inch 


150 


165 


181 


198 


216 


234 


25-' 


Machinery department, 
















number of hands. 


100 


110 


125 


150 


200 


260 


34 ^ 



The following table compiled from Lloyd's gives the number of vessels built in Great Britain, 
arranged according to size. They vary somewhat from the returns quoted on other pages. 



Vessels. 



Sail 

Steam . . 



Total . . 



II 



81 



25 



25 



15 



15 



c g 



10 34 



10 34 



53 89 
59 I 92 



GO 



Grand Total. 



No. Tonn'ge. 



36,384 
1,376,327 



1,412,711 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



43 



STEAM TURBINES AND SPEED. 



GROWTH OF THE STEAM TURBINE. 
The steam turbine has been applied 
to the propulsion of vessels, and is 
steadily growing in favor. 

The number of vessels so fitted is 
not large, but the development is 
none the iess remarkable when we 
remember that pleasure, and cross- 
channel steamers, torpedo-boat de- 
stroyers, and yachts are now fitted 
with these engines, while ten years 
ago not one turbine vessel was in 
service. 

EARLY TYPES. The "Turbinia," 
1894, was the first of the kind, fol- 
lowed by the "Viper," 1898, and the 
"Cobra." The "King Edward," 1901, 
was the first passenger steamer so fit- 
ted, followed by the "Queen Alexan- 
dra," 1902, both for passenger service 
on the Clyde. 

CROSS-CHANNEL BOATS. The suc- 
cess of these vessels was the immediate 
cause of the application -of the steam 
turbine to the cross-channel services 
the "Queen" for the Dover-Calais 
route, and the "Brighton," the New- 
haven-Dieppe boat. On an unofficial 
trip made in August, 1903, this vessel 
maintained a speed of 20 knots. The 
"Brighton" is 282 feet in length, and 
accommodates 1,000 passengers. Her 
engines are rated at 7,000 horsepower. 
The reversing turbines are fitted to 
the outside screw shafts, and are ca- 
pable of moving her astern at about 
12 knots. The lubrication of the en- 
gines is automatic, the oil being sup- 
plied at a pressure of fi Ibs. per square 
inch. The "Queen" has also behaved 
excellently, running between Dover 
and Calais within the hour, in a gale 
of wind. 

IRISH BOATS. Two steam turbine 
vessels are being built for the Mid- 
land Railway service between Eng- 
land, the Isle of Man, and Belfast. 
Two others of the same class will be 
fitted with ordinary reciprocating en- 
gines, so that relative tests of the two 
kinds of propulsion will be available 
under equal conditions. The steamers 
will be of 20 knots speed, 330 feet long, 
by 40 feet beam, and 25 feet depth. 

THREE YACHTS have been fitted with 
steam turbines. Two torpedo-boat de- 
stroyers, the "Velox" and the "Eden," 
and the "Amethyst," third-class cruis- 
er, are designed for turbine propulsion, 
the first being in commission, the oth- 



ers at the time of writing being on 
order. 

A COMMISSION has been appointed, 
at the suggestion of Lord Inverclyde, 
to investigate the question of the 
economy of steam turbines and their 
suitability to the new big Cunarders. 
The commission comprises representa- 
tives of the Admiralty, the Cunard 
Company, Lloyd's, and three shipbuild- 
ers. At the time of writing no deci- 
sion has been published. But the fact 
of such a commission having been ap- 
pointed testifies to the rapid headway 
which the turbine is making. But two 
or three years since, most shipbuilders 
would have declined even to seriously 
entertain or to discuss such a proposal. 
The 'Allan Line and the Union Steam- 
ship Co. are building a 17 and an 18- 
knot turbine vessel respectively. 

OBJECTIONS. Though the above is 
not a large list, it must be remember- 
ed that shipowners and the Admiralty 
are naturally very cautious in fitting 
vessels with novel means of propul- 
sion. The whole history of steam 
navigation is one of slow but sure ad- 
vances. The installation of water- 
tube boilers is another case in point. 

The great objection to the use of 
turbines for driving ocean liners is that 
this form of engine does not reverse. 
A separate set of engines is employed 
for reversing, at lower speeds. The 
captains of big vessels strongly object 
to this, because they say that even 
greater power would be desirable for 
going astern than ahead, in order to 
avoid sudden collision. 

LAND TURBINES. On land, Par- 
sons' turbines are being used exten- 
sively for driving electric generators, 
aggregating about 250,000 horsepower, 
and in sizes up to 5,000 horsepower. 
Yet the first practical steam turbine 
was riot built until 1884, and that is 
now in the South Kensington Museum. 
A recent computation gives the total 
aggregate power of steam turbines of 
all types in use, under construction, or 
ordered, in different parts of the world, 
at over 500,000 horsepower. 

ADVANTAGES OF TURBINES. The 
principal point in favor of a turbine 
is, that it has no reciprocating mo- 
tion, like that of the piston of a com- 
mon engine, and therefore the hull of 
a vessel is not shaken so much as by 
reciprocating engines. Turbine en- 



44 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



gines weigh much less, and occupy 
less room than ordinary engines of the 
same power, so that passenger accom- 
modation can be increased. Usually 
three sets of engines are employed, 
each driving a separate propeller shaft, 
which again conduces to steadiness of 
motion. 

EXPIRATION OF PARSONS' PATENT. 
Several circumstances have occurred 
latterly to help on the progress of the 
steam turbine besides its recent suc- 
cessful application to steam yachts, 
Clyde pleasure steamers, and cross- 
channel services. One of these is 
the expiration during the year 1903 
of the five years' extension of the 
patent that was granted to the Hon. 
C. A. Parsons in 1884. A result 



of this is that several firms now ex- 
press their intention of going in for 
the manufacture of Parsons' turbines. 
Another is that the success of these 
turbines has acted as a stimulus to 
other inventors, and the Parsons tur- 
bine will have to face the rivalry of 
others, including the De Laval, and 
another promising one, that of Mr. C. 
G. Curtis, of New York. 

It is safe to predict that the old- 
fashioned steam engines, the big mill 
type excepted, will gradually give place 
to the steam turbines, and to the gas 
and oil engines. Apart from economy 
and compactness, the turbines are 
cleaner than any other engines, being 
self-lubricating and enclosed. 

Daily Mail Year Book, 1904. 



UNITED STATES LIFE-SAVING SERVICE. 



The number of disasters to docu- 
mented vessels within the scope of the 
Service was 346 for the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1903. On board these 
vessels were 3,682 persons, of whom 
20 were lost. The estimated value of 
the vessels was $7,101,605 and that 
of their cargoes $1,746,610, making 
the total value of property involved 
$8,848.215. Of this amount $7,683,- 
580 was saved and $1,164,635 lost. 
The number of vessels totally lost was 
57. In addition to the foregoing there 
were 351 casualties to undocumented 
craft sailboats, rowboats, etc. car- 
rying 655 persons, 4 of whom per- 
ished. The value of property involved 
in these instances is estimated at 
$202,935, of which $198,465 was saved 
and $4,470 lost. 

The results of disasters to vessels 
of all descriptions within the scope of 
the Service, therefore, aggregate as 
follows : 

Total number of disasters ........ 697 

Total value of property involved . . $9,05 1 , 1 50 
Total value of property saved .... * $7,882,045 

Total value of property lost $1,169,105 

Total number of. persons involved . 4,337 

Total number of persons lost 24 

Total number of shipwrecked per- 
sons succored at stations * 1,086 

Total number of days' succor af- 
forded * 2,414 

Number of vessels totally lost 57 



The foregoing summary does not in- 
clude 56 persons not on board of ves- 
sels who were rescued from various po- 
sitions of peril. 



VESSELS ASSISTED. 

The life-saving crews saved and as- 
sisted in saving 438 imperiled vessels, 
valued with their cargoes at $4,598,- 
840. Of this number 287, valued with 
their cargoes at $793,670, were saved 
without other assistance. In the re- 
maining instances, 151 in number, the 
life-saying crews co-operated with 
wrecking vessels, tugs, and other 
agencies in saving property estimated 
at $3,661,875, out of a total of $3,805,- 
170 imperiled. Besides this the crews 
afforded assistance of greater or less 
importance to 573 other vessels, ren- 
dering aid. therefore, altogether to 
1,011 vessels of all kinds, including 
small craft. This number is exclu- 
sive of 218 instances in which vessels 
running into danger were warned off 
by station patrolmen. One hundred 
and ninety-eight of these warnings 
were given at night by Coston lights. 

The apportionment of the foregoing 
statistics to the Atlantic, Lake and 
Pacific coasts, respectively, is shown in 
the following table : 



* It should not be understood that the entire amount represented by these figures was saved 
by the Service. A considerable portion was saved by salvage companies, wrecking tugs, and 
other instrumentalities, often working in conjunction with the surfmen. It is manifestly im- 
possible to apportion the relative results accomplished. It is equally impossible to give even 
an approximate estimate of the number of lives saved by the station crews. It would be pre- 
posterous to assume that all those on board vessels suffering disaster who escape would have 
been lost but for the aid of the life-savers; yet the number of persons taken ashore by the life- 
boats and other appliances by no means indicates the sum total saved by the Service. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



45 



APPORTIONMENT TO ATLANTIC, LAKE AND PACIFIC COASTS. 



Disasters to Vessels. 


Atlantic 
and Gulf 
coasts. 


Lake 
coasts.* 


Pacific 
coast. 


Total. 


Total number of disasters 


438 


226 


33 


697 


Total value of vessels dollars. . 


3,501,520 


2,888,860 


910,575 


7,300,955 


Total value of cargoes do 


973,370 


720,025 


56,800 


1,750,195 


Total amount of property involved. . . do 


4,474,890 


3,608,885 


967,375 


9,051,150 


Total amount of property saved do 


3,636,745 


3,360,145 


885,155 


7,882,045 


Total amount of property lost do 


838,145 


248,740 


82,220 


1,169,105 


Total number of persons on board 


2,694 


1,177 


466 


4,337 


Total number of persons lost 
Number of shipwrecked persons succored at 


20 


3 


1 


24 


stations 


t970 


t!02 


t!4 


1 1,086 


Total number of days' succor afforded 


f2,238 


f!62 


f!4 


f2,414 


Number of disasters involving total loss of 










vessels 


46 


10 


1 


57 



GENERAL SUMMARY 

Of disasters which have occurred with- 
in the scope of life-saving operations 
from November 1, 1871 (date of intro- 
duction of present system ) , to close of 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1903.$ 

Total number of disasters 14,076 

Total value of vessels $148,098,035 

Total value of cargoes $62,253,644 

Total value of property involved . $210,351,679 
Total value of property saved. . .$166,253,022 

Total value of property lost $44,098,657 

Total number of persons involved 102,474 

Total number of lives lost || 1,027 

Total number of persons succored 

at stations H 17,747 

Total number of days' succor af- 
forded 43,006 



The Board on Life Saving Appli- 
ances was constituted by the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury, January 3, 1882, 
and meets periodically for the transac- 
tion of such business as may come be- 
fore it. Inventors and exhibitors are 
allowed to appear before the court to 
explain the methods of construction 
and set forth the merits claimed for 
their devices. Committees are then 
appointed to consider the various de- 
vices submitted to the Board, and each 
committee reports upon each device, 
and the results are published in the 
Report of the Board on Life Saving 
Appliances, which is incorporated in 
the Annual Report of the United 
States Life Saving Service. 



THE LIGHTHOUSE ESTABLISHMENT. 



There are under the control of the 
Lighthouse Establishment, Oct. 15, 
1903, the following named aids to 
navigation : 

Light-houses and beacon lights 1,425 

Light-vessels in position 45 

Light-vessels for relief 8 

Gas-lighted buoys in position 119 

Fog-signals operated by steam, caloric, 

or oil engines, about 200 

Fog-signals operated by machinery,about 250 

Post lights, about 1,875 

Day or unlighted beacons, about 550 

Whistling buoys in position, about 90 



Bell buoys in position, about 130 

Other buoys in position, including pile 
buoys and stakes in Fifth district and 
buoys in Alaskan waters 5,500 

In the construction, care and main- 
tenance of these aids to navigation 
there are employed : 

Steam tenders 39 

Steam launches 7 

Sailing tenders 2 

Light-keepers, about 1,550 

Officers and crews of light-vessels and 

tenders, about 1,225 

Laborers in charge of post lights, about. 1,600 



* Including the river station at Louisville, Kentucky. 

t These figures include persons to whom succor was given who were not on board vessels 
embraced in table of casualties. 

$ It should be observed that the operations of the Service during this period have been limited 
as follows: Season of 1871-72, to the coasts of Long Island and New Jersey; seasons of 1872-74 
to the coasts of Cape Cod, Long Island, and New Jersey; season of 1874-75, to the coasts of New 
England, Long Island, New Jersey, and the coast from Cape Henry to .Cape Hatteras; season 
of 1875-76, to the coasts of New England, Long Island, New Jersey, the coast from Cape Hen- 
l9pen to Cape Charles, and the coast from Cape Henry to Cape Hatteras; season of 1876-77 and 
since, all the foregoing with the addition of the eastern coast of Florida and portions of the 
lake coasts. In 1877-78 the Pacific coast was added, and in 1880 the coast of Texas. 

Including persons rescued not on board vessels. 

|| Eighty-five of these were lost at the disaster to the steamer Metropolis in 1877-78, when 
service was impeded by distance, and 14 others in the same year owing to similar causes. 

fl Including castaways not on board vessels embraced in Tables of Casualties. 



46 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



FROM CRUISER TO RACING MACHINE. 



What might be called the scientific 
period of yacht designing in this coun- 
try begins at about the period of the 
races of "Puritan" against "Genesta," 
in 1885. The growth to the exaggerat- 
ed proportions of hull and sail plan 
shown in our accompanying diagram, 
is the logical and inevitable outcome 



a little less than these lengths, their 
rating will be diminished accordingly. 
Outside of this restriction you may do 
just anything you please in modeling 
your hulls. They may be built of any 
material ; they may be broad or nar- 
row, shallow or deep ; light and leak- 
able as a wicker basket, or tight and 




GROWTH OF THE AMERICAN CUP DEFENDER FROM CRUISER TO 
RACING MACHINE. 



of a rule of measurement altogether 
too broad and loose in its specifica- 
tions. The only elements taxed in this 
rule are length on the water-line when 
on an even keel, a,nd total sail area. 
To the competing designers the rule 
has said, "When your yachts are placed 
under the measurer's tape, if 90-footers 
they must not be over 90 feet long on 
the water-line, or if 70-footers not over 
70 feet. If you choose to make them 



heavy as an ironclad. As to the spread 
of sail, you may crack on just as much 
as you please ; always with the under- 
standing, however, that the more you 
carry the greater will be your racing 
measurement." 

Now at the time of the "Puritan"- 

"Genesta" races, our yacht designers 

were beginning to emerge from the 

I rule-of-thumb methods that character- 

I ized the days of the center-board sloop 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



47 



and schooner, and were beginning, 
thanks to the victorious career of one 
or two imported deep-keel English cut- 
ters, to appreciate the value of outside 
lead as an element of sail-carrying 
power. Hence, the "Puritan" carried 
a large proportion of her 48 tons of 
lead ballast on the keel, and although 
she was marked by the shoalness of 
body and limited draft of the prevail- 
ing centerboard type, she was an ex- 
tremely able sea boat, fast and com- 
fortable, a wooden vessel of first-class 
construction, with a reasonable spread 
of sail which she was well able to carry 
in a blow, as was proved in that me- 
morable race of twenty miles to lee- 
ward and back in half a gale of wind 
in which she won by a narrow margin 
over "Genesta." At the close of her 
racing career "Puritan" was changed 
from sloop to schooner rig, and to-day 
she is doing service as a snug and corn- 



to carry it; and like her predecessor 
she was changed after the cup races to 
a schooner, and is to-day in service as 
a successful cruiser. After a lapse of 
six years the New York Yacht Club 
was called upon once more to defend 
the cup, and on this occasion they went 
to Herreshoff, from whom they ob- 
tained two yachts, one of which, the 
"Colonia," was a keel boat, drawing 
14 feet of water, built of steel, and car- 
rying about 11,000 square feet of sail. 
She was a failure, for the reason that, 
like the "Navaho, another Herreshoff 
90-footer of the same year, she was 
a poor boat on the wind. 

The other yacht built for cup de- 
fense by Herreshoff was the "Vigil- 
ant," and in her we see the engineer 
attacking the problem of yacht design 
from his own particular point of view. 
Tobin bronze is used for the plating, 
hollow spars are experimented with, and 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE 90-FOOT RACING YACHT. 



Yachts. 


Water- 
line 
Length. 


Base of 
Fore 
Triangle. 


Hoist 
from 
Boom to 
Topmast 
Sheave. 


Boom. 


Gaff. 


Spinna- 
ker 
Boom. 


Total 
Sail 
Area. 


Puritan 


ft. in. 
81 1J 


ft. in. 
62 


ft. in. 
104 


ft. in. 

76 6 


ft. in. 
47 


ft. in. 
62 


sq. ft. 
7,370 


Mayflower 
Volunteer 
Vigilant 
Defender 


85 7 
85 10 
86 2 
88 51 
89 7i 


67 
67 
69 
73 3 
73 3 


111 
111 
122 
129 5 
138 5 


80 
84 
98 
106 
107 


50 
51 6 
57 
64 10 
64 10 


67 
67 
69 
73 4 
73 4 


8,824 
9,107 
11,312 
12,640 
13,211 


Constitution 
Reliance 


89 9 
90 


78 
84 


142 
155 


110 
115 


72 

72 


78 

84 


14,400 
16,247 



fortable cruiser. "Mayflower," the 
next cup defender, was an improved 
"Puritan," with 5 feet more length on 
the water-line and 8,824 square feet of 
sail ; she was built of wood, and sub- 
sequently to her defense of the cup she 
was turned into a comfortable cruiser. 
Her sail area is so nearly the same as 
that of her successor, "Volunteer," that 
to avoid crowding our drawing her sail- 
plan does not appear. "Volunteer" was 
designed by Burgess, the designer of 
"Puritan" and "Mayflower." She was 
the first of our large sloops to be built 
of steel. She was about 5 feet longer 
on the water-line than "Puritan" and 
carried a much larger sail-plan, the 
boom being 84 feet as against 7(> 1-2 
feet of "Puritan," and the hoist to the 
topmast sheave being 111 feet as 
against 104 feet in the earlier boat. 
"Volunteer" also was a perfectly sound 
and wholesome vessel. Although her 
rig was a large one, she was well able 



high-grade steel wire rope, blocks and 
other gear of extreme lightness, make 
their appearance in the spar and sail- 
plans. As a consequence, although the 
"Vigilant" was only a few inches 
longer on the water-line than the "Vol- 
unteer," she carried over 2,000 square 
feet more sail. .The boom was length- 
ened out to nigh upon 100 feet, while 
the hoist went up to 132 feet ; and the 
sail spread to 11,312 square feet. "Vig- 
ilant" was to be the last of the cen- 
terboard yachts ; for although she beat 
"Valkyrie II." in the series of races, 
she was beaten badly to windward by 
that boat in a stiff breeze ; and subse- 
quently, during a season in English 
waters, was beaten eleven times out of 
eighteen by the deep-keel cutter 
"Britannia," a sister boat to "Valky- 
rie II." That season's experience 
sealed the fate of the centerboard. and 
when the next challenge came, the Her- 
reshoffs, entrusted with the contract of 



48 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



IV- 







TT 




DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




m , 






ul 

o 

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< in 








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RACING YACHT FROM 1885 TO 1903. 



50 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



building a yacht to beat her, turned 
out to meet her the deep-keel cutter- 
sloop "Defender." "Vigilant" was the 
last of the cup-defenders that was good 
for anything but cup defense. She has 
been changed into a yawl, and has 
proved to be an excellent cruiser under 
her reduced rig. In "Defender" we see 
the engineer still at work, reducing 
scantling and lightening up on con- 
struction even to the smallest detail. 
"Defender" was built of manganese 
bronze in the underbody, and alumi- 
nium in the topsides and framing. She 
carried a hollow steel mast, boom and 
gaff. As a consequence, although she 
was a smaller boat than "Vigilant," 
having some 3 feet less beam, so great 
was the lightening of her weights, and 
the increase in stability due to lower 
ballast, that she carried over 1,000 
feet more sail than the larger yacht, 
spreading 12,040 square feet. The main 
boom reached far over the taffrail, be- 
ing 106 feet in length over all. The 
hoist was 7 1-2 feet greater and the 
forward measurement from mast to 
end of bowsprit had increased to over 
73 feet. 

When the "Defender" commenced 
her trials it began to be evident that 
in the development of the 90-foot 
racing yacht the limit, not merely of 
convenience but of actual safety, had 
been passed. The draft of 19 feet was 
in itself prohibitive of the use of the 
boat as a cruiser, since it shut her out 
from many of the harbors and desir- 
able anchorages, while the experience 
of the boat in fresh to moderate breezes 
was marked, by breakdowns which, on 
one occasion, came very near to being 
disastrous. In some races, when the 
wind breezed up, rivets were sheared 
off and the climax came when in a bit 
of a squall the pull of the weather 
shrouds was so great that the mast 
came very near punching a hole for 
itself through the bottom of the boat. 
Herreshoff evidently had overlooked 
the fact that, in cutting into the keel 
until its forward edge was aft of the 
mast-step, he had left nothing but the 
light floor-plates and the frail plating 
to take the enormous downward thrust 
of the mast. Emergency repairs were 
at once made by carrying a pair of 
i^-inch by 8-inch steel straps from 
the toot of the mast up to a junction 
with the chain-plates at the deck. 
Trouble was also experienced in keep- 
ing the bowsprit from coming inboard ; 
several of the frames of the boat broke 
at the turn of the garboards ; and from 
first to last the extreme lightness of 



the craft was a source of unceasing 
anxiety to her owners. 

Four years later the Bristol yard 
turned out "Columbia," a yacht that 
embodied some of those features of 
hull and sail-plan which experience 
in the smaller classes had shown to be 
conducive to high speed. She had a 
foot more depth, or 20 feet; her over- 
hangs, forward and aft, were carried 
out until on a water-line length of 89 
feet 7 1-8 inches she had an over-all 
length of about 50 per cent more, or 
132 feet. Although a 90-footer when 
at anchor she was a 115-footer when 
heeled to her sailing lines, the great 
increase in the overhangs being due 
to the effort to build the biggest pos- 
sible boat on the arbitrary so-called 
90-foot length. The enlargement of 
the sail-plan was chiefly in the direc- 
tion of greater hoist, the distance from 
main boom to topmast sheave being 
1381-2 feet. The disastrous experi- 
ence with "Defender" showed the ab- 
solute necessity of using more reliable 
materials in the hull, which was con- 
structed of Tobin bronze plating on 
steel frames. The hull structure proved 
satisfactory, but the lightening up of 
the spars and standing rigging had 
been carried too far, as shown by the 
fact that in her trial races she car- 
ried away her mast. 

Two years later, to meet "Sham- 
rock II.," Herreshoff brought put the 
"Constitution," which differed in form 
from "Columbia" merely by an in- 
crease of one foot in the beam. The 
sail-plan was greater than that of 
"Columbia" by about 1,200 square feet. 
The hoist had now increased to 142 
feet, the boom to 110 feet, and the base 
of the forward triangle to 78 feet. 
"Constitution's" appearance is com- 
parable only to that of "Defender" in 
the constant succession of breakdowns 
that have occurred ; but with this dis- 
tinction, however, that whereas "De- 
fender's" trouble was in the hull, "Con- 
stitution's" has been up aloft. At dif- 
ferent times she has carried away her 
mainmast, her topmast and her gaff. 
Of the hull, however, it must be ad- 
mitted that the system of belt-and-lon- 
gitudinal framing adopted by Herres- 
hoff has been eminently successful. 
Although it is probable that no large 
amount of weight is saved over the old 
system of framing, it is certain that 
weight for weight it is considerably 
stronger. "Constitution" proved so 
much of a disappointment that it was 
really realized that to defend the 
cup successfully some radical depar- 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



51 



ture must be taken, and Herreshoff 
struck out most boldly in the direc- 
tion of the "scow" type, which had 
proved so fast in the smaller classes of 
yachts. On a water-line of 90 feet 
the new boat has a beam of over 26 
feet, a draft of 20 feet, and an 
over-all length of close upon 150 feet. 
Although she is a 90-footer at anchor, 
she is fully a 120-footer when heeled 
to a breeze ; and to this fact is to be 
ascribed the astonishing sail-carrying 
power which she has shown, the area 
under the New York Yacht Club 
measurement being 16,247 square feet ; 
and if changes are made they will be 
rather in the direction of an increase 
than a reduction of sail-plan.. The 
growth of sail power in the last fifteen 
years may be summed up in the state- 



ment that on an increased water-line 
length of only 10 feet the "Reliance" 
of 1903 spreads over twice as much 
sail as did "Puritan" in 1885. In her 
we see, unquestionably, the highest 
possible development under the exist- 
ing rule, and although the boat is an 
overgrown monstrosity as a sailing 
craft, she is certainly a great tribute 
to her builder, both as a naval archi- 
tect and as a wonderfully resourceful 
and ingenious mechanic. She is the 
biggest, lightest constructed, most pow- 
erful, and probably the fastest yacht 
of her water-line length that ever was 
or ever will be constructed, and she 
possesses that dual quality, never be- 
fore found in one and the same yacht, 
of being relatively just as fast in light 
as she is in strong winds. 



CHAPTER III. 



THE NAVIES OF THE WORLJ). 



The subject of the navies of the 
world is a most important one. 
Schemes of classification vary, and it 
is difficult to obtain any figures which 
agree. The three English authorities 
are "The Naval Annual," by T. A. 
Brassey ; "The Naval Pocket Book," 
by Sir W. Laird Clowes, and F. T. 
Jane's "All the World's Fighting 
Ships" (Munn & Co., publishers). The 
latter is filled with illustrations, dia- 
grams, etc., and has an excellent 



thumb index, facilitating easy refer- 
ence. Our comparison of naval 
strength is based on these three books. 
In addition, we give the tables of the 
Hydrographic Office, and for those who 
care to pursue the matter further, we 
give an abstract of the section of 
Hazell's Annual dealing with the sub- 
ject. With this explanation it is hoped 
that the dissimilar figures will not be 
as confusing as they otherwise would 
be. 



THE CONSTRUCTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF MODERN 
WARSHIPS. 



The modern warship is an ever pop- 
ular subject with the readers of the il- 
lustrated press. This is proved by the 
tenacity with which guns, ships and 
armor hold their place as conspicuous 
subjects for the pen and the brush. 
It is a question, however, in spite of 
the familiarity of the public with the 
technical phraseology of the warship, 
whether the average reader has a very 
accurate idea of the distinctions be- 
tween the various classes of ships and 
between the various elements from the 
combination of which these ships de- 
rive their distinctive class character- 
istics. He is told that the "Indiana" 
is a battleship, the "Brooklyn" an ar- 
mored cruiser, the "Columbia" a pro- 
tected cruiser, and the "Puritan" a 
monitor. But it is probable that he 
has only a vagae idea as to what quali- 
ties they are that mark the distinction, 
or why the distinctions should need to 
exist at all. 

With a view to answering these 
questions in a general way, we have 
prepared three diagrams and a per- 
spective drawing which show the con- 
structive features of the several types 
of warship to which we have referred 
above. In diagrams I to III the armor 
is indicated by full black lines or by 
shading, the approximate thickness of 
the armor being shown by the thick- 
ness of the lines and the depth of the 



53 



shading. The fine lines represent the 
unarmored portions of the ordinary 
plating of the ships. In the end view 
the armor is shown by full lines and 
shading and the ordinary ship plating 
by dotted lines. 

When the naval architect sits down 
at his desk to design a warship of a 
certain sise, he knows that there is 
one element of the vessel which is 
fixed and unalterable, and that is her 
displacement. By displacement is 
meant the actual weight of the ship, 
which is, of course, exactly equal to 
the weight of water which she dis- 
places. This total weight is the cap- 
ital with which the architect has to 
work, and he uses his judgment in dis- 
tributing it among the various ele- 
ments which go 'to make up the ship. 
Part is allotted to the hull, part to 
the motive power, part to the armor 
protection, part to the guns, and part 
to the fuel, stores, furnishing and gen- 
oral equipment. 

It is evident that the allotment of 
weights is a matter of compromise 
whatever excess is given to one ele- 
ment must be taken from another ; 
else, the ship will exceed the given 
displacement. Among the elements 
above mentioned there are some, such 
as weight of hull, provisions, stores, 
and furnishings, which for a given 
size of ship will not vary greatly. 



54 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



55 




56 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



There are other elements, such as guns, 
armor, engines and fuel-supply, which 
may vary considerably in different 
ships, according to the type of vessel 
that is produced. If, for instance, the 
architect is designing an extremely 
fast ship of type No. 1, which has a 
speed of 23 knots, he will have to al- 
lot such a large amount of weight to 
the motive power that he will only be 
able to give the ship very slight armor 
protection and a comparatively light 
battery of guns. If he wishes to pro- 
duce a fast ship that shall be more 
heavily armed and armored, he has to 



besides protecting his water line in the 
region of the engines and boilers with 
a belt of steel of the same dimensions. 

The swift and lightly armed and ar- 
mored ship is known as a protected 
cruiser ; the less speedy but more heav- 
ily armed and armored ship belongs to 
the armored cruiser type, and the 
slowest ship, with its capacity for tak- 
ing and giving the heaviest blows that 
modern guns can inflict, is known as 
a battleship. 

In the construction of a warship 
the two qualities of attack and de- 
fense have to be supplied. The offer? 





ff.AMtQXIB CXUfSSR- 21 KNOTS. 





JH. SATTLESI/IP-17 XtfOTS . 



COMPARATIVE ARMOR PROTECTION IN PRINCIPAL TYPES OF MODERN 
WAR VESSELS. 



be content with less speed, say 20 or 
21 knots, as in No. 2, and the weight 
so saved on the motive power appears 
in the shape of a side belt of armor at 
the water line, more complete protec- 
tion for the guns in the shape of bar- 
bettes and turrets and considerably 
heavier armament. If, again, he de- 
sires to produce a ship capable of con- 
tending with the most powerful ships 
in line of battle, as in No. 3, he is 
content with much lower speed, say 
16 or 17 knots an hour, and he in- 
creases the power of his guns until 
they weigh over 60 tons apiece, and 
protects them with great redoubts 
and turrets of steel 11-2 feet thick, 



sive powers are furnished by the guns, 
the torpedoes and the ram ; the defen- 
sive powers are provided by giving the 
ship a complete double bottom and an 
abundance of watertight compart- 
ments, and by providing it with as 
much armor plating as it will carry to 
keep out the shells of the enemy. The 
greatest danger to which a warship is 
exposed is that of being sunk either 
by under-water attack by torpedoes or 
the ram, or by beinf penetrated at the 
water line by hea ^hell fire. The 
destructive force 01 a torpedo is so 
great that all that can be done is to 
localize its effects. For this purpose, 
and also to give greater structural 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



57 



strength, the hull below the water line 
is built double a hull within a hull. 
The longitudinal and transverse plate 
framing of the ship is built in between 
these shells, which are known as the 
inner and outer bottoms, and the space 
is thus divided into innumerable wa- 
tertight compartments or cells. There 
is a possibility that a blow that would 
burst in the outer shell might not rup- 
ture the inner shell ; but if it should, 
the inflow of water is confined to a lim- 
ited portion of the hull by dividing 
the latter by transverse and longitudi- 
nal walls or bulkheads of plating. A 
blow that burst in both outer and in- 
ner shells would only admit water to 
one of many compartments, and the 
ship would still have a large reserve 
of buoyancy. 

In protecting warships against shell 
fire it is recognized that there are 



the battleship this deck is generally 
flat from side to side amidships for 
about two-thirds of the ship's length. 
At the sides it rests upon a wall of 
vertical armor from 15 to 18 inches in 
thickness, which extends in the wake 
of the magazines, engines and boilers. 
This side armor is usually about 7 1-2 
feet in height, 3 feet of it being above 
and 4 1-2 feet below the water line. 
At each end of the side armor a trans- 
verse wall of armor extends clear 
across the ship. This rectangular wall 
with its roof of 3-in. steel thus forms a 
kind of inverted box, snugly sheltered 
below which are the before mentioned 
"vitals" of the ship. At each end of 
this inverted box two huge barbettes, 
with walls 15 to 17 inches thick, are 
built up to a few feet above the main 
deck, and just within and above them 
revolve a pair of turrets with walls of 




(All parts above the water lines shown by dotted lines and light shading, might be shot away without 
destroying the fighting power of the ship.) 

THE INVULNERABLE, FLOATING FORT, WITHIN THE OUTER WALLS OF A 
MODERN BATTLESHIP. 



certain parts of the ship which are of 
paramount importance, inasmuch as 
their disablement would leave it at the 
mercy of the enemy. These are the 
"vitals" of the ship, and they com- 
prise the magazines, the boilers, the 
engines and the steering gear. If a 
shell penetrated the magazines, it 
would be liable to result in the blowing 
up of the whole ship, and if it entered 
the boiler, engine or steering rooms, 
it would probably render the ship un- 
manageable, in which event she would 
run the risk of being rammed and 
sunk by the enemy. 

In all warships the vitals are cov- 
ered by a complete protective deck of 
steel, which varies in thickness from 
1 1-2 to 3 inchos. The highest part of 
the deck is generally at a slightly 
higher level than the water line amid- 
ships, and it curves down at each end 
to meet the bow and the stern. In 



15 to 17 inch steel. (See perspective 
view.) The turrets give shelter to the 
big guns, of which there are a pair in 
each, and the barbettes protect the 
turning gear by which the turrets are 
rotated. There is thus a continuous 
wall of 15 to 1'7 inch steel extend- 
ing from 4 feot below the water line 
to the roofs of the turrets. 

With this description in mind the 
reader will see, on looking at diagram 
No. III., that before heavy shells 
can injure the engines, boilers or guns, 
they must pass through from 15 to 18 
inches of solid and, in the case of 
American battleships, face-hardened 
Harvey steel. The 6-inch and 8-inch 
guns are protected by 6 and 8 inches 
of steel. 

Now it can readily be understood 
that all this amount of heavy armor 
and guns adds greatly to the weight 
of the ship, and for this reason, in 



58 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



spite of her smaller engine power, a 
firstclass battleship rarely displaces 
less than 10,000 tons, and in some for- 
eign navies the displacement runs up 
to nearly 1(3,000 tons. This will be 
understood by reference to the perspec- 
tive view, where the armored portions 
of the ship are indicated by full lines 
and shading. It will be seen that all 
that part of the ship lying below the 
water line is shut in by a continuous 
roof of steel which is 3 inches in 
thickness forward and aft of the bulk- 
heads. Over the central armored cita- 
del it is 23-4 inches thick. All the 
plating indicated by dotted lines might 
be shot away without the "vitals" suf- 
fering injury or the ship being sunk. 
The reader will see that it is the bat- 
tleship's sides and the extra deck and 
freeboard which they provide which 
constitute practically the difference be- 
tween a battleship and a monitor. 

This brings us to the consideration 
of the monitor type. Take away from 
a battleship all that portion which is 
shown in our drawing in shaded lines 
above the water line ; lower the bar- 
bettes until they rise only a few feet 
above the steel deck, and we have a 
ship of the general monitor type. The 
monitor is distinguished by very low 
freeboard only a few inches in the ex- 
treme type the absence of a heavy 
secondary battery and the possession 
of a main armament of heavy guns. 
Such a ship labors heavily in bad 
weather and is not intended for ser- 
vice at any distance from the coasts. 
To make a seagoing vessel out of her 
it would be necessary to add one, or 
even two decks, placing the guns well 
np above the water, after which 
changes she would be no longer a moni- 
tor, but a seagoing battleship. 

In the cruiser type the protectiye 
deck does not extend across the ship 
at one level, but curves down to meet 
the hull at a point several feet below 
the water line. This sloping portion 
is made thicker than the flat portion, 
as in diagram No. II., where the deck 
is 3 inches thick on the flat and G 
inches on the slopes. In the case of 
the armored cruisers, a belt of vertical 
armor is carried at the water line and 
in all cruisers the V-shaped space be- 
tween belt and sloping deck is filled 
in with coal or with some form of wa- 
ter-excluding material, such as corn- 
pith cellulose. In diagram II., which 
represents the fine armored cruiser 



"Brooklyn," it will be seen that before 
it could reach the engine room a shell 
would have to pass through 3 inches 
of vertical steel, about feet of coal 
and G inches of inclined armor a to- 
tal resistance equal to 14 or ]5 inches 
of solid steel. The guns and turning 
gear are protected by 5 1-2-inch steel 
turrets and 8-inch barbettes. The bar- 
bettes, it will be seen, do not extend 
continuously down to the armored 
deck, as in the battleship, for this 
would require a greater weight of 
armor than can be allowed. Conse- 
quently, the architect is only able to 
furnish the guns wi^h a small armor- 
plated tube for protecting the ammu- 
nition in its passage from the maga- 
zines to the barbettes. 

In the protected cruiser the side arm- 
or at the water line disappears alto- 
gether, and dependence is placed en- 
tirely upon the sloping sides of the 
protective deck, the water-excluding 
cellulose and the G or 8 feet of coal 
which is stowed in the bunkers in the 
wake of the engines and boilers. The 
barbettes, turrets and armored am- 
munition tubas of the armored cruiser 
disappear, and their place is taken 
by comparatively light shields and 
casements of 4-inch steel which serve 
to protect the gun crews. 

It will be seen from the above de- 
scription that each class of vessel is 
only fitted to engage ships of its own 
type. The protected cruiser "Colum- 
bia" (No. I.) might, with her light G 
and 4 inch guns, hammer away all day 
at the "Indiana" (No. III.) without 
being able to do much more than 
knock the paint off the latter's 18-inch 
armor, whereas one well-directed shot 
from the 13-inch guns of the "Indiana" 
would be sufficient to sink or disable 
the "Columbia." The "Brooklyn" 
would fare better, and at close range 
her 8-inch guns might happen to pene- 
trate the belt or turret armor of the 
"Indiana," but the issue of the duel 
would never be in doubt for an in- 
stant. A "Columbia" or a "Brook- 
lyn" would show its heels to an "In- 
diana" or "Massachusetts," and their 
great speed would give them the op- 
tion of refusing or accepting battle 
with almost any craft that is afloat 
upon the seas to-day. 

It should be mentioned, in con- 
clusion, that the dividing lines in the 
classification of warships are some- 
what flexible. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



59 



RELATIVE STRENGTH IN MATERIEL: PRINCIPAL NAVIES. 

A Parliamentary Return dated March 26th, 1903, was issued in May of that year, showing 
the Fleets of Great Britain, France, Russia, Germany, Italy, the United States of America, and 
Japan. This return is here brought up to date Dec. 31st, 1903. This refers to the text matter. 
Hazell's Annual. 

The figures in the tables show the condition of affairs on Jan. 1, 1904; since this t'me the 
Russo-Japanese war shows great changes. The severe losses of the Russians and the slight 
losses of the Japanese have been taken into account in the tables. The third, fourth and fifth 
tables are issued by the Office of Naval Intelligence, U. S. N., with modifications, according to 
newspaper reports, occasioned by the Russo-Japanese War. 

BUILT. 



Type. 


Great 
Britain. 


France. 


Germany. 


Russia. 


Italy. 


United 

States. 


Japan. 


Battleships, 1st class 
2nd class 
3rd class 


49 
4 

2 


20 
9 
1 


14 
4 
12 


12 
2 
1 


12 
5 


12 
1 


6 


Coast defence vessels 
Cruisers, armored. 


2 
24 


14 
10 


11 
2 


13 
6 


5 


15 

2 


2 
ss 


protected, 1st class . . . 
2nd class . . . 
3rd class. . . 
unprotected 
Torpedo vessels 


21 
51t 
32* 
10 
34 


7 
16 
17 
1 
16 


1 
8 
10 
20 
2 


2 
4 

3 
g 


5 
11 

14 


3 

12 
2 
11 


3 1 Ot>O5r- 


Torpedo-boat destroyers 
Torpedo boats 
Submarines 


112 
85 
5 


14 
247 
15 


32 
93 


40 

150 


11 
145 
1 


20 
27 
3 


17 
63 



BUILDING. 



Type. 


Great 
Britain. 


France. 


Russia. 


Germany. 


Italy. 


United 
States. 


Japan. 


Battleships, 1st class. j 


7 




j 6 


6 


6 


I 7 




"| 


6* 


6 


}6* 




3* 


15* 


4* 


2nd class. . 
















Coast defence vessels 

















1 





Cruisers, armored j 


13 


J 12 




3 


1 


11 




1 


4* 


1 1* 


3* 


1* 






6* 


protected, 1st class.. . . 






J2 


















1 2* 










2nd class. . . 


2 





2 








5 


2 


3rd class. . j 


4 






5 






1 


1 


3* 








2* 


1* 







Scouts j 


4 














1 


4* 














1* 





Torpedo-boat destroyers 


19 


(19 


6 












15* 


1 4* 




6* 


2* 





2 


Torpedo-boats 


5 


J18 


7 




8. 


4 


18 






(25* 












Submarines j 


4 


J25 


2 


1 


2 


5 





1 


10* 


"( IX* 













RELATIVE ORDER OF WAR SHIP STRENGTH. 



AT PRESENT. 



As WOULD BE THE CASE WERE VESSELS 
BUILDING NOW COMPLETED. 



Nation. 


Tonnage. 


Nation. 


Tonnage. 


Great Britain 
France . 


1,516,040 
576,108 


Great Britain 
France 


1,867,250 
755,757 


Germany 
Russia 
United States 
Italy 
Japan. . . 


387,874 
346,458 
294,405 
258,838 
243,586 


United States 
Germany 
Russia 
Italy 
Japan ... 


616,275 
505,619 
458,432 
329,257 
253,681 


Austria 


93,913 


Austria 


149,833 



* Signifies programme 1903-4 (ordered or projected). 

t Including three partially protected. 

j Including one partially protected. 

Including two vessels purchased from the Argentine for $7,500,000, Dec. 31st, 1903. 



60 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



61 





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003 

H H cc 







THE NAVIES OF THE WORLD 
IN DETAIL. 

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

PERSONNEL. There are 321 executive offi- 
cers and 158 engineer officers on the active list, 
and from 5,000 to 6,000 men. The executive 
officers are divided as follows: 1 vice-admiral, 
2 rear-admirals, 3 commodores, 11 captains, 
42 commanders, 30 lieutenants, 91 sub-lieu- 
tenants, 81 midshipmen, and 60 cadets. 

MATERIEL. The strength in ships built and 
building on Nov. 30th, 1903 was: 



Battleships 

Coast defence vessels 

Armored cruisers 

Protected cruisers 

Torpedo vessels 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 

Torpedo boats 

BUILDING. 

*Armored cruisers. . 



DOCKYARDS. The principal dockyards are 
situated as follows: 

San Fernando. Three small docks take 
cruisers. 

Puerto Belgrano. One large dock takes 
battleships. 

Buenos Ayres. Very limited accommo- 
dation. 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 

PERSONNEL. The number of all ranks in 
the Austrian Navy.including reserves, islO,841. 
The officers of the Austrian Navy are distri- 
buted as follows: 1 admiral, 2 vice-admirals, 
17 captains, 27 commanders, 37 lieutenant- 
commanders, 200 lieutenants, 191 sub-lieu- 
tenants, and 180 midshipmen. 

MATERIEL. The strength in ships built, 
building, and projected on Nov. 30th, 1903, 
was: 

BUILT. 

Battleships, 3rd class 5 

Coast defence ships 3 

River monitors 4 

Armored cruisers 1 

Protected cruisers, 2nd class 2 

3rd class 4 

Torpedo vessels 1,5 

Torpedo boats 37 



BUILDING. 

Battleships, 1st class 

Monitors 

Armored cruisers 

Torpedo vessels 



DOCKYARD. The principal Government 
dockyard of Austria-Hungary is situated at 
Pola. There are three small docks there. 

* These two vessels are the Bernadino 
Rivadavia and the Mariano Moreno, which 
were built in Italy, and were sold (Dec. 31st, 
1903) to the Japanese Government. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



BRAZIL. 

PERSONNEL. The personnel of the Brazil- 
ian navy numbers about 8,500 of all ranks. 
The executive officers are distributed as fol- 
lows: 1 admiral, 2 vice-admirals, 10 rear- 
admirals, 18 captains, 30 commanders, 60 
lieutenant-commanders, 175 lieutenants, and 
160 sub-lieutenants. 

MATERIEL. The ships built for the Brazil- 
ian Navy number in all 63. There are no 
vessels under construction. 
BUILT. 

Coast defence snips 9 

Protected cruisers 6 

Torpedo vessels 18 

Torpedo boats 28 

Submarines 2 

DOCKYARDS. -The only important dock- 
yard is situated at Rio de Janeiro, where there 
are three docks to take cruisers, and two 
smaller ones. Besides this there are naval 
bases at Para, Bahia, Pernambuco, and 
Ladario de Matto Grosso. 

CHILE. 

PERSONNEL. The numbers of officers and 
men on the active list are variously stated to 
be from 6,000 to 8,000. The executive officers 
are distributed as follows: 1 vice-admiral, 4 
rear-admirals, 11 captains, 18 commanders, 
16 lieutenant-commanders, 25 lieutenants, 
and 36 midshipmen. 

MATERIEL. The strength in ships built and 
building on Nov. 30th, 1903, was: 
BUILT. 

Battleships 2 

Armored cruisers 2 

Protected cruisers 6 

Torpedo vessels 5 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 6 

Torpedo boats 24 

DOCKYARDS. The principal dockyards are 
situated as follows: 

Talcahuno. One dock takes any v/arship. 
Valparaiso. Two small floating docks take 
cruisers. 

DENMARK. 

PERSONNEL. The personnel numbers about 
4,000 of all ranks. The executive officers are 
divided as follows: 1 vice-admiral, 2 rear- 
admirals, 16 captains, 38 commanders, 63 
lieutenants, 33 sub-lieutenants, and 23 mid- 
shipmen. 

MATERIEL. The strength in ships built and 
building on Nov. 30th, 1903, was: 

BUILT. 

Battleships 4 

Coast defence vessels . 4 

Protected cruisers 5 

Torpedo boats 25 

BUILDING. 

Coast defence vessel 1 



DOCKYARD. At Copenhagen there are three 
small docks. 



.FRANCE. 

PERSONNEL. 

The number of officers and men on the active 
list of the French Navy in 1903 was 53,247, and 
in the Reserve there were 49,346 officers and 
men. The number of men effective during 
1903 was less by 2,940 than the number avail- 
able during the preceding year. 

The executive officers of the French Navy 
are divided as follows: 15 vice-admirals, 30 
rear-admirals, 124 captains, 212 commanders, 
751 lieutenant-commanders, 574 lieutenants, 
146 sub-lieutenants, 100 midshipmen, 183 
cadets. 

MATERIEL. , 

The number of ships built, building, and 
projected for the French Navy on Nov. 30th, 
1903, was: 



Battleships, 1st class 

2nd class 

3rd class' 

Coast defence vessels 

Armored cruisers 

Protected cruisers, 1st class. . . . 
2nd class. . . 
3rd class. . . . 

Unprotected cruisers 

Torpedo vessels 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 

Torpedo boats 

Submarines 

BUILDING. 



20 
9 
1 

14 

10 

7 

16 

17 

1 

16 

14 

247 

.15 



Battleships, 1st class 6 

Armored cruisers 12 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 19 

Torpedo-boats 18 

Submarines 25 

PROJECTED. 

Armored cruiser* 1 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 4 

Torpedo boats 25 

. Submarines 18 

DOCKYARDS. 

The Government dockyards in France are 
situated as follows: 

Cherbourg. One dock takes battleships 

14,000 tons; seven smaller. 
Brest. One dock takes battleships; others 

very small. 
Lorient. One dock takes battleships 14,000 

tons; one takes small cruisers. 
Rochefort. Three docks, take small vessels 

only. 
Toulon. Three docks take battleships 

14,000 tons; six others take cruisers. 



GERMANY. 

PERSONNEL. 

The number of officers and men on the ac- 
tive list is 35,685, and on the regular reserve 
there are 5,114. The total number of able- 
bodied men liable for service in the Reserve, 
however, is about 70,000. 

* This armored cruiser is the Ernest Renan 
of 13,562 tons. 



64 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



The executive officers of the German Navy 
are divided as follows: 8 vice-admirals, 16 
rear-admirals, 58 captains, 125 commanders, 
245 lieutenant-commanders, 382 lieutenants, 
332 sub-lieutenants, 401 midshipmen, 200 
cadets. 

MATERIEL. 

The strength of the German Navy in ships 
built and building on Nov. 30th, 1903, was: 



Battleships, 1st class 14 

2nd class 4 

3rd class 12 

Coast defence ships 11 

Armored cruisers 2 

Protected cruisers, 1st class 1 

2nd class 8 

3rd class 10 

Unprotected cruisers 20 

Torpedo vessels 2 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 32 

Torpedo boats 93 

Submarines ? 

BUILDING. 

Battleships, 1st class 6 

Armored cruisers 3 

Protected cruisers, 3rd class. . 5 

PROJECTED. 

Armored cruiser* 1 

Protected cruisers 2 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 6 

Torpedo boats 

Submarine 1 

DOCKYARDS. 

The German dockyards are situated as 
follows : 

Kiel. Two docks take any ship. Also two 
floating docks. Four docks take any 
ship up to 10,000 tons. 

Wilhelmshaven. One dock takes any ship; 
one takes up to 10,000 tons. Three float- 
ing docks ; two new ones building. 



GREAT BRITAIN. 

PERSONNEL. 

The number of officers, seamen, boys, and 
marines provided for sea and other services for 
the year 1903-4 amounts to 127,100, being an 
increase of 4,600 on the previous year. The 
strength of the Royal Marines on Jan. 1st, 
1903, was 19,579. 

The passing of the Naval Forces Act during 
the year will strengthen the Naval Reserves by 
increasing its numbers, and by authorizing 
short-service system in the Navy, on condition 
that those accepting such employment shall 
complete a term of seven years in the reserve. 
The Royal Naval Volunteers authorized by 
the Act of 1902 have commenced enrolment, 
and Divisions have been formed at London 
and Glasgow. 

MATERIEL. 

The strength of the British Navy in ships 
built, building, and projected on Nov. 30th, 
1903, was: 



BUILT. 

Battleships, 1st class 49 

2nd class 4 

3rd class 2 

Coast defence ships 2 

Armored crusiers 24 

Protected cruisers, 1st class 21 

2nd class 51 

3rd class 32 

Unprotected cruisers 10 

Torpedo vessels 34 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 112 

Torpedo boats 85 

Submarines 5 

BUILDING. 

Battleships, 1st class 7 

Armored cruisers 13 



Protected cruisers, 2nd class. . . . 

3rd class 

Scouts 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 

Torpedo boats. . 



2 
4 
4 
19 
5 
Submarines 4 

PROJECTED. 

Battleships, 1st class 6 

Armored cruisers 4 

Protected cruisers 3 

Scouts. . 4 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 15 

Submarines 10 

Two of the first-class battleships are those 
purchased from Chile. 

DOCKYARDS. 

The public dockyards in Great Britain are 
situated as follows: 

Portsmouth. Six docks take any ship ; three 
take armored cruisers, 10,000 tons and 
smaller. 

Devonport. Two docks take battleships; 
two smaller. 

Keyham. One dock takes small battle- 
ships; three smaller. 

Chatham. Six docks take battleshnps 
(four small 9nes only) ; four smaller. 

Sheerness. Five small docks. 

Pembroke. One dock takes small battle- 
ships. 

Haulbowline. Two docks take any ship. 



ITALY. 

PERSONNEL. 

There are 26,948 officers and men on the 
active list for the current financial year, and 
the reserve numbers 33,667 officers and 
men. This latter is, however, of doubtful 
efficiency, for many of the officers are over 
sixty-five years of age, and the men have but 
little training. 

The executive officers of the Italian Navy are 
divided as follows: 1 admiral, 7 vice-admirals, 
14 rear-admirals, 58 captains, 70 commanders, 
75 lieutenant-commanders, 410 lieutenants, 
160 sub-lieutenants, 130 midshipmen. 

MATERIEL. 

The strength of ships built, building and 
projected on Nov. 30th, 1903, was: 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



65 



BUILT. 

Battleships, 1st class 12 

3rd class 5 

Armored cruisers 5 

Protected cruisers, 2nd class 5 

3rd class. 11 

Torpedo vessels 14 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 11 

Torpedo boats 145 

Submarines 1 

BUILDING. 

Battleships, 1st class 6 

Armored cruisers 1 

Submarines 1 

PROJECTED. 

Battleships, 1st class 3 

Protected cruisers, 3rd class 1 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 2 

Torpedo boats 8 

Submarines 1 

DOCKYARDS. 

The Government dockyards of Italy are 
situated as follows: 

Spezia. One dock takes any ship ; one takes 

all Italian ships; four smaller. 

Venice. One dock takes cruisers; one 

smaller. One building to take any ship. 
Taranto. One dock takes any ship. 



JAPAN. 

PERSONNEL. 

The number of officers and men available 
for active service is about 31,000. There is 
also a small reserve of some 4,000. 

MATERIEL. 

The strength in ships built, building, and 
projected on Nov 30th, 1903, less loss, was: 

BUILT. 

Battleships, 1st class 6 

2nd class 1 

Coast defence ships 2 

Armored cruisers 8* 

Protected cruisers, 2nd class 10 

3rd class 7 

Unprotected cruisers 9 

Torpedo vessels 1 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 17 

Torpedo boats 63 

BUILDING. 

Protected cruisers, 2nd class 2 

3rd class 1 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 2 

Torpedo boats 18 

PROJECTED. 

Battleships,! 1st class 4 

Armored cruisers 6 

DOCKYARDS. 

The Government dockyards in Japan are 
situated as follows: 

Yokosuka. One dock takes any ship; two 

smaller. 
Kure. One dock takes cruisers. 

* Including two vessels, each of 7700 tons 
displacement and a speed of 20 knots, pur- 
chased from the Argentine Government for 
$7,500,000 (Dec. 31st, 1903). 

t The projected vessels have not been 
named. 



NETHERLANDS. 

PERSONNEL. The total of officers and men 
enlisted for the navy reaches 11,000, but this 
figure includes the marine infantry. The 
executive officers are divided as follows: 1 
vice-admiral, 3 rear admirals, 25 captains, 40 
commanders, 400 lieutenants and sub-lieu- 
tenants, and 200 midshipmen. 

MATERIEL. The strength in ships built, 
building and projected on Nov. 30th, 1903, 



BUILT. 

Battleships, 3rd class 2 

Coast defence ships 19 

Unprotected cruisers 11 

Torpedo vessels 12 

Torpedo boats 29 

BUILDING. 

Coast defence ships 2 

Torpedo boats 5 

PROJECTED. 

Coast defence ships 3 

Torpedo vessels 7 

Torpedo boats 2 

Submarine (to be purchased) 1 

DOCKYARDS. The principal dockyards are 
situated as follows: 

Helder. Two docks take cruisers. 
Hellevoetsluis. One dock takes small 

battleships. 
Amsterdam. Two floating docks take 

cruisers. 
Rotterdam. Three floating docks take 

small cruisers. 



NORWAY. 

PERSONNEL. The personnel numbers about 
2,000, of which 1,000 are permanent, and the 
remainder yearly conscripts. The executive 
officers are divided as follows: 1 rear-admiral, 
4 captains, 14 commanders, 28 lieutenant- 
commanders, 37 lieutenants, 30 sub-lieuten- 
ants. 

MATERIEL. The strength in ships built and 
building on Nov. 30th, 1903, was: 

BUILT. 

Coast defence vessels 4 

Torpedo vessels 7 

Torpedo boats 26 

BUILDING. 

Coast defence vessel. . . .*. 1 

Torpedo boats 2 

Submarine 1 

DOCKYARDS. The principal dockyards of 
Norway are situated as follows: 

Horten. One dry dock takes small battle- 
ships. 

Christiansand. One dry dock takes small 
battleships, 



66 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



PORTUGAL. 

PERSONNEL. The number of men in the 
Portuguese Navy is about 5,000, and, in addi- 
tion, there are 2 vice-admirals, 5 rear-admirals, 
16 captains, 25 commanders, 25 lieutenant- 
commanders, 80 lieutenants, 110 sub-lieu- 
tenants, 37 midshipmen, and 96 cadets. The 
age for retirement of a vice-admiral is 70 
years, rear-admiral 66 years, and other officers 
64 years. 

MATERIEL. The strength in ships built and 
building on Nov. 30th, 1903, was: 

BUILT. 

Battleship 1 

Unprotected cruisers 7 

Torpedo vessels 14 

Torpedo boats 11 

BUILDING. 

Torpedo vessels 2 

DOCKYARD. There are four small docks at 
Lisbon. 



RUSSIA. 

PERSONNEL. 

There are 2,900 officers on the effective list 
of the Russian Navy, and the number of men 
is 61,516. In the Reserve there are about 
30,000 of all ranks. 

The executive officers of the Russian Navy 
are divided as follows: 1 commander-in- 
chief (admiral-general), 14 admirals, 24 vice- 
admirals, 33 rear-admirals, 92 captains, 212 
commanders, 850 lieutenants, 400 midshipmen. 

MATERIEL. 

The strength of the Russian Navy in ships 
built, building and projected, on Nov. 30th, 
1903, less losses, was: 



BUILT. 

Battleships, 1st class. . . 

2nd class. . . 

3rd class. . . 
Coast defence ships 



Armored cruisers .................. 6 

Protected cruisers, 1st class ......... 2 

2nd class ........ 4 

3rd class ......... - 

Unprotected cruisers ............... 3 

Torpedo vessels ................... 8 

Torpedo-boat destroyers ............ 40 

Torpedo boats ..................... 150 

Submarines ................. . ...... 

BUILDING. 

Battleships, 1st class ............... 6 

Armored cruisers .................. 

Protected cruisers, 1st class ..... .... 2 

2nd class ........ 2 

Torpedo-boat destroyers ........... 6 

Torpedo-boats .................... 7 

Submarines ....................... 2 



PROJECTED. 
Battleships, 1st class 
Armored cruisers 
Protected cruisers, 1st class 



The projected battleships are the Tchesma, 
Evstafi, and loann Zlatoust, all of which are re- 
ported to have been laid down in the Black 
Sea yards; and the Imperator Pavel, the Andrei 
Pervosvannui, to be built in the St. Petersburg 
yards. Of the sixth vessel nothing is yet 
known, nor have the names of the armored 
cruisers transpired. The protected cruisers 
are to be of the Kagul type. 

[The war with Japan has modified all figures 
of present strength.] 

DOCKYARDS. 

The principal Russian dockyards are situ- 
ated as follows: 

Kronstadt. One dock takes any ship ; three 

smaller. 

Libau. Two docks take any ship. 
Sevastopol. Two docks take any ship. 



SPAIN. 

PERSONNEL. There are 16,700 of all ranks 
in the Spanish Navy, and 9,000 marines. All 
these are conscripts. The officers are divided 
as follows: 1 admiral, 4 vice-admirals, 11 rear- 
admirals, 22 captains, 47 commanders, 94 
lieutenant-commanders, 131 lieutenants, 340 
sub-lieutenants, 165 midshipmen, and 100 
cadets. 

MATERIEL. The strength in ships built and 
building on Nov. 30th, 1903, was: 

BUILT. 

Battleship 1 

Armored cruisers 2 

Protected cruisers 6 

Torpedo vessels 17 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 4 

Torpedo boats 10 

BUILDING. 

Armored cruisers 2 

Protected cruisers 2 

DOCKYARDS. The principal dockyards are 
situated as follows: 

Cadiz. Three docks take cruisers. 

Cartagena. One floating dock takes large 
cruisers. 

Bilboa. One dock takes any Spanish ship; 
two smaller. 



SWEDEN. 

PERSONNEL. The personnel of the Swedish 
Navy in 1903 numbered about 7,500 of all 
ranks. In addition there are about 20,000 
yearly conscripts available, but the majority 
of these are seldom called upon. The officers 
are divided as follows: 1 vice-admiral, 4 rear- 
admirals, 6 commodores, 24 captains, 64 com- 
manders, 55 lieutenants, 30 sub-lieutenants. 

MATERIEL. The strength of ships built and 
building on Nov. 30th was: 

BUILT. 

Coast defence vessels 10 

Torpedo vessels 14 

Torpedo-boat destroyer. . " 1 

Torpedo boats 28 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



67 



BUILDING. 

Battleship 1 

Armored cruiser 1 

Torpedo boats 3 

Submarine 1 

DOCKYARDS. The principal dockyards in 
Sweden are situated as follows: 

Karlscrona. Three docks take any Swedish 

ship; three smaller. 
Stockholm. One dock takes cruisers. 



TURKEY. 

PERSONNEL. There are 31,000 officers and 
men in the Turkish Navy and 9,000 marines. 
The officers are divided as follows : 2 admirals, 
9 vice-admirals, 16 rear-admirals, 30 captains, 

90 commanders, 300 lieutenant-command- 
ers, 250 lieutenants, 200 sub-lieutenants. 

MATERIEL. The strength in ships built and 
building for the Turkish Navy on Nov. 30th, 
1903, was: 

BUILT. 

Battleships 

Protected cruiser 1 

Torpedo vessels 6 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 2 

Torpedo boats 25 

Submarines 2 

BUILDING. 

Protected cruisers 5 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 2 



UNITED STATES. 

ADMINISTRATION. 

The President of the United States is ex- 
officio Commander-in-chief of the Navy. As 
his executive he appoints a Secretary of the 
Navy, a member of his Cabinet, on a four 
years' term. He also appoints an Assistant 
Secretary of the Navy, and these two political 
officials, who are usually civilians, exercise a 
general control and supervision of the ten de- 
partments or bureaus among which the busi- 
ness is distributed. These departments are 
very similar to those in the British Admiralty, 
and they are almost all of them under the 
direction of naval officers. There are also 
special boards, mostly departmental, who ad- 
vise either the Secretary of the Navy or the 
chiefs of the bureaus on technical points. 



There is nothing approximating to the head- 
quarters staff which is found in all naval ad- 
ministrations, based on the precedent of the 
organization of land forces. In this respect 
the naval administration of the United States 
and Great Britain differ from almost all the 
rest. With regard to the estimates, the chiefs 
of the various bureaus prepare and make 
annually reports which are published, and in 
these reports they make recommendations 
with estimates of cost. The Secretary of the 
Navy also makes an annual report, summariz- 
ing the reports of his subordinates, with his 
own recommendations, which are submitted 
to Congress in the shape of Bills, which, being 
passed by the House of Representatives and 
the Senate, and approved by the President, 
become law. The United States Navy is 
manned by voluntary enlistment. 

FINANCE. 

The proposed estimates for 1904-5 total 
$102,866,449, those for 1903-4 having been 
$79,039,331. It is proposed to devote to new 
construction the sum of $28,826,860. 

PERSONNEL. 

The number of officers and men on the 
effective list of the United States Navy is 
29,838, inclusive of 7,000 marines. There is 
a reserve in course of formation, but it is not 
yet in working order. 

The executive officers of the United States 
Navy are distributed as follows: 1 admiral, 
1 vice-admiral, 21 rear-admirals, 73 captains, 
114 commanders, 172 lieutenant-commanders, 
350 lieutenants, 100 second-lieutenants, 130 
ensigns, 90 naval cadets at sea. 

MATERIEL. 

The strength in ships of the United States 
Navy built, building and projected, is sepa- 
rately treated. 

DOCKYARDS. 

The Government dockyards in the United 
States are situated as follows: 

Brooklyn. One dock takes any ship; two 

smaller. 
Norfolk, Va. One dock takes any ship ; one 

smaller. 

Mare Island, Cal. One dock takes any ship. 
Boston, Mass. One small dock. 
League Island, Pa- One large wooden dock. 
Portsmouth, N. H. One small dock. 

Hazell's Annual, 1904. 



THE UNITED 

On January 1, 1904, there was upon 
the active list 1 admiral, 27 rear ad- 
mirals, 80 captains, 120 commanders, 
192 lieut.-commanders, 331 lieuten- 
ants, 24 lieutenants (junior grade), 
166 ensigns, 101 midshipmen, 16 med- 
ical directors, 15 medical inspectors, 86 
surgeons, 35 passed assistant surgeons, 
68 assistant surgeons, 14 pay directors, 
35 pay inspectors, 76 paymasters, 30 
passed assistant paymasters, 18 assist- 
ant paymasters, 23 chaplains, 12 pro- 



STATES NAVY. 

fessors of mathematics, 1 secretary to 
the admiral, 20 naval constructors, 30 
assistant naval constructors, 28 civil 
engineers, 5 assistant civil engineers, 
12 chief boatswains, 116 boatswains, 
12 chief gunners, 100 gunners, 14 
chief carpenters, 73 carpenters, 7 chief 
sailmakers, 150 warrant machinists, 25 
pharmacists, and 16 mates. There 
were also 649 midshipmen on proba- 
tion at the Naval Academy at Annap- 
olis, Md. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE ADMISSION OF CANDIDATES 
INTO THE NAVAL ACADEMY AS MIDSHIPMEN. 



NOMINATION. 

The students of the Naval Academy 
are styled Midshipmen. Two Mid- 
shipmen are allowed for each Senator, 
Representative, and Delegate in Con- 
gress, two for the District of Colum- 
bia, and five each year from the United 
States at large. The appointments 
from the District of Columbia and five 
each year at large are made by the 
President. One Midshipman is al- 
lowed from Porto Rico, who must be a 
native of that island. The appoint- 
ment is made by the President, on the 
recommendation of the Governor of 
Porto Rico. The Congressional ap- 
pointments are equitably distributed, 
so that in regular course each Senator, 
Representative, and Delegate in Con- 
gress may appoint one Midshipman 
during each Congress. After June 
30, 1913, each Senator, Representa- 
tive, and Delegate in Congress will be 
allowed to appoint but one Midship- 
man instead of two. The course for 
Midshipmen is six years four years 
at the Academy, when the succeeding 
appointment is made, and two years at 
sea, at the expiration of which time 
the examination for final graduation 
takes place. Midshipmen who pass 
the examination for final graduation 
are appointed to fill vacancies in the 
lower grades of the Line of the Navy 
and of the Marine Corps, in the order 
of merit as determined by the Academ- 
ic Board of the Naval Academy. 

"The Secretary of the Navy shall, as 
soon as practicable after the fifth day 
of March in each year, notify in writ- 
ing each Senator, Representative, and 
Delegate in Congress of any vacancy 
which may be regarded as existing in 
the State, District, or Territory which 
he represents, and the nomination of a 
candidate to fill such vacancy shall be 
made upon the recommendation of the 
Senator, Representative, or Delegate. 
Such recommendation shall be made by 
the first day of June of that year, and 
if not so made the Secretary of the 
Navy shall fill the vacancy by the ap- 
pointment of an actual resident of the 
State, District, or Territory in which 
the vacancy exists, who shall have 
been for at least two years immedi- 
ately preceding his appointment an 
actual bona fide resident of the State, 
District, or Territory in which the 
vacancy exists, and shall have the 



qualifications otherwise prescribed by 
law." 

(Act approved March 4, 1903.) 

Candidates allowed for Congression- 
al Districts, for Territories, and for 
the District of Columbia must be act- 
ual residents of the Districts or Ter- 
ritories, respectively, from which they 
are nominated. 

All candidates must, at the time of 
their examination for admission, be 
between the ages of sixteen and twenty 
years. A candidate is eligible for ap- 
pointment on the day he becomes six- 
teen, and is ineligible on the day he 
becomes twenty years of age. 

EXAMINATION. 

"All candidates for admission into the 
Academy shall be examined according 
to such regulations and at such stated 
times as the Secretary of the Navy 
may prescribe. Candidates rejected at 
such examination shall not have the 
privilege of another examination for 
admission to the same class unless rec- 
ommended by the Board of Examin- 
ers." (Rev. Stat., Sec. 1515.) 

When any candidate, who has been 
nominated upon the recommendation 
of a Senator, Member, or Delegate of 
the House of Representatives, is found, 
upon examination, to be physically or 
mentally disqualified for admission, the 
Senator, Member, or Delegate shall be 
notified, to recommend another candi- 
date, who shall be examined according 
to the provisions of the preceding sec- 
tion. 

Beginning with the year nineteen 
hundred and four, but two examina- 
tions for admission of Midshipmen to 
the Academy will be held each year, as 
follows : 

1. The first examination to be held 
on the third Tuesday in April, under 
the supervision of the Civil Service 
Commission, at points given in a list 
furnished by the Bureau of Naviga- 
tion, Navy Department, Washington, 
D. CM who also furnish sample exam- 
ination papers. Candidates are exam- 
ined mentally only at this examination. 
All those qualifying mentally who are 
entitled to appointment in order of 
nomination will be notified by the Su- 
perintendent of the Naval Academy to 
report at the Academy for physical ex- 
amination on or about June 10, and if 
physically qualified will be appointed. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



69 



Candidates nominated for the April 
examination may be examined at 
Washington, D. C., if so desired, or at 
any of the places in any State named 
in the above schedule. 

Senators and Representatives are re- 
quested, when designating their nomi- 
nees, to give the place at which it is 
desired they should be examined if 
nominated for the April examination. 

2. The second and last examination 
will be held at Annapolis, Md., only, 
on the third Tuesday in June, under 
the supervision of the Superintendent 
of the Naval Academy. Candidates 
are examined mentally at this examin- 
ation, and all those entitled to appoint- 
ment will be directed to report for 
physical examination, as soon as prac- 
ticable, at the Naval Academy. 

Alternates are given the privilege of 
reporting for examination at the same 
time with the principal. 

No examination will be held later 
than the third Tuesday in June. 

The large number of Midshipmen to 
be instructed and drilled makes this 
rule necessary, and it is to the great 
advantage of the new Midshipmen 
themselves. The summer months are 
utilized in preliminary instruction in 
professional branches and drills, such 
as handling boats under oars and sails, 
and in seamanship, gunnery, and 
infantry drills. These practical exer- 
cises form most excellent groundwork 
as a preparation for the academic 
course. 

The examination papers used in all 
examinations are prepared at the 
Naval Academy and the examination 
marks made by candidates finally 
passed upon by the officials of the 
Academy. 

Under the law, candidates failing to 
pass the entrance examination will not 
be allowed another examination for 
admission to the same class unless 
recommended for re-examination by the 
Board of Examiners. 

The Civil Service Commission only 
conducts the examination of candidates 
whose names have been furnished by 
the Navy Department. It is requested 
that all correspondence relative to the 
nomination and examination of candi- 



dates be addressed to the Bureau of 
Navigation, Navy Department. 

Nominations for examination on the 
third Tuesday in April should be for- 
warded to the Bureau ten days prior 
to the date of examination, as that is 
the latest date on which arrangements 
can be made for the examination. 

Candidates will be required to enter 
the Academy immediately after passing 
the prescribed examination. 

No leave of absence will be granted 
to Midshipmen of the fourth class. 

Candidates will be examined physic- 
ally at the Naval Academy by a board 
composed of three medical officers of 
the Navy. 

Attention will also be paid to the 
stature of the candidate, and no one 
manifestly under size for his age will 
be received at the Academy. In the 
case of doubt about the physical con- 
dition of the candidate, any marked 
deviation from the usual standard of 
height or weight will add materially 
to the consideration for rejection. The 
height of candidates for admission 
shall not be less than 5 feet 2 inches 
between the ages of 16 and 38 years, 
and not less than 5 feet 4 inches be- 
tween the ages of 18 and 20 years. 

Candidates will be examined men- 
tally in punctuation, spelling, arith- 
metic, geography, English grammar, 
United States history, world's history, 
algebra through quadratic equations, 
and plane geometry (five books of 
Chauvenet's Geometry, or an equiva- 
lent). Deficiency in any one of these 
subjects may be sufficient to insure the 
rejection of the candidate. 

ADMISSION. 

Candidates who pass the physical 
and mental examinations will receive 
appointments as Midshipmen, and be- 
come students of the Academy. Each 
Midshipman will be required to sign 
articles by which he binds himself to 
serve in the United States Navy eight 
years (including his time of probation 
at the Naval Academy), unless sooner 
discharged. 

The pay of a Midshipman is $500 a 
year, commencing at the date of his 
admission. 



The cruisers are the light cavalry of 
the navy. As their name implies, their 
duty is to cruise the seas, keeping in 
touch with the enemy's fleets and act- 
ing as the "eyes" of the line-of-battle 
ships. They are also intended for the 



double duty of attacking an enemy's 
commerce and defending that of the 
country whose flag they carry. Fleets 
of merchant vessels or of transport 
ships will be "convoyed" by cruisers 
from port to port. 



70 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



LIST OF SHIPS OF THE UNITED STATES NAVY. 

[ABBREVIATIONS. Hull: S., steel; S. W., steel, wood sheathed; I., iron; W., wood. Propulsion: 
S., screw; T. S., twin screw; Tr. S., triple screw; P., paddle.] 

FIRST RATE. 



Name. 


Dis- 
place- 
ment 
(tons). 


Type. 


Hull. 


I.H.P. 


Propul- 
sion, 


Guns 
(main 
bat- 
tery). 


Maine. 
Missouri 


12,500 
12,500 


1st class battleship . 
, . .do 


S. 
S. 


16,000 
16,000 


T.S. 
T.S. 


20 
20 


Alabama 


11,525 
11 525 


....do 
do 


S. 

s 


11,366 
11 366 


T.S. 

T S 


18 
18 


Wisconsin 
Kearsarge 


11,525 
11 525 


....do 
do 


s. 
s 


10,000 
11 954 


T.S. 
TS 


18 
22 


Kentucky 
Iowa 
Indiana 
Massachusetts 
Oregon 


11,525 
11,340 
10,288 
10,288 
10,288 


... .do 
....do 
.... do 
. ...do 
do 


s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 


12,318 
12,105 
9,738 
10,403 
11,111 


T.S. 

T.S. 
T.S. 
T.S. 
T.S. 


22 
18 
16 
16 
16 


Brooklyn 
New York 


9.215 
8,200 


Armored cruiser. . . 
do 


s. 
s. 


18,769 
17,401 


T.S. 
T.S. 


20 

18 



SECOND RATE. 



Name. 


Dis- 
place- 
ment 
(tons). 


Type. 


Hull. 


I.H.P. 


Propul- 
sion. 


Guns 
(main 
bat- 
tery). 


Columbia. 


7,375 
7 375 


Protected cruiser. . . 
do 


S. 
S 


18,509 
20 862 


Tr.S. 
Tr S 


11 
11 


Texas 


6,315 
6060 


2d class battleship. 
Double-turret mon- 


s. 
I. 


8,610 
3 700 


T.S. 
T.S 


8 
10 




5 870 


itor. 
Protected cruiser 


s. 


17 313 


TS 


14 


Chicago 


5,000 


do 


s. 


9,000 


T.S. 


18 


Yankee 


6,888 


Cruiser (converted) 


I. 


3,800 


S. 


10 




6 872 


do 


I 


3 800 


S 


10 


Buffalo 


6,888 
6,145 


. . . .do 
do 


s. 

s 


3,600 
3 800 


s. 
s 


6 
10 


Baltimore 
Philadelphia 
Newark 
San Francisco 


4,413 
4,324 
4,098 
4,098 
4084 


Protected cruiser. . . 
....do 
.... do 
....do 
Barbette turret low 


s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s 


10,064 
8,815 
8,869 
9,913 
5 244 


T.S. 
T.S. 
T.S. 
T.S. 
T S 


12 
12 
12 
12 
4 


Monadnock 


4,005 


free-board mon- 
itor. 
Double-turret mon- 
itor. 


I. 


3,000 


T.S. 


6 



THIRD RATE. 





Dis- 










Guns 


Name. 


place- 
ment 


Type. 


Hull. 


I.H.P. 


Propul- 
sion. 


(main 
bat- 




(tons). 










tery). 


Ajax 


*7,500 


Collier 


S. 


3,000 


S. 


f2 


Glacier 


*7 000 




s 


4,000 


s 




Celtic. 


6 428 


do ... 


s. 


1,890 


S. 




Culgoa 


*6 300 




s 


fl 500 






Saturn 


*6,220 


Collier 


I. 


1,500 


s. 


t2 


Rainbow 


6,206 


Cruiser (converted) 


s. 


1,800 


s. 




Arethusa 


*6,200 


Tank steamer 


s. 




s. 




Alexander 


6,181 


Collier 


s. 


1,026 


s. 


t2 



* Estimated. t Secondary battery. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



71 



THIRD RATE Continued. 



Name. 


Dis- 
place- 
ment 
(tons). 


Type. 


Hull. 


I.H.P. 


Propul- 
sion. 


Guns 
(main 
bat- 
tery). 




6 100 




s 


1 300 


S 




Brutus 
Sterling. . 


*6,000 
5,663 


ship. 
Collier 
do 


S. 
I. 


1,200 
*926 


S. 

s 


t2 
j-2 




5016 


do 


S 


1 500 


s 


t4 


Nero. 
Nanshan 


4,925 

*4,827 


....do 
do 


s. 
s 


1,000 


s. 


t4 


Abarenda 
Supply. 


4,670 
4,460 


....do 
Supply ship 


s. 

I 


1,050 
1 069 


s. 
s 


t4 
t2 


Marcellus 
Hannibal. . . . 


*4,400 
4,291 


Collier 
do. . 


I. 

S ' 


1,200 
1 100 


s. 
s 


t2 
-j-2 


Leonidas 
Solace 
Panther 


4,242 
4,700 
4 260 


. ...do 
Hospital ship 
Cruiser (converted) 


s. 

s. 

I 


1,000 
3,200 


s. 
s. 
s 


t2 
g 


Miantonomoh 
Amphitrite 


3,990 
3,990 


Double-turret mon- 
itor. 
do 


I. 


1,426 
1,600 


T.S. 

T S 


4 
6 


Terror. . . . 


3,990 


Double-turret mon- 


I 


1 600 


TS 


4 


Albany. . 


3,437 


itor. . . . 
Protected cruiser 


s w 


7 500 


T S 


10 


New Orleans 
Arkansas 


3,437 
3,214 


. . . .do 
Monitor 


s.w. 

s 


7,500 
2400 


T.S. 
T S 


10 
6 


Wyoming 
Nevada. . . 


3,214 
3,714 


. . . .do 
do . 


s. 
s 


2,400 
2 400 


T.S. 
T S 


6 
6 


Florida 
Cincinnati 
Raleigh 


3,214 
3,213 
3,213 


. . . .do 
Protected cruiser . . 
do 


s. 
s. 

s 


2,400 
10,000 
10 000 


T.S. 
T.S. 
T S 


6 
11 
11 


Cleveland. 


3,100 


... do. . . 


s w 


4700 


TS. 


10 


Reina Mercedes 


3,090 


do 


s 


3 700 


g 




Atlanta 


3,000 


. . do. . . 


s 


4000 


s 


g 


Boston. 


3,000 


do 


s 


4 030 


s 


g 


Hartford 


2,790 


Cruiser. . . 


w 


2,000 


s 


13 


Mayflower 
Topeka 


2,690 
2,372 


Cruiser (converted) 
Gunboat. . . . 


s. 
I. 


4,700 
2,000 


T.S. 
TS 


2 

8 


Katahdin 
Detroit . 


2,155 
2089 


Harbor defence ram 


s. 
s 


5,068 
5 227 


T.S. 
T S 


4 
10 


Montgomery 


2,089 


do. . . . 


s 


5 580 


T S 


10 


Marblehead. . 


2,089 




g 


5 451 


T S 


10 


Mohican 


,900 


Cruiser 


w 


1 100 


s 


6 


Manila 
Bennington 


,800 
710 


Gunboat 
do 


I. 

J 


750 
3 436 


S. 
T S 


2 
6 


Concord 


,710 


do 


s 


3 405 


T S 


6 


Yorktown 


710 


do 


s 


3 392 


T S 


6 


Dolphin 
Wilmington 
Helena 


,486 
,392 
392 


Dispatch boat 
Light draft gunb't . 
do 


s. 
s. 
s 


2,253 
1,894 
1 988 


S. 
T.S. 
T S 


3 

8 
8 


Adams .... 


,375 


Cruiser 


w 


800 


s 


6 


Essex 


375 


do 


w 


800 


g 


6 


Enterprise 
Nashville 
Castine 


,375 
,371 
,177 


. . . .do 
Light-draft gunb't . 
Gunboat. . . . 


w. 

s. 
s 


800 
' 2,536 
2 199 


S. 
T.S. 
T S 


1 

8 
8 


Machias . . 


177 


do 


s 


2046 


TS 


8 


Chesapeake 
Don Juan de Austria 
Isla de Luzon 
Isla de Cuba 
Alert 


,175 
,159 
,030 
,030 
,020 


....do 
....do 
....do 
do 
Cruiser 


Comp. 

s. 
s. 
I. 


V,566 
2,627 

2,627 
500 


Sails. 
S. 
T.S. 
T.S. 

S. 


6 
4 
6 
6 
3 


Ranger 
Annapolis 
Vicksburg 
Wheeling 


,020 
,000 
,000 
,000 


....do.. 
Composite gunboat 
. . . .do 
do. . . 


I. 

Comp. 
Domp. 
Comp. 


500 
1,227 
1,118 
1,081 


S. 

s. 

s. 

TS. 


6 
6 
6 
6 


Marietta 
Newport 


1,000 
1 000 


....do 
do 


Comp. 


1,054 
1 008 


T.S. 

s 


6 
6 


Princeton 


1 000 


do 


Comp 


800 


s. 


6 


Lawton. . . 


*4 100 




s 


3 200 


s 




Relief 


*3,000 


Hospital ship 


S. 


2,666 


s. 





Estimated. t Secondary battery. 



72 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



FOURTH RATE. 



Name. 


Dis- 
place- 
ment 

(tons.) 


Type. 


Hull. 


I.H.P. 


Propul- 
sion. 


Guns 
(main 
bat- 
tery). 




3 375 


Collier 


j 




S 


j-4 


Justin 
Southery 


*3,300 
*3,100 


. .do. . . 
do 


S. 
I. 




S. 

s. 


t2 
f2 


Pompey. . . . 


*3 085 


do. ... 






s 


t2 


Zafiro 
General Alava 
Yankton 


*2,000 
1,40 
975 


Transport 
. . . .do 


S. 
S 


770 
750 


"s." 

g 


t4 

is 


Vesuvius 

Petrel 
Scorpion. . . . 


0929 

892 
850 


Dynamite-gun ves- 
sel. 
Gunboat 
Gunboat (conv't'd) 


S. 
S. 

s 


3,795 

1,095 
2800 


T.S. 

S. 
TS 


t3 

4 
t8 


Fern 


840 


Tender 


w. 


300 


S. 


t3 


Bancroft 
Vixen 


839 
806 


Gunboat 


s. 
s 


1,213 
1 250 


T.S. 

s 


4 

f4 


Gloucester. ... 


786 


do 




2,000 * 


s. 


tio 


Michigan 


685 




I 


365 


p 


t6 


Wasp 
Frolic . . 


630 
607 


Gunboat (conv't'd) 
do 


s. 
s 


1,800 
550 


s. 
s 


t6 
+4 


Dorothea 
Elcano 


594 
560 


. .. .do 
Gunboat 


s. 

s 


1,558 
600 


s. 

T.S. 


tlo 


Pinta 


550 


. . .do 


I. 


310 


S. 


t2 


Stranger 
Peoria 


*546 
488 


Gunboat (conv't'd). 
do 


I. 

s 




s. 
s 


t5 

|7 


Hist 
Eagle 


472 
434 


....do 
do 


s. 
s 


500 
850 


s. 
s 


t6 

1"6 


Hornet 
Quiros. . . 


425 
400 


....do 
Gunboat . . 


s. 

Comp 


800 
208 


s. 
s 


t9 
+2 


Villalobos 
Hawk 
Siren 


400 
375 
*315 


.... do 
Gunboat (conv't'd). 


Comp. 

S. 
S' 


208 
1,000 


s. 
s. 
s 


t2 
ti 


Sylvia 


*302 


do 


I. 




s. 


-j-6 


Callao. . 


200 


Gunboat . 


s 


250 


TS 


t6 


Pampanga 


200 


... do 


I. 


250 


T.S. 


t4 


Paragua 
Samar 
Arayat. . . . 


200 
200 
200 


....do 
....do 
do . . 


I. 

I. 

I. 


250 
250 
260 


T.S. 
T.S. 
T.S. 


t4 

t4 

fe 


Aileen 


192 




s 


500 


s 


+5 


Mindanao 
Elfrida 


174 
*173 


Gunboat 


I. 

s 


100 
200 


T.S. 

s 


te 

J2 


Sylph 


152 


do 


s. 


550 


s. 


8 


Calamianes. 


150 




I 


125 


TS. 


-j-3 


Albay 
Ley te 
Oneida 


150 
150 
150 


....do 
.... do 


I. 
I. 

w 


125 
125 
350 


T.S. 
T.S. 

s 


t3 
t3 
'6 


Panay 


142 


Gunboat 


I. 


125 


T.S. 


f4 


Manileno. . 


142 




I 


125 


T S 


"4 


Mariveles 
Mindoro. . 


142 
142 


.... do 
do 


I. 

I. 


125 
125 


T.S. 
T.S. 


4 
4 


Restless 
Shearwater 
Inca. 


137 
122 
*120 


Gunboat (conv't'd). 
.... do 
do 


I. 
s. 
w 


500 

466 


S. 
S. 

s. 


8 
T3 

t2 


Alvarado 
Sandoval 


100 
100 


Gunboat 
do 


s. 

s. 


137 
137 


s. 
s. 


2 

-j-2 


Huntress 
Basco 
Gardoqui 


82 
42 
42 


Gunboat (conv't'd). 
Gunboat 
do 


Comp. 
l' 


"44 

44 


s. 
s. 
s. 


T2 
t-2 

+2 


Urdaneta 


42 


....do 


I. 


44 


s. 


t2 



* Estimated t Secondary battery. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



TORPEDO VESSELS. 



Name. 


Dis- 
place- 
ment 

(tons). 


Type. Hull. 


I.H.P. 


Propul- 
sion. 


Guns 
(main 
bat- 
tery). 


Decatur 
Bainbridge 
Barry 


420 
420 
420 


Torpedo boat des . . S. 
do S. 
. . do S. 


8,000 
8,000 
8,000 


T.S. 

T.S. 
T.S 


'''2 
*2 
*2 


Dale . . 


420 


do. . . S 


8 000 


T S 


*2 




420 


do S 


8 000 


TS 


*r> 


Whipple 
Stewart 


433 
420 


..do S. 
do S 


8,300 
7 000 


T.S. 

T S 


*2 
*9 


Truxtun 


433 


. . do S. 


8,300 


TS 


*9 


Worden 


433 


do S 


8 300 


T S 


*2 


Hopkins 
Lawrence. . 


408 
400 


do S. 
do . . S 


7,200 
8 400 


T.S. 
T S 


*2 

*9 


Hull 


408 


..do... S. 


7,200 


TS 


*2 


Macdonough 
Preble 


400 
420 


....do S. 

do ' S 


8,400 
7 000 


T.S. 
T S 


*2 

*2 


Paul Jones 
Perry 


420 
420 


. .do S. 
do S 


7,000 

7 000 


T.S. 

T S 


*2 
*2 


Bagley 


167 


Torpedo boat. . S. 


4 200 


TS 


*3 


Barney . ... 


167 


do S 


4 200 


T S 


*3 


Biddle 


167 


.do S. 


4 200 


TS 


*3 


Ericsson 
Foote 


120 
142 


. .. .do j S. 
do S. 


1,800 
2,000 


T.S. 
T.S. 


*3 
*3 


Gwin 
Mackenzie 
Somers 


46 
65 
145 


.... do S. 
.... o S. 
o. . . S 


850 
850 
1 900 


S. 
T S 


*2 
*2 
*3 


Gushing 


105 


o S 


1 720 


T S 


*3 


Thornton 


165 


o S 


3 000 


TS 


*3 


Stockton 
De Long 
Wilkes 
Rodgers 


166 
165 
165 
142 


. . . . o S. 

. . . . S. 

Torpedo b< at S. 
o S 


3,000 
3,000 
3,000 
2 000 


T.S. 
T.S. 
T.S. 
T S 


*3 
*3 
*3 
*3 


Tingey 
Bailey. . . . 


165 
235 


. .. . o S. 
o S 


3,000 
5 600 


T.S. 
T S 


*3 

*2 


Shubrick 
Dupont 


166 
165 


: S. 
.... o S. 


3,000 
3,400 


T.S. 
T.S. 


*3 
*3 


Porter 


165 


do ' S 


3 400 


T S 


*3 


Talbot 
Manly 


46* 
30 


do S. 
do S 


850 
950 


S. 
g 


*2 
*1 


Farragut 
Davis 


273 
132 


....do S. 
do S 


5,600 
1 750 


T.S. 

T S 


*2 
*3 


Fox 
T. A.M. Craven . 


132 
146 


. .do. . . S. 
do S 


1,750 
4 200 


T.S. 

T S 


*3 
*2 


Dahlgren . . 
McKee . 


146 
65 


do S. 
do S 


4,200 
850 


T.S. 

s 


*2 
*2 


Winslow 


142 


do S 


2 000 


T S 


*3 


Morris 


105 


do. S 


1 750 


T S 


*3 


Stiletto. 


31 


do W 


359 


S 


*2 


Rowan 


182 


do. S 


3 200 


T.S. 


* ? 


Plunger. . 


120 




? 160 


S 


*1 


Porpoise. . . 
Shark 


120 
120 


do S. 
do S. 


160 
160 


1 


:i 


Adder. 


120 


do S 


160 


S 


*i 


Moccasin 
Grampus 


120 
120 


....do S. 
do S 


160 
160 


I 




Pike 
Holland 


120 
73 


...do... S. 
do S. 


160 
150 


1 


ii 















* Torpedo tubes. 



74 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



UNDER CONSTRUCTION. 



Name. 


Dis- 
place- 
ment 

(tons). 


Type. 


Hull. 


I.H.P. 


Pro- 
pul- 
sion. 


Guns 
(main 
bat- 
tery). 


Place where building. 


Connecticut 


16,000 


1st class 


S. 


16,500 


T.S. 


24 


Navy Yard, New York. 






battleship 












Kansas 


16,000 


do . . 


S. 


16,500 


T.S. 


24 


New York Ship Building Co 
















Camden, N. J. 


Louisiana ' 


16,000 


. .do 


S. 


16,500 


T.S. 


24 


Newport News Ship Building and 
















Dry Dock Co., N'p't News.Va. 


Minnesota 


16,000 


..do 


s. 


16,500 


T.S. 


24 


Do. 


Vermont 


16,000 


do 


s. 


16,500 


T. S. 


24 


Fore River S. & E. Co., Quincy, 
















Ma.<-s. 


Georgia 


15,000 


. .do 


s.w. 


18,000 


T.S. 


24 


Bath Iron Works, Bath, Me. 


Nebraska 


15,000 


..do 


s.w. 


18,000 


T.S. 


24 


Moran Bros. Co., Seattle, Wash. 


New Jersey 


15,000 


..do 


s.w. 


18,000 


T.S. 


24 


Fore River S. & E. Co., Quincy, 
















Mass. 


Rhode Island. . . 


14,600 


..do 


s. 


18,000 


T.S. 


24 


Do. 


Virginia 


14,600 


. .do 


' S. 


18,000 


T.S. 


24 


Newport News Ship Building and 
















Dry Dock Co., N'p't News.Va. 


Idaho 


13,000 


. .do 


s. 


10,000 


T.S. 


22 


Contract not yet awarded. 


Mississippi 


13,000 


. .do 


s. 


10,000 


T.S. 


22 


Do. 


Ohio 


12,500 


. . do 


s. 


16,000 


T.S. 


20 


Union Iron Works, San Francis- 
















co, Cal. 


Tennessee 


14,500 


Armored 


s. 


25,000 


T.S. 


20 


Wm. Cramp & Sons, Philadel- 






cruiser. 










phia. Pa. 


Washington 


14,500 


..do 


s. 


25,000 


T.S. 


20 |New York Ship Building Co., 














Camden. N. J. 


California 


14,000 


..do 


s.w. 


23,000 


T.S. 


22 


Union Iron Works, San Francis- 
















co, Cal. 


Pennsylvania. . . 


14,000 


Armored 


s.w. 


23,000 


T.S. 


22 


Wm. Cramp & Sons, Philadel- 






cruiser. 










phia, Pa. 


West Virginia . . . 


14,000 


. .do 


s.w. 


23,000 


T.S. 


22 


Newport News Ship Building and 
















Dry Dock Co., N'p't News.Va. 


Colorado 


13,600 


..do 


s. 


23,000 


T.S. 


22 


Wm. Cramp & Sons, Philadel- 
















phia, Pa. 


M^nd.... 


.13,600 


..do 


s. 


23,000 


T.S. 


22 


Newport News Ship Building and 
Dry Dock Co., N'p't News.Va. 


South Dakota. . . 


13,600 


do 


s. 


23,000 


T.S. 


22 


Union Iron Works, San Francis- 


/V/ '"*') '*/ 














co, Cal. 


Charleston 


9,600 


Protected 
cruiser. 


s. 


21,000 


T.S. 


14 


Newport News Ship Building and 
Dry Dock Co., N'p't News,Va. 


Milwaukee 


9,600 


. .do 


s. 


21,000 


T.S. 


14 


Union Iron Works, San Francis- 














co, Cal. 


St. Louis 


9,600 . .do 


s. 


21,000 


T.S. 


14 


Neafie & Levy, Philadelphia.Pa. 


Chattanooga. . . . 


3,100 . .do 


s.w. 


4,700 


T.S. 


10 


Navy Yard, New York. 


Denver 


3,100 


..do 


s.w. 


4,700 


T.S. 


10 


Neafie & Levy, Philadelphia, Pa. 


Des Moines 


3,100 


..do 


s.w. 


4,700 


T.S. 


10 


Fore River S. & E. Co., Quincy, 
















Mass. 


Galveston 


3,100 


..do 


s.w. 


4,700 


T.S. 


10 


Navy Yard, Norfolk. 


Tacoma 


3,100 


. .do 


s.w. 


4,700 


T. S. 


10 


Union Iron Works, San Francis- 


Dubuque 


1,085 


Gunboat . 


s.w. 


1,050 


T.S. 


6 


co, Cal. 
Gas Engine and Power Co., and 
















Chas. L. Seabury & Co., con- 
















solidated.Morris Heights.N.Y. 


Paducah 


1,085 


. .do... 


s.w. 


1,050 


T.S. 


6 


Do. 


Gunboat No. 16 . 




..do 


s. 




T.S. 




Contract not yet awarded. 


Cumberland. . . . 


1,800 


Training 


s. 






'6 


Navy Yard, Boston, Mass. 






ship 












Intrepid 


1,800 


..do. ... 


s. 






6 


Navy Yard, Mare Island, Cal. 


Boxer 


345 


Training 


w. 








Navy Yard, Portsmouth, N. H. 






brigantine 












Stringham (No. 


340 


Torpedo 


s. 


7,200 


T.S. 


*2 


Navy Yard, League Island. 


19) 




boat 












Goldsborough 


247* 


..do 


s. 


6,000 


T.S. 


*2 


Navy Yard, Puget Sound. 


(No. 20) 
















Nicholson 


174 


..do 


s. 


3,500 


T.S. 


*3 


Navy Yard, New York. 


(No. 30) 
















O'Brien (No. 31) 


174 


do. . . 


s 


3 500 


T S. 


*3 


Do. 


Blakely (No. 28) 


165 


..do..... 


s. 


3,000 


T.S. 


*3 


Geo. Lawley & Sons, South Bos- 
















ton, Mass. 


Sotoyomo (No. 9) 


225 


..do 


s. 


450 


S. 




Navy Yard, Mare Island, Cal. 



*Torpedo tubes. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF VESSELS IN THE UNITED STATES NAVY. 



VESSELS FIT FOR SERVICE, INCLUDING THOSE 
UNDER REPAIR. 

First-class battleships 10 

1 

2 
1 
4 



Second-class battleship 

Armored cruisers 

Armored ram 

Single-turret harbor-defense monitors 

Double-turret monitors o 

Protected cruisers 14 

Unprotected cruisers 3 

Gunboats 12 

Light-draft gunboats 

Composite gunboats 6 

Training ship (Naval Academy), sheathed 1 

Special class (Dolphin-Vesuvius) 2 

Gunboats under 500 tons 21 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 16 

Steel torpedo boats 29 

Submarine torpedo boats 8 

Wooden t9rpedo boat 1 

Iron cruising vessels, steam 5 

Wooden cruising vessels, steam 6 

Wooden sailing vessels 4 

Tugs 39 

Auxiliary cruisers 5 

Converted yachts 23 

Colliers 16 

Supply ships and hospital ships 14 

Total. . . 252 



VESSELS UNDER CONSTRUCTION OR AUTHOR- 
IZED. 

First-class battleships 14 

Armored cruisers 8 

Protected cruisers 9 

Gunboat for great Lakes (not begun) ... 1 

Composite gunboats 2 

Steel torpedo boats 6 

Training ships 2 

Training brig 1 

Tugs 2 

Total. . , 45 



VESSELS UNFIT FOR SEA SERVICE. 

Iron single-turret monitors 5 

Wooden cruising vessels, steam 10 

Wooden sailing vessels 8 



Total 

Grand Total . . 



.. . 23 
. 302 




THE " LAKE " SIJPMABJNE BOAT ON THE SURFACE. 



7C 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 





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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



77 




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111 



78 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



THE TORPEDO BOAT IN MODERN WARFARE. 



The Russo-Japanese war has proved 
the wisdom of building torpedo boat 
destroyers of the dimensions and pow- 
er that characterize the latest models. 
With their length of 220 feet, beam of 
over 20 feet and draft of between 9 
and 10 feet, giving a displacement of 
between 300 and 400 tons, the mod- 
ern destroyer is a very serviceable sea 
boat, which was more than could be 
said for the torpedo boat of an earlier 
decade. The high freeboard and the 
provision of a raised turtle-back for- 
ward, render these boats able to main- 
tain their high speed in fairly rough 
water, and in the present operations 
the flotillas of Japanese destroyers 
seem to have been perfectly well able 
to keep the sea in all weather. Evi- 
dently the lessons taught by the dis- 
asters that happened to some of the 
high-powered British torpedo boat de- 
stroyers, when they were badly 
wrenched, and in one case actually bro- 
ken in two in a heavy seaway, have 
been laid to heart, and the Japanese 
destroyers which did such good work 
around Port Arthur are evidently sea- 
worthy vessels. 

A surprising feature of torpedo boat 
service in the Far Eastern struggle is 



the wide range of duties which were 
assigned to the destroyers. Scouting 
work which ordinarily would be given 
to cruisers from 3,000 to 6,000 tons 
displacement was satisfactorily car- 
ried out by these little 400-ton craft. 

By reference to the section dia- 
gram on page 77 the reader can obtain 
a very complete idea of a torpedo boat 
interior. Forward m the bow is a 
collision compartment formed by a 
bulkhead located several feet from the 
bow. Aft of that is the chain locker, 
and then the torpedoes, of which half 
a dozen are carried on a vessel of this 
character. Since the torpedo boat car- 
ries no armor whatever, the torpedoes, 
the war-heads, and the magazines are 
placed below the water-line, where they 
are safe from any except a plunging 
shot. The torpedoes are stowed with 
their war-heads containing the guncot- 
ton charge unscrewed, the latter being 
stowed separately, as shown in the en- 
graving. Aft of the war-heads is the 
forward magazine and a compartment 
given up to the general ship's stores. 
On the deck above are the quarters 
for the crew, which will number be- 
tween fifty and sixty men in the larger 
boats. 



THE MODERN TORPEDO. 



Commenting during the late Spanish 
war upon the efficiency of the torpedo, 
we said : "Although torpedo warfare 
has not yet achieved results at all pro- 
portionate to the amount of thought 
and skill that have been devoted to 
it, the failure has probably been due 
more to a lack of opportunity or of 
efficient handling than to any defi- 
ciency in the torpedo itself." The 
startling events that marked the open- 
ing of the Russo-Japan war have es- 
tablished the truth of that statement, 
for in the hands of an alert, intelligent 
and daring people, this deadly weapon, 
in the first half hour of hostilities, so 
badly crippled two of the finest battle- 
ships and one of the best cruisers of 
the Russian navy that they had to be 
beached, and a blow was struck at the 
naval prestige of Russia from which 
that country will take many years to 
recover. At the same time, the Port 
Arthur torpedo attack must be judged 
at, its true value ; and, therefore, we 
must not lose sight of the fact that 
information is finding its way to the 
public ear which makes it pretty evi- 
dent that the Russian ships were not 
looking for, and were totally unpre- 



pared to receive, a torpedo attack. If 
this is the case, what has been proved 
is that if the torpedo boat can get un- 
molested within easy range, the tor- 
pedo is fairly sure of its mark and 
this we all knew well enough before 
the war began. 

The Whitehead torpedo is undergo- 
ing constant development, the latest 
improvement being the introduction of 
the gyroscope for the purpose of keep- 
ing the torpedo more accurately upon 
its true course. The latest patterns 
include this device and are generally 
of larger diameter and greater length 
than the earlier types. 

We show on the preceding page an 
illustration of a Schwartzkopff tor- 
pedo, which is the type used in the 
Russian navy. It is merely a modifica- 
tion of the Whitehead and operates 
upon the same principles. 

The torpedo here shown consists of 
a cigar-shaped body of phosphor-bronze 
or steel, divided into six separate 
compartments as follows: (1) The 
magazine, (2) the secret chamber, (3) 
the reservoir, (4) the engine compart- 
ment, (5) the buoyancy compartment, 
(6) the bevel-gear chamber. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



79 



The magazine contains the explosive 
charge, which consists of a series of 
disks of wet guncotton packed snugly 
together. The cartridge primer, k, for 
exploding the charge, consists of sev- 
eral cylinders of dry guncotton packed 
in a tube which passes through per- 
forations in the guncotton disks, t. 
The foremost of the six cylinders con- 
tains a detonating primer consisting of 
fulminate of mercury. The small pro- 
peller at the extreme point of the tor- 
pedo is part of an ingenious safety de- 
vice for preventing premature explo- 
sion in handling. When not in use, 
the firing pin is held in check by a j 
sleeve ; but as soon as the torpedo 
strikes the water the rotation of the 
little propellers releases the sleeve and 
leaves the firing pin ready to strike the 
detonating primer the moment the tor- 
pedo meets an obstruction. 

The "secret chamber" is the most 
ingenious part of this most ingenious 
piece of mechanism. Its piston, pen- 
dulum and springs perform the impor- 
tant work of regulating the horizontal | 
rudders which keep the torpedo at the I 
proper depth. Immediately in front of j 
the secret chamber is a narrow com- 
partment perforated on its walls to 
allow the outside water to enter. The 
front wall of the secret chamber car- 
ries a piston, a, which can move in the 
direction of the axis of the torpedo. 
The pressure of the water is resisted 
by three coiled springs, as shown in 
the longitudinal section. At a certain 
predetermined depth, according to the 
tension on the springs, the springs and 
water pressure will be in equilibrium ; 
below that depth the piston will be 
driven in by the water pressure, and 
above it the springs will push forward 
the piston. To prevent too sudden os- 
cillation in this action, the piston is 
connected to the rod, c, of a swinging 
pendulum, d. The motion of the pis- 
ton is communicated by rods, which 
pass through the hollow stay rods of 
the air chamber to the horizontal or 
diving rudders. If the torpedo goes too 
deep the piston moves back, the pendu- 
lum swings forward and the rudders 
are elevated, the reverse movements 
taking place if the immersion is not 
sufficient. When a torpedo dives into 



the water, the first part of its run is 
made on a wave line which crosses and 
recrosses the desired and ultimate level 
of immersion, the piston and the pen- 
dulum gradually bringing the torpedo 
to a true course. The reservoir forms 
the central body of the "fish." It is 
made of forged cast steel and is tested 
up to seventy atmospheres. A tuyere 
at its after end feeds the air to the 
engine. The torpedo is driven by a 
three-cylinder engine, with cylinders 
120 deg. apart, acting on a common 
crank. The engine is started by means 
of a valve which is opened by a lever 
striking a projecting lug on the launch- 
ing tube, when the torpedo is fired. 

The buoyancy chamber is an air- 
tight compartment, the purpose of 
which is to afford the proper buoyancy 
to the torpedo ; it carries a piece of 
lead ballast, by shifting which the trim 
can be controlled. The two tubes, / 
and g, carry the connecting rods for 
controlling the horizontal diving rud- 
ders. 

Next comes the bevel-gear chamber, 
where is located the gear, 7, for caus- 
ing the propellers, m, to rotate in op- 
posite directions. The after propeller 
is keyed to the main shaft ; the forward 
propeller is keyed to a sleeve which 
rotates freely upon the main shaft, and 
the motion is reversed by means of two 
bevel-wheel gears which turn on a 
spindle at right angles to the main 
shaft. The "tail" consists of a stock 
with vertical vanes, which act as the 
vertical rudder, and two frames which 
carry the horizontal rudders. 

The torpedo is fired from a launch- 
ing tube by the explosion of a small 
charge of gunpowder behind it. This 
compresses the air which surrounds 
the rear half of the torpedo and thrusts 
it out of the tube without any serious 
jar. 

The range and speed of the torpedoes 
vary with the size. The weapon here 
shown is 14 inches in diameter, 15 feet 
in length, carries 90 pounds of guncot- 
ton and has a speed of 28 knots for a 
range of 800 yards. The 18-inch 
Whitehead torpedo is 16 feet 7% 
inches in length, carries a charge of 
220 pounds of guncotton and has a 
speed of 31 knots for 1,000 yards. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



INTERIOR OF A BATTLESHIP. 



The story of the complicated char- 
acter of the interior of a modern bat- 
tleship is one that has grown some- 
what stale in the telling, and it is not 
the fault of the magazine writer and 
the occasional correspondent of Sun- 
day supplements, if the general public 
is not satisfied that a great battleship 
or cruiser is complicated beyond the 
power of words to express. 

In saying that the battleship is com- 
plicated we must be careful to remem-* 
ber that complication does not imply 
confusion ; and that in all the practi- 



vessel, but will leave it to the diagram 
to tell its own story. 

The drawing is what is known as an 
inboard profile ; that is to say, it is a 
vertical, central, longitudinal section 
through the whole length of the ship. 
The huge structure of which we thus 
obtain an interior view, is a little un- 
der 450 feet in length from the extreme 
tip of the ram to the end of the rud- 
der. The foundation of the whole is 
the keel, which is nothing more nor 
less than a deep plate girder. 3 feet 6 
inches in depth, extending from the in- 




SECTION OF A 



1. Crew's showers. 

2. Paints and oils. 

3. Cofferdam. 

4. Trimming tank. 

5. Trimming tank. 

6. Seamen's lavatory. 

7. Bread and dry provisions. 

8. Construction stores. 



10. Stores. 

11. Hold and cable. Tier each 

side. 

12. Blower room. 

13. Military mast. 

14. Conning tower. 

15. Pilot house. 

16. Chart room. 



Torpedoes and submarine 17. Officers' room. 
18. Crew's galley. 



19. Trunk to dynamos. 

20. Wash rooms. 

21. Officers' galley. 

22. Firemen's room. 

23. Boiler room. 

24. Firemen's wash room. 

25. Trunk to evaporating 

room. 

26. Armory. 

27. Evaporator room. 



cable achievements of engineering, it 
would be difficult, if not impossible, to 
find a structure which, in spite of the 
many parts of which it is made up 
and the enormous elaboration of detail 
that it manifests, is really so harmo- 
niously proportioned, or is better fitted 
to the ends for which it was designed. 
There are some subjects of which an 
illustration will tell more in five min- 
utes than tongue or pen can explain in 
an hour ; and in presenting the accom- 
panying view of the interior of one of 
the latest battleships of the United 
States Navy, we shall not attempt to 
give any elaborate description of the 



board end of the ram structure to the 
rudder post. Bisecting it at every 3 
feet of its length occurs one of the 
plate girder frames or ribs, which ex- 
tend athwartship, and run up to the 
under edge of the armor shelf, where 
they are reduced to a depth of say from 
18 to 12 inches, the frames extend- 
ing up the sides of the ship to the 
level of the upper deck. On the out- 
side of these frames is riveted the 
outer plating of the ship, and upon the 
inside of the frames, extending as high 
up as the under side of the water-line 
belt, say 4 or 5 feet below the water- 
line, is riveted an inner shell of plat- 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



81 



ing. The space between the outer and 
inner plating is divided up by the 
frames into transverse water-tight 
chambers 3 feet in width, and every 
one of these spaces is subdivided by 
seven or eight longitudinal plate gird- 
ers which are built into the double 
bottom, as it is called, parallel with 
the keel and extending, most of them, 
the entire length from stem to stern. 
Consequently it will be seen that the 
space between the outer and inner 
shells of the ship's bottom is divided 
into an innumerable number of sep- 
arate compartments, measuring 3 feet 
in depth by 4 feet in length by about 



entrance of the fragments of heavy, 
high-explosive shells, bursting within 
the ship above the water-line, a steel 
deck, 2 to 3 inches in .thickness, known 
as the protective deck, extends at 
about the level of the water-line over 
the whole of the vitals, and is con- 
tinued in a gently curving slope to the 
ram forward and to the stem aft. In 
the vessel here shown this steel deck 
is iy 2 inches thick on the flat and 3 
inches thick on the slopes. 

Now, the space below the protective 
deck is divided up by a large number 
of transverse, water-tight bulkheads 
of steel plating, there being nineteen 




)ERN BATTLESHIP. 



28. General workshop. 

29. Warrant officers' pantry. 

30. Warrant officers' dining 

room. 

31. Signal tower. 

32. Military mast. 

33. Crane. 

34. Junior officers' stateroom. 

35. Blower room. 

36. 12-inch handling room. 



37. Shaft alley and 6-inch mag- 

azines. 

38. Admiral's office. 

33. Junior officers' pantry. 

40. Wardroom pantry. 

41. Skylight trunk to ward- 

room. 

42. Dining room. 

43. Stores. 

44. Bread and dry provisions. 



45. Ward room, 

46. Steering machinery room. 

47. Fresh water. 

48. Trimming tank. 

49. Admiral's cabin. 

50. Admiral's stateroom. 

51. Admiral's lavatory. 

52. Admiral's after-cabin. 

53. Cofferdam. 



feet in width. The plates are se- 
curely riveted together. 

Above the inner floor or platform the 
central portion of the vessel is taken 
up by the magazines, boiler rooms and 
engine rooms. These because of their 
vast importance, are known as the 
ship's vitals, and great care is taken 
to provide them against the entrance 
of heavy projectiles of the enemy, and, 
as far as may be, against the attack 
of the still more deadly torpedo. The 
engines and boilers are so proportioned 
as to height that they do not extend 
above the water-line : and to protect 
them from plunging shot, or from the 



of these bulkheads altogether. They 
extend from the inner shell of the 
vessel to the under side of the protec- 
tive deck. They are riveted perfectly 
water-tight, communication from com- 
partment to compartment being by wa- 
ter-tight doors. Forward in the bow 
are the trimming tanks, used to assist 
in bringing the vessel to an even keel. 
Then abaft of the collision bulkhead 
are bread and dry provision stores, and 
the construction stores. In the next 
compartment, which is divided into 
three decks, we have on the floor of 
the ship a storeroom for torpedo gear, 
submarine mines, etc. Above this is 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



the under-water torpedo room, and im- 
mediately below the protective deck are 
kept the paymaster's stores and life 
preservers. In the next compartment, 
below on the platform, are the anchor 
gear and c'hain lockers, and above this 
the navigator's stores. Passing through 
the next bulkhead we come to the vi- 
tals of the ship proper, with the 6- 
inch gun magazines on the floor, the 
12-inc'h magazines and handling rooms 
on the deck above, and above this the 
14-pounder ammunition and blower 
rooms. Above the magazines, and rest- 
ing on the protective deck, is the bar- 
bette of the forward pair of 12-inch 
guns, the armor and its relative thick- 
ness being shown by heavy, black lines ; 
while in front of the barbette the heavy 
sloping black line indicates the 
athwartship sloping bulkhead, placed 
there to prevent raking projectiles 
from passing through the entire struc- 
ture of the ship. Immediately to the 
rear of the forward barbette is seen 
the coning tower, with the heavily ar- 
mored tube which protects the tele- 
phones, electric wires, fuse tubes, etc., 
that pass from the tower down below 
the protective deck. In the next com 
partment, aft of the magazines, are 
the dynamo rooms ; and then between 
the next two bulkheads is placed an 
athwartship coal bunker. A similar 
athwartship coal bunker extends 
athwartship on the other side of the 
boiler rooms ; and it must be under- 
stood that at the side of the boiler 
rooms are the wing bunkers which run 
aft for the whole length of the boiler 
rooms and engine rooms. The boiler 
installation on this particular ship is 
entirely of the water-tube type, and 
it consists of twenty-four units ar- 
ranged in six separate water-tight com- 
partments, three on each side of the 
center line of the vessel. Aft of the 
boiler rooms comes the athwartship 
coal bunker above referred to, and 
then in two separate water-tight com- 
partments are the twin-screw engines. 
Aft of the engines in another com- 
partment is contained a complete set 
of magazines similar to that beneath 
the forward barbette, and above them, 
resting on the protective deck is the 
after barbette and turret, with its pair 
of 12-inch guns. Aft of the maga- 
zines come more compartments, de- 
voted to stores. In the next com- 
partment, down on the platform, are 
the fresh-water tanks and two trim- 
ming tanks, and on the deck above, be- 
low the protective deck are, first, the 
steering-machinery room, and then the 



steering-gear room, each being in a 
separate water-tight compartment. 
This completes the description of the 
space below the protective deck. 

The protective deck is known more 
generally among seamen as the berth 
deck. Above that, at a distance of 
about 8% feet, comes the main deck, 
and 8 l /2 feet above that the upper 
deck, while amidships, between the two 
main turrets, is the superstructure, the 
deck of which is known as the super- 
structure or boat deck. The berth 
deck and main deck are devoted to the 
living accommodations of the officers 
and crew, the crew being amidships 
and forward, and the officers aft. The 
berth deck, as its name would indicate. 
is largely devoted to the berthing and 
general living accommodation of the 
crew. Here are also to be found, in 
the wake of the forward gun turrets, 
on one side the sick bay, and on the 
other side the refrigerating room and 
ice machine. Aft of that, on the port 
side, are the sick bay, lavatory, dis- 
pensary, machinists' quarters, ord- 
nance workshop and blowers ; while on 
the starboard side are the petty offi- 
cers' quarters, the laundry, and the 
drying-room. Then, in the wake of 
the boiler-rooms, on each side of the 
ship, are coal bunkers which add their 
protection to that of the side armor 
of the vessel. In the center of the 
ship are washrooms for the crew and 
firemen. Aft of the coal bunkers on 
this deck come the officers' quarters. 
On both sides of the ship are the 
staterooms of the junior officers, and 
the wardroom " staterooms, while be- 
tween them is a large wardroom and 
dining-room with its pantry. The ex- 
treme aft portion of the berth deck 
is taken up by officers' lavatories, etc. 

On the main deck above, forward, is 
more berthing accommodation for the 
crew, also shower baths and lavatories, 
while amidships are found the various 
galleys for the crew and the officers, 
arranged between the basco of the 
smokestacks, while amidships in the 
wings of the vessel is more berthing 
space for the crew. Aft on the main 
deck the space is given up largely to 
accommodations for the senior officers 
and for the admiral, which, by the 
way, give one an impression more of 
commodiousness than of rich or ex- 
travagant furnishing. Forward, above 
the conning tower, are the pilothouse, 
chartroom and the room of the com- 
manding officer. In the particular 
ship shown, the heavier guns are 
mounted on the upper deck, two 12- 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



83 




LONGITUDINAL SECTION THROUGH A UNITED STATES BATTLESHIP 
SHOWING 12-INCH GUN TURRET, BARBETTE, HANDLING 
ROOM, AND MAGAZINES. 



84 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



inch guns in a turret forward and two 
aft, and eight 8-inch guns in two ar- 
mored turrets, two on each broadside 
amidships. The intermediate battery 
of twelve 6-inch guns is mounted on 
the main deck, the guns firing through 
casemates. On this deck are also 
eight 3-inch guns, four forward and 
four aft ; there are also four 3-inch 
guns, mounted in broadside on the 



upper deck, within the superstructure. 
The new method of emplacing guns on 
our warships, by which it is possible 
to swing the guns around until their 
muzzles are flush with the side of the 
ship, has the good effect of leaving the 
side of the ship free from projecting 
objects when the vessel is in harbor, 
and of leaving the living spaces of the 
crew but very slightly obstructed. 



SECTION THROUGH THE TURRET AND BARBETTE OF A 
MODERN BATTLESHIP. 



In the foregoing illustration, show- 
ing the interior of a turret and bar- 
bette on a modern American battle 
ship, the section has been carried 
down through the structure of the ship 
to the keel. It is taken on a vertical 
plane in the line of the keel and in- 
cludes enough of the ship in the fore 
and aft direction to take in the am- 
munition and handling rooms, and 
show the methods of storing the shot 
and shell and powder and the means 
for bringing it up to the breech of the 
gun. Commencing at the bottom of 
the section we have, first, the outside 
plating of the ship ; then about four 
feet above that is the inside plating, 
or inner bottom, as it is called. This 
space is divided laterally by the frames 
of the ship, which run across the bot- 
tom and up the sides to the shelf, upon 
which the side armor rests. Upon the 
double bottom, and between that and 
the first deck above, is a magazine 
where the ammunition is stored in 
racks as shown in the illustration, this 
particular ammunition being for the 
rapid-fire guns of six-inch calibre. On 
the deck above and centrally below the 
turret,* is located the handling room 
into which open by water-tight doors 
the magazines, where are stored the 
powder charges and the shells for the 
12-inch guns abave. Two decks above 
we come to the steel protective deck, 
2% to 3 inches in thickness. Upon 



this deck is erected a great circular 
structure known as the barbette, 
whose walls will be from eight to 
twelve inches in thickness. The bar- 
bette is actually a circular steel fort, 
and it is thick enough and its steel 
protection hard enough, to break up 
and keep out the heaviest projectiles 
of the enemy, except when they are 
fired at close ranges. At about two- 
thirds of the height of the barbette is 
a heavy circular track upon which runs 
a massive turntable. The framing of 
this turntable extends to a point 
slightly above the top edge of the bar- 
bette, and upon it is imposed the mas- 
sive structure of the turret, which is 
formed, like the barbette, of heavy 
steel armor carried upon framing, the 
form of the turret in plan being ellip- 
tical. Its front face, which slopes 
at an angle of about 40 degrees, is 
pierced with two ports, through which 
project the two heavy 12-inch guns. 
The mounting of these guns is car- 
ried also upon the turntable and re- 
volves with the turret. From the 
handling room below a steel elevator 
track extends up through the barbette 
and curves back to the rear of the gun ; 
and upon this there travel two ammu- 
nition cages which are loaded below 
upon the handling room floor and carry 
the projectiles and powder up to the 
breech of the guns, where it is thrust 
into the gun by mechanical rammers. 



THE SUBMARINE MINE. 



Broadly speaking, there are three 
different kinds of submarine mines. 
First, observation mines, which are 
fired from the shore when a ship is 
known to be in range ; second, auto- 
matic mines, which are exploded on 
being struck by a ship, which is the 
kind with which the Russians claim 



that the "Petropavlovsk" was sunk ; 
third, electric-contact mines, which 
on being struck by a passing vessel 
give notification to an operator on 
shore, who fires the mine by the throw 
of a switch. 

The accompanying illustrations 
show a system of electric-contact 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



85 



ground mines, laid across a channel, 
with a battery of rapid-fire guns on 
shore so placed that they command the 
whole of the mine field, and render it 
impossible for the small boats of the 
enemy to attempt to explode the mines 
before the big battleships and armored 
cruisers pass over them. The battery 
is placed rather low down near the 
water, and above it is a battery of 
heavy 8 and 10-inch breech-loading 
rifles mounted either en barbette, 
or on disappearing mounts, while 
above these, carefully masked by 
shrubbery, is a firing station, 
which is connected by cables with 
the mines in the channel. Some- 
times, by preference, the firing 
station is placed in a massive concrete 
casemate, which is built into the struc- 
ture of the fortification. The sub- 
marine mines would be laid out in a 
series of parallel lines, and so spaced 
that the mines in each line would cover 
the spaces left in the adjacent lines, 
with the result that on whatever 
course a ship might be steering, she 
would be certain to strike one or more 
of the mines before she passes over the 
field. The ground mine, which, as we 
have said, is usually a hemispherical 
metal case, contains several hundred 
pounds of high explosive, and is held 
in place on the bed of the river or 
channel by its own weight, sometimes 
assisted by heavy hooks cast upon the 
outer sheil. Anchored to the mine, 
and floating above it, at a depth below 
water that is less than the draft of the 
enemy's vessels, is a hollow buoyant 
sphere in which is placed the electric 
circuit-closer. The second engraving 
of the two herewith shown represents 
a section through the floating sphere, 
and shows the details of a type of 
circuit-closer which has been very 
widely used. It consists of a horse- 
shoe magnet, M, M, within which is 
hung by a coiled wire a ball, B. A 
silken cord is hung from the top of 
the magnet, passes dow r n through th? 
ball, and is attached to an armature, 
A. When the vessel strikes the buoy, 
the ball is thrown to one side, draws 
aside the silken cord and lifts the 
armature, A. To the poles. N, 8, of 
the magnet are secured two small mag- 
nets, (7, C, one end of the coil wire be- 
ing connected to line and the other to 
a contact point, ft. The armature A 
is secured by a spring to an insulated 
point, P, from which a wire passes 
through the firing fuse in the ground 
mine to earth. The other end of the 
armature carries a contact point 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



which, when the buoy is struck, en- 
gages with a contact point, &, which is 
connected to earth through the inter- 
posed resistance of a 1,000-ohm resist- 
ance coil. 

Our- second engraving shows the au- 
tomatic indicator or shutter, which is 
placed in the firing station on shore. 

Now let us follow more closely the 
operation of blowing up the hostile 



magnets, &, ft, and releases the pivoted 
shutter, 4, ringing the bell and throw- 
ing the signal battery line L into cir- 
cuit with the line to the firing battery, 
F, B. The operator now places the 
plug, P, in place, and sends the whole 
force of the main current into the line, 
and as this has sufficient force to pass 
the resistance and ignite the fuse, the 
ground mine is instantly exploded. In 




GROUND MINE, ELECTRIC-CONTACT, BUOY, AND SHUTTER AT 
FIRING STATION. 



ship. The instant the vessel strikes 
the buoy, the suspended ball, B, 
swings to one side, draws aside the 
cord, pulls up armature A, into con- 
tact with 6, and causes the signal-bat- 
tery current to pass by way of the 
1,000-ohm resistance-coil down through 
the ground fuse to earth. This cur- 
rent is too weak to ignite the fuse. 
At the same time the armature a (in 
the firing station), is attracted to the 



the case of an automatic mine of the 
kind that is claimed to have sunk the 
"Petropavlovsk," 'the instant the float- 
ing sphere or case is struck by the 
ship, there is an explosion of the 
charge, which is carried in the float- 
ing case, if the water is very deep, or 
in the ground mine at the bottom if 
the water is sufficiently shallow to 
bring the mine within striking distance 
of the ship's bottom. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



87 



A GROUP OF NAVY PROJECTILES. 

The projectiles in use by our navy | instant of striking; the latter is set 

to explode the shell a certain length 
of time after the shell has left the 
muzzle of the gun. 

Shrapnel is the modern form of the 
old case shot, which consisted of a large 



may be classed as solid shot, shell and 
shrapnel. Although some excellent 
solid shot is still manufactured, such 
as the Johnson fluid compressed shot, 
solid shot have given place to shell as 
the standard projectiles of the navy. 



number of balls put up in a case or 




8-inch 



10-inch 



12-inch 



13-inch 



4-inch 5-inch 6-inch 

GROUP OF COMMON SHELL AT THE WASHINGTON NAVY YARD. 



Shell is formed with an interior cav- 
ity of considerable dimensions, in 
which is placed a charge of powder 
or high explosive. It is provided with 
a fuse for the ignition of the charge, 
which is of the percussion or time- 
fuse type. The former acts at the 



envelope, which merely served to hold 
them together until they left the muz- 
zle of the gun. In the case of shrap- 
nel the envelope is made sufficiently 
strong to bear the shock of discharge, 
and a time-fuse is provided. 

The best armor-piercing projectiles 



88 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



are now made of chrome steel, the 
small admixture of chromium serving 
to impart to the steel a remarkable 
amount of toughness. The projectiles 
are cast, forged, and carefully an- 
nealed and tempered, the hardening 
being confined to the point or nose. 
The latter is ogival in form, the point 
being struck with a radius which is 
two or three times the diameter of the 
shell. The point has to be sharply 
pointed to insure its penetration of 
the hard face of the armor, but if it 
is made too fine, it will lack the neces- 
sary resisting power and will be frac- 
tured before it can get through. The 
best proportion of radius is found to 
lie between two and three times the 
diameter. 

There are two kinds of armor-pierc- 
ing projectiles. The first is made solid, 
or practically so, a small core being 
formed to give the best results in the 
forging process ; the other type is 
known as semi-armor-piercing. It is 
formed hollow, with a core of moder- 
ate dimensions, large enough to hold 
an explosive charge that will insure 
the bursting of the thick walls of the 
projectile. It is made of chrome steel, 
and requires in its manufacture to be 
treated with great care to secure the 
combined hardness and toughness to 
enable it to pierce solid armor without 
fracturing and carry its explosive 
charge intact into the interior of the 
ship. When such shell is filled with 
common powder the heat engendered 
by passing through the armor is de- 
pended on to explode the shell just 
within the ship ; no fuse is used. 

The object at which projectile mak- 
ers are aiming just now is to make a 
shell which can carry a charge through 
the best armor and burst on the inner 
side of the armor. It is already pos- 
sible to put solid shot through plate 
that is as much as one and one-half 
the diameter of the shot in thickness, 
and the success of the projectile mak- 
ers is such as to make it likely that 
before long a bursting shell can be 
made to perform the same feat. 

It will be evident that penetration 
of the armor belt by a shell will be . 
vastly more destructive to the ship 
than penetration by solid shot. The 
damage wrought by the latter will be 
confined to its direct path, where the 
zone of destruction of a shell will be 
almost as extensive, if it is of the 
larger calibres, as the whole area of the 
deck on which it strikes. The effects, 
moreover, will be greatly augmented 
if a high-explosive, bursting charge be 



substituted for common powder, al- 
though the sensitiveness of such 
charges renders it very difficult to 
carry them through armor plate and 
burst them on the inside. Excellent 
results, however, have been achieved 
in this direction against armor of mod- 
erate thickness. 

The group of shells shown in our 
engraving includes one of each of the 
sizes used on our warships, from the 
4-inch 33-pound shell up to the 13- 
inch 1,100-pound shell of our largest 
guns. They are all of the class known 
as "common shell," and are used 
against fortifications and earthworks 
and against the unarmored or lightly 
armored portions of warships. They are 
usually formed of cast-iron, though 
sometimes of cast-steel, and the in- 
terior cavity is large, enabling a big 
bursting charge to be carried. Unlike 
the forged chrome steel shell, they are 
unfit for armor-piercing, not having 
the necessary strength to carry them 
through the plates. 

The particulars of these shells are 
given in the following table : 



Diameter. 


Length. 


Bursting 
Charge. 


4-in 
5 
6 
8 
10 
12 
13 


ch 


1ft 
1 
1 
2 
3 
3 
4 


ot 4 inc 
3 
9 
6 

8 



hes. 


2 pou 
3 
4 

10 
22 
42 
70 


nds , 



It will be noticed that the point of 
the shell is cut off. It is here that 
the percussion fuse is inserted. The 
fuse consists of a hollow threaded brass 
case, which is screwed into a hole 
bored through into the interior of the 
shell. Inside the case is a cylindrical 
lead plunger, in the center of which 
is a fulminate and a priming charge. 
When the gun is fired, the plunger 
moves to the rear of the fuse, and at 
the moment when the shell strikes an 
obstruction it flies forward, the ful- 
minate striking a small anvil on the 
fuse cap. This ignites the primer, the 
flame of "which enters the shell and 
c-xplodes it. 



Turkestan is a general government of 
Central Asia. It comprises the khan- 
ates and deserts annexed by Generals 
Tchernaieff and Kaufmann between 
I860 and 1875, and now known as the 
provinces of Samarcand, Ferghana, 
and Syr Daria. Area about 257,134 
square miles, with 3,900,000 inhabi- 
tants. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



89 



OUR NAVY GUNS IN THE CIVIL WAR AND TO-DAY. 



Naval ordnance has made greater ' 
strides in the forty years that have j 
intervened since the Civil War than { 
in several centuries preceding. As ; 
proof of this it is enough to look at \ 
the striking comparison shown in the 
accompanying cut. The smaller illus- 
tration represents a Parrott 100 
pounder of 18G2, superimposed upon a 
modern 100-pounder, or to be correct, 
a 6-inch 50-calibre rapid-fire rifle of 
the year 1900 ; the lower diagram 
represents a 15-inch smooth-bore of the 
Civil War, superimposed upon a 12- 
inch breech-loading 45-calibre rifle of 
to-day. The comparison might be car- 
ried out to greater length throughout 
all the various calibres that constitute 
the batteries of naval ships ; but we 
have chosen to compare the main bat- 
tery of the monitor with the main bat- 
tery of the modern battleship, and what 
might be called the secondary battery 
of the frigates of 18G2 with the stand- 
ard secondary battery gun of the bat- 
tleship of to-day. 

The heaviest piece carried in the 
Civil War was the 15-inch smooth- 
bore. This gun weighed 42,000 
pounds ; its length over all was 
15 feet 1 inch ; its maximum diam- 
eter at the breech was 4 feet, and with 
an ordinary charge of 35 pounds of 
black cannon powder, it fired a spheri- 
cal shell weighing ,350 pounds. Ac- 
cording to the ordnance regulations, 
under extraordinary conditions, these 
guns might be fired 20 rounds "at 
ironclads at close quarters," using 100 
pounds of hexagonal or cubical powder 
and a solid shot weighing 450 pounds. 
Under these conditions the most re- 
spectable muzzle velocity of 1,000 foot- 
seconds was obtained, with a corre- 
sponding muzzle energy of 7,997 foot- 
tons. It would be interesting to know 
what the powder pressure was under 
these conditions, for the velocity and 
energy are something truly remark- 
able for a cast-iron gun. It is little 
wonder that only 20 rounds were al- 
lowed under the severe stresses im- 
posed by these ballistics. 

Now. compare these results with the 
most powerful gun in our navy to-day, 
namely, the 12-inch 45-calibre rifle, 
which weighs 53.4 tons, has a total 
length of 45 feet, and with a charge 
of 300 pounds of smokeless powder 
fires an 850-pound shell with a muz- 
zle velocity of 2,800-foot seconds and 
a muzzle energy of 40,246 foot-tons. 
The true basis of comparison of the 



Q 

6 

,*' H 

1 









32 



90 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



relative efficiency of the two guns is 
the amount of energy developed per 
ton of the weight of the gun, and on 
this basis we find that the old 15-inch 
smooth-bore gun when fired with 100 
pounds of powder developed 427 foot- 
tons of energy per ton of gun, as 
against 872 foot-tons of energy de- 
veloped by the modern 12-inch rifle. 

If we take account of the durability 
of a gun the advantage will be stronger 
on the side of the modern piece, for 
whereas the 15-inch smooth-bore was 
limited to twenty rounds under the 
given conditions, the modern 12-inch 
rifles, judging from the small amount 
of erosion developed with uitro-cellu- 
lose powders, should have a useful life 
of at least half a thousand rounds. 
Moreover, it must be remembered that 
the modern elongated shell will hold its 
velocity much longer than the old 
spherical shell of the smooth-bore, and, 
consequently, the respective muzzle ve- 
locities and energies are no criterion 
of the respective efficiencies of the 
guns. 



The gun of 1862 that answers to the 
modern secondary battery, 6-inch rifle, 
is the Parrott muzzle-loading rifle, a 
cast-iron gun which was strengthened 
at the breech over the powder cham- 
ber by shrinking thereon an iron hoop. 
The bore of the gun was 6.4 inches. 
It weighed 4.35 tons, was 12 feet 4 
inches in length and with a charge of 
ten pounds of powder it fired a 100- 
pound shell with an initial velocity of 
1,080 foot-seconds and a muzzle energy 
of 810 foot-tons. Compare this with 
the modern 6-inch rifle, which weighs 
8.5 tons, is 25 feet in length, and with 
a charge of 40 pounds of smokeless 
powder fires a 100-pound shell with an 
initial velocity of 2,900 feet per sec- 
ond and an initial energy of 5,838 foot- 
tons. 

Compared on the basis of energy per 
ton of gun, we find that the 100-pound- 
er Parrott muzzle loader developed 186 
foot-tons of energy per ton of gun, 
whereas the modern 6-inch breech- 
loading rifle develops 784^ foot-tons 
of energy per ton of gun. 



THE PAY OF NAVAL AND MARINE CORPS. 



An Admiral receives $13,500 wheth- 
er on sea duty or on shore duty. The 
first nine Rear-Admirals receive $7,- 
500 while on sea duty, and $6,375 on 
shore duty. The second nine receives 
$5,500 on sea duty and $4,675 on shore 
duty. A Brigadier-General Command- 
ant of Marine Corps, receives $5,500. 
The Chiefs of the various Naval Bu- 
reaus receive $5,500. Captains of the 
Navy receive $3,500 while on sea duty 
and $2,975 while on shore duty. The 
Judge Advocate General and Colonels, 
Marine Corps, line and staff, receive 
$3,500. Commanders of the Navy re- 
ceive $3,000 while on sea duty, and 
$2,550 while on shore duty. Lieut.- 
Colonels, Marine Corps, line and staff, 
receive $3,000. Lieut.-Commanders of 
the Navy while on sea duty receive 
$2,500, and while on shore duty $2,125. 
Majors of the Marine Corps, line and 
staff, receive $2,500. Lieutenants of 
the Navy receive $1,800 while on sea 
duty and $1,530 while on shore duty. 
Captains of the Marine Corps, if they 
are of the line, receive $1,800, and if 
they are of the staff, $2,000. Lieu- 
tenants of the junior grade receive 
$1,500 while on sea duty and $1.275 
while on shore duty. First Lieutenant 
and leader of the band of the Marine 
Corps receive $1,500. Ensigns of the 
Navy receive $1,400 on sea duty and 
$1,190 on shore duty. Second Lieu- 



tenants of the Marine Corps, Chief 
Boatswains, Chief Gunners, Chief Car- 
penters and Chief Sailmakers receive 
$1,400. Midshipmen in other than 
practice ships receives $950. At the 
Naval Academy and elsewhere $500. 
Chaplains receive $2,500 on sea duty, 
$2,000 on. shore, and $1,900 on leave or 
waiting orders. Professors of Mathe- 
matics and Civil Engineers receive 
$2,400 and $1,500 when on leave of 
absence or waiting orders. Naval Con- 
structors receive $3,200, and while on 
leave of absence or waiting orders, 
$2,200. Assistant Naval Constructors 
receive $2,000, and $1,500 while on 
leave or waiting orders. The warrant 
officers, boatswains, gunners, carpen- 
ters, sailmakers, pharmacists and war- 
rant machinists receive $1,200 while on 
sea duty and $900 while on shore, $700 
on leave of absence or waiting orders. 
Mates who were in service August 1, 
1904, receive $1,200 for sea duty, $900 
for shore duty, $700 on leave. Those 
appointed since receive $900, $700 and 
$500 respectively. The monthly pay 
of petty officers and enlisted men is : 
Chief petty officers, $50 to $70 ; petty 
officers, first-class, $36 to $65; petty 
officers, second-class, $35 to $40 ; third- 
class petty officers, $30 ; first-class sea- 
men, $21 to $35 ; second-class seamen. 
$15 to $30; third-class seamen, $9 to 
$22 



CHAPTER IT. 



THE ARMY OF THE UNITED STATES. 



Twice in the history of the world 
we have had an example of large bod- 
ies of men who were not producers who 
disturbed economic conditions by liv- 
ing at the public expense. We refer 
to the enormous monasteries in the 
middle ages and to the standing armies 
in Europe to-day. It seems to be es- 
sential to the maintenance of the in- 
tegrity of a number of the countries 
of Europe to keep a large standing 
army an army which takes some 
of the best years of the life of its citi- 
zens, as service is obligatory to all. 
These armies are supported at an 
enormous expense by systems of tax- 
ation which affect the poorest as well 
as the richest. 

^The question of the standing ar- 
mies of Europe is a problem which is 
rapidly increasing in seriousness, and 
there does not appear as yet to be any 
solution of the difficulty. 

For our protection we have to re- 
ly upon : 

1. The Regular Army, which rep- 
resents and is under the pay of the 
federal government, and which is offi- 
cered : 1. By graduates of the United 
States Military Academy, who at pres- 
ent are largely in the minority. 2. By 
the promotion of meritorious enlisted 
men of the Army. 3. By the appoint- 
ment of civilians, six of whom are an- 
nually selected from the best cadet- 
schools of the country. The last class 
is at present most largely represented. 

The officers receive commissions at 
the hands of the President. 

2. The organized militia or Na- 
tional Guard, which is composed ex- 
clusively of State troops, and, except 
when called into the service of the 
United States, is under the command 
of the Governors of the respective 
States. The officers of higher grade 
are appointed by the Governors, but 
the other officers, from Colonel down, 
are generally selected by ballot by the 
troops themselves. The National 
Guard is intended primarily for home 
defense. 



1)1 



3. The Volunteers, which form a 
branch of the service only to be found 
in time of war. They are such as 
offer their services upon the call of 
the President, and are officered either 
by West Point graduates, by officers of 
the National Guard, or civilian ap- 
pointees. 

Under the conditions existing in the 
late war with Spain, members of the 
National Guard were not called upon 
to serve in their capacity as State 
troops, but were invited to enlist in 
the volunteer service. 

The term of enlistment in the regu- 
lar service is for a period of three 
years, which term is fixed and not 
terminable by the ending of the war. 
In the volunteer service the period of 
enlistment is two years, but this term 
may be shortened by the ending of hos- 
tilities. 

A certain proportion of the officers 
of the regular army are graduates of 
the United States Military Academy 
at West Point, New York. 

By Acts of Congress approved June 
6, 1900, June 28, 1902, and March 3, 
1903, the Corps of Cadets as now con- 
stituted consists of one from each Con- 
gressional district, one from each Ter- 
ritory, one from the District of Col- 
umbia, one from Porto Rico, two from 
each State at large, and forty from the 
United States, at large, all to be ap-. 
pointed by the President and, with the 
exception of the forty appointed from 
the United States at large, to be actual 
residents of the Congressional or Ter- 
ritorial districts, or of the District of 
Columbia, or of the States, respective- 
ly, from which they are appointed. Un- 
der these Acts, and under the appor- 
tionment of Members of Congress ac- 
cording to the 12th Census, the maxi- 
mum number of cadets is 522. 

The total number of graduates from 
1802 to 1903, inclusive, is 4,214; 124 
members graduated June 15, 1904. 

Foreign governments can have ca- 
dets educated at the academy by au- 
thorization of Congress. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



93 



GROUP OF OFFICERS AND MEN SHOWING UNIFORMS WORN IN 
UNITED STATES ARMY. 



1. Major of Engineers in olive-drab uniform. 

2. Captain of Ordnance in olive-drab uniform . 

3. Private of Cavalry in olive-drab uniform. 

4. First Sergeant of Artillery in olive-drab 

uniform. 

5. Private of Infantry in olive-drab uniform 

and clothing roll. 

6. First Sergeant of Cavalry in olive-drab 

uniform. 

7. Corporal of Post Artillery in olive-drab 

uniform and overcoat. 

8. Post Quartermaster-Sergeant in olive- 

drab uniform. 

9. Trumpeter of Cavalry, mounted, in full- 

dress uniform. 

10. Colonel of Infantry, mounted, in full-dress 

uniform. 

11. Major-General, mounted, in full-dress 

uniform. 

12. Lieutenant-Colonel of Artillery, Aide-de- 

Camp, mounted, in full-dress uniform. 



13. First Sergeant of Infantry, in full-dress 

uniform. 

14. Captain of Cavalry, dismounted, in full- 

dress uniform. 

15. Brigadier-General, dismounted, in dress 

uniform. 

16. Major, Medical Department, dismounted, 

dress uniform and cape. 

17. Corporal of Engineers, full-dress uniform. 

18. Private of Cavalry, full-dress uniform. 

19. Sergeant of Artillery in full-dress uniform. 

20. Post Commissary-Sergeant, dress uniform. 

21. Lieutenant of Cadets, U. S. Military Acad- 

emy, full-dress uniform. 

22. Major, Quartermaster's Department, in 

full-dress uniform. 

23. First-class Sergeant, Signal Corps, in full- 

dress uniform. 

24. Captain Coast Artillery, in dress uniform 

and overcoat. 



The commander-in-chief is, ex-officio, 
of course, the President of the United 
States. 

Like the grades of Admiral and 
Vice-Admiral, the army also has two 
grades General and Lieutenant-Gen- 
eral. We have had only four Gen- 
erals, Washington, Grant, Sherman 
and Sheridan. A general is supposed 
to command an army. An army is a 
large and organized body of soldiers 
generally composed of infantry, artil- 
lery and cavalry, completely armed and 
provided with necessary stores, etc., 
and the entire force is under the direc- 
tion of one general, who is called the 
"general-in-chief." The army is sub- 
divided as follows ; the grades of rank 
and commands appropriate to each 
grade are given. 

An "army" is divided into two or 
more corps commanded by a Major- 
General. A "corps" is "the largest 
tactical unit of a large army. A corps 
is usually organized with separate 
staff, infantry, cavalry, and artillery 
regiments, as well as auxiliary servi- 
ces, so that it is really a small army 
complete in itself. A corps is usually 
composed of three divisions, each com- 
manded by a Major-General or a Brig- 
adier-General. A "corps" is also any 
body or department of an army which 
is not detached, but has its own or- 
ganization and head, as the "Corps of 
Engineers." Each "division" is com- 
posed of three brigades, and there may 
be an independent brigade of cavalry 



or artillery called the divisional cav- 
alry or artillery. 

A "brigade" consists of three regi- 
ments, though there may be more, and 
it is commanded by a Brigadier-Gen- 
eral, and sometimes by a Colonel. A 
"regiment," which is the administra- 
tive unit, is commanded by a Colonel, 
and it is divided into, twelve compa- 
nies, each composed, under the pres- 
ent law, of a maximum of 150 men for 
the infantry, 100 men for the cavalry, 
a total of 18,920 for the artillery 
corps, and 150 men for the engineers. 
A "company" is commanded by a Cap- 
tain. Two or more companies form 
a "battalion," and the battalion is 
commanded by a Major. 

The relative rank between the offi- 
cers of the army and navy is as fol- 
lows : General with Admiral ; Lieu- 
tenant-General ' with Vice-Admiral ; 
Major-General with Rear-Admiral ; 
Brigadier-General with Commodore ; 
Colonel with Captain ; Lieutenant-Col- 
onel with Commander ; Major with 
Lieutenant-Commander ; Captain with 
Lieutenant ; First Lieutenant with 
Lieutenant (junior grade) ; Second 
Lieutenant with Ensign. 

The pay of the officers in active ser- 
vice is as follows : Lieutenant-General, 
$11,000; Major-General, $7,500 ; Brig- 
adier-General, $5,500 ; Colonel, $3,500 ; 
Lieutenant-Colonel, $3,000 ; Major, 
$2,500; Mounted Captain, $2,000; 
Captain on foot, $1,800 ; regimental 
Adjutant, $1,800; regimental Quar- 



94 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



termaster, $1,800; First Lieutenant, 
mounted, $1,600; First Lieutenant on 
foot, $1,500; Second Lieutenant, 
mounted, $1,500 ; Second Lieutenant 
on foot, $1,400. All of the officers 
from the Colonel down receive addi- 
tional amounts after five, ten, fifteen 
and twenty years' service, but there is 
a limit to this amount ; thus the maxi- 
mum pay of a Colonel is $4,500 per 
annum. The pay of a private, wheth- 
er artillery, cavalry or infantry, is $13 
per month for the first and second 
years, $14 for the third year, $15 for 
the fourth year, $16 for the fifth year. 
After five years' continuous service 
they receive $2 per month extra. For 
service in the insular possessions 20 
per cent, is added to the pay of officers 
and enlisted men. 

The present strength of the regular 
army is about 3,800 officers and 60,000 
enlisted men ; 13,000 of them are in 
the Philippines. This does not include 
4,800 scouts, who are paid from the 
Philippine treasury proper. 

The policy of the United States in 
having a small military establishment 
has led to the organization of a large 
body of reserves, which are known as 
the organized militia or "National 
Guard." According to the latest ac- 
counts received at the office of the Ad- 
jutant-General in 1903 there were in 
the National Guard of the various 
States and Territories 9,184 commis- 
sioned officers and 107,422 non-coni- 
missioned 'officers, privates, musicians, 
etc., making a total of 116,606. 

Under the Act of Congress approved 
January 31, 1903, the militia consists 
of every able-bodied male citizen of the 
United States who is more than eight- 
een and less than forty-five years of 
age, and is divided into two classes 
the organized militia or National 
Guard, and the remainder to be known 
as the reserve militia. It is entirely 
optional whether eligible citizens 
join the National Guard or not, 
and they elect their own officers, but it 
is safe to say that this body of reserves 
is recruited from the best and most 
patriotic element of the population of 
the United States. Congress makes 
an appropriation each year for the sup- 
port of the militia in the various 
States, and the States also contribute, 
help and build armories, as the regi- 
ments are really intended to defend 
their own States primarily, although 
in time of war they furnish an excel- 
lently drilled body of volunteers. In 
nearly every city of any great size 



there is one or more armories, and in 
the smaller cities and towns there are 
separate companies which have armo- 
ries or drill halls. The militia in each 
State is divided into brigades, regi- 
ments and companies. Under the act 
of Congress above named the Presi- 
dent of the United States has the pow- 
er to call upon any of the military or- 
ganizations of the States for national 
defense, but the troops are usually 
utilized by the Governor of the State 
for enforcing the State laws. 

The experience of the Spanish-Amer- 
ican war demonstrated the need of 
what is known in foreign armies as a 
General Staff Corps. Accordingly, 
under the Act of Congress approved 
February 14, 1903, a Chief of Staff 
was authorized, to take the place of 
the commanding general of the army, 
and a General Staff Corps whose du- 
ties are defined as follows : To prepare 
plans for the national defense and for 
the mobilization of the military forces 
in time of war ; to investigate and re- 
port upon all questions affecting the 
efficiency of the army and its state of 
preparation for military operations ; 
to render professional aid and assist- 
ance to the Secretary of War and to 
general officers and other superior 
commanders, and to act as their agents 
in informing and co-ordinating the ac- 
tion of the different officers who, un- 
der the terms of the act, are subject 
to the supervision of the Chief of 
Staff ; and to perform such other mili- 
tary duties not otherwise assigned by 
law, as may from time to time be pre- 
scribed by the President. 

Under this act a number of officers 
were detailed in the General Staff for 
a period of four years, and the corps 
was organized into three divisions, 
each under a superior officer, with the 
following duties : The first division has 
charge of army administration, disci- 
pline, drill, and equipment ; the sec- 
ond division is the division of military 
information, and in addition has 
charge of military maps, military at- 
taches and the War Department li- 
brary : the third division is termed the 
technical division, and includes the 
devising of plans for defense and of- 
fense, the matter of sites for fortifica- 
tions, the question of military edu- 
cation, and the Army War College. 

This article has been revised by 
Captain C. D. Rhodes, U. S. A., of 
the General Staff Corps, under the di- 
rection of Major W. D. Beach, U. S. A., 
Chief of Staff, Second Division. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



95 



INFORMATION RELATIVE TO THE APPOINTMENT AND ADMISSION 

OF CADETS TO THE UNITED STATES 

MILITARY ACADEMY. 



APPOINTMENTS. 

How Made. Each Congressional 
District and Territory the District of 
Columbia and also Porto Rico is en- 
titled to have one Cadet at the Acade- 
my. Each State is also entitled to 
have two Cadets from the State at 
large, and forty are allowed from the 
United States at large. The ap- 
pointment from a Congressional Dis- 
trict is made upon the recom- 
mendation of the Congressman 
from that district, and those from a 
State at large upon the recommenda- 
tions of the Senators of the State. 
Similarly the appointment from a Ter- 
ritory is made upon the recommenda- 
tion of the Delegate in Congress. Each 
person appointed must be an actual 
resident of the State, District or Ter- 
ritory from which the appointment is I 
made. 

The appointments from the United 
States at large, from the District of 
Columbia and from Porto Rico are 
made by the President of the United 
States upon his own selection. The 
appointment of the Cadet from Porto , 
Rico is made by the President on the 
recommendation of the Resident Com- 
missioner. 

Manner of Making Applications. - 
Applications may be made at any 
time, by letter to the Adjutant Gen- 
eral, U. S. Army, Washington, D. C., 
to have the name of the applicant 
placed upon the register that it may 
be furnished to the proper Senator, 
Representative, or Delegate, when a 
vacancy occurs. The application must; 
exhibit the full name, date of birth, 
and permanent abode of the applicant, 
with the number of the Congressional 
District in which his residence is sit- 
uated. 

Date of Appointments. Appoint- 
ments are required by law to be made 
one year in advance of the date of ad- 
mission, except in cases where, by rea- 
son of death or other cause, a vacancy 
occurs which cannot be provided for 
by such appointment in advance. 
These vacancies are filled in time for 
the next examination. 

Alternates. For each candidate ap- 
pointed there may be nominated two 
alternates. The principal and each al- 
ternate will receive from the War De- 
partment a letter of appointment, and 



must appear for examination at the 
time and place therein designated ; 
those previously accepted by Academic 
Board on certificate or mentally quali- 
fied, appearing for physical examina- 
tion only. 

The fitness for admission to the 
Academy of the principal and the al- 
ternates will be determined as pre- 
scribed in paragraphs 19, 20 and 21, 
Regulations U. S. Military Academy. 

Should the principal and alternates 
not qualify for admission under 
the provisions of paragraph 21, they 
will still be entitled to appear for 
the examination prescribed in para- 
graph 19; but if the principal fails 
to appear for that examination 
or, appearing, fails to qualify, 
then the qualifications of the al- 
ternates will be considered and if only 
one has met the requirements he will 
.be admitted ; if both alternates have 
met the requirements the better quali- 
fied will be admitted. 

The alternates, like the principal, 
should be designated as nearly one 
year in advance of the date of admis- 
sion as possible. 



ADMISSION OF CANDIDATES. 

The following are extracts from the 
regulations of the Military Academy 
relating to the examination of candi- 
dates for admission and will be strict- 
ly adher-'d to : 

19. Candidates selected for appoint- 
ment, unless accepted under the pro- 
visions of paragraph 21, shall appear 
for mental and physical examination 
before boards of army officers to be 
convened at such places as the War 
Department may select, on the first of 
May, annually, except when that day 
comes on Sunday, in which case the 
examination shall commence on the 
following Tuesday. Candidates who 
pass successfully will be admitted to 
the Academy without further examina- 
tion upon reporting in person to the 
Superintendent at West Point before 
12 o'clock noon on the loth day of 
.Tune of the same year. 

20. Each candidate before he shall 
be admitted to the Academy as a Ca- 
det must show, by the examination 
provided for in paragraph 19 or by the 
methods prescribed in paragraph 21, 



96 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



that he is well versed in the following 
prescribed subjects, viz. : Reading, 
writing, spelling, English grammar, 
English composition, English litera- 
ture, arithmetic, algebra through 
quadratic equations, plane geometry, 
descriptive geography, and the ele- 
ments of physical geography, espec- 
ially tho geography of the United 
States, United States history, the out- 
lines of general history, and the gen- 
eral principles of physiology and 
hygiene. 

21. The Academic Board will con- 
sider and may accept in lieu of the 
regular mental entrance examination : 

1st. The properly attested exami- 
nation papers of a candidate who re- 
ceives his appointment through a pub- 
lic competitive written examination 
covering the range of subjects pre- 
scribed in paragraph 20. 

2d. The properly attested certificate 
of graduation from a public high 
school or a State normal school in 
which the course of study, together 
with the requirements for entrance, 
shall coyer the range of subjects pre- 
scribed in paragraph 20. 

3d. A properly attested certificate 
that the candidate is a regular student 
of any incorporated college or uni- 
versity, without condition as to any 
subject mentioned in paragraph 20. 

Application for consideration of pa- 
pers or certificates shall be made by 
each candidate and alternate immedi- 
ately after he receives his appoint- 
ment. No application will be re- 
ceived after March 15 preceding the 
regular examination prescribed in 
paragraph 19. 

Candidates accepted as qualified 
mentally under the provisions of this 
paragraph shall appear for physical ex- 
amination at the time and place desig- 
nated in their letters of appointment. 

Immediately after reporting to the 
Superintendent for admission, and be- 
fore receiving his warrant of appoint- 
ment, the candidate is required to sign 
an engagement for service in the fol- 
lowing form, and in the presence of the 
Superintendent, or of some officer 
deputed by him : 



tary Academy, I will serve in the 
Array of the United States for eight 
years, unless sooner discharged by com- 
petent authority. 

"In the presence of ." 

The candidate is then required to 
take and subscribe an oath or affirma- 
tion in the following form : 

"I, , do solemnly swear 

that I will support the Constitution of 
the United States, and bear true alle- 
giance to the National Government ; 
that I will maintain and defend the 
sovereignty of the United States, para- 
mount to any and all allegiance, sov- 
ereignty, or fealty I may owe to any 
Stale or country whatsoever; and that 
I will at all times obey the legal or- 
ders of my superior officers, and the 
rules and articles governing the Ar- 
mies of the United States. 

''Sworn and subscribed, at , this 

day of - - nineteen hundred 

and before me. 



"I, 

ritory) 



-, of the State (or Ter- 
of , aged - - years 
- months, do hereby engage (with 
the consent of my parent or guardian) 
that, from the date of my admission 
as a Cadet of the United States Mili- 



Qualifications. No candidate shall 
be admitted who is under seventeen, 
or over twenty-two years of age, or 
who is deformed, or afflicted with any 
disease or infirmity which would ren- 
der him unfit for the military service, 
or who has, at the time of presenting 
himself, any disorder of an infectious 
or immoral character. Accepted can- 
didates if between seventeen and 
eighteen years of age should not fall 
below five feet three inches in height 
and one hundred pounds in weight ; if 
between eighteen and nineteen years, 
five feet three and one-half inches in 
height and one hundred and five 
pounds in weight ; if over nineteen, 
five feet four inches in height and one 
hundred and ten pounds in weight. 
Candidates must be unmarried. 

Each candidate must on reporting 
at West Point present a certificate 
showing successful vaccination with- 
in one year ; or a certificate of two 
vaccinations, made at least a month 
apart, within three months. 

A circular of information as to the 
physical and mental examination can 
be had by addressing the Secretary of 
War, Washington, D. C. 



ACADEMIC DUTIES. 

The academic duties and exercises 
commence on the first of September 
and continue until the first of June. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



97 



Examinations of the several classes 
are held in December and June, and, 
at the former, such of the new Cadets 
as are found proficient in studies and 
have been correct in conduct are given 
the particular standing in their class 
to which their merits entitle them. Af- 
ter each examination, Cadets found de- 
ficient in conduct or studies are dis- 
charged from the Academy, unless the 
Academic Board for special reasons in 
each case should otherwise recommend. 
Similar examinations are held every 
December and June during the four 
years comprising the course of study. 

Military Instruction. From the ter- 
mination of the examination in June 
to the end of August the Cadets live in 
camp, engaged only in military duties 
and exercises and receiving practical 
military instruction. 

Except in extreme cases, Cadets are 
allowed but one leave of absence dur- 
ing the four years' course ; as a rule 
the leave is granted at the end of the 
first two years' course of study. 



PAY OF CADETS. 

The pay of a Cadet is $500 per 
year and one ration per day, or com- 
mutation therefor at thirty cents per 
day. The total is $609.50, to com- 
mence with his admission to the 
Academy. The actual and necessary 
traveling expenses of candidates from 
their homes to the Military Academy 
are credited to their accounts after 
their admission as Cadets. There is 
no provision for paying the expenses of 
candidates who fail to enter and they 
must be prepared to defray all their 
own expenses. 

No Cadet is permitted to receive 
money, or any other supplies, from his 
parents, or from any person whomso- 
ever, without the sanction of the 
Superintendent. A most rigid observ- 
ance of this regulation is urged upon 
all parents and guardians, as its vio- 
lations would make distinctions be- 
tween Cadets which it is the especial 
desire to avoid ; the pay of a Cadet is 
sufficient, with proper economy, for his 
support. 

Each Cadet must keep himself sup- 
plied with the following mentioned ar- 
ticles, viz. : 

Two pairs of uniform shoes : six 
pairs of uniform white gloves ; two 
sets of white belts ; *eight white 
shirts; *four night shirts: twelve 
white linen collars ; twelve pairs of 
white linen cuffs ; *eight pairs of 



socks ; *eight pairs of summer draw- 
ers : *six pairs of winter drawers ; 
*twelve pocket handkerchiefs ; *twelve 
towels ; two clothes bags, made of tick- 
ing ; *one clothes brush ; *one hair- 
brush : *one tooth brush ; *one comb ; 
one mattress ; one pillow ; four pillow- 
cases ; eight sheets, two blankets, and 
on quilted bed cover; one chair; one 
tumbler ; *one trunk ; one account 
book ; one wash basin. 

Candidates are authorized to bring 
with them the articles marked *. 

Cadets are required to wear the pre- 
scribed uniform. All articles of their 
uniform are of a designated pattern, 
and are sold to Cadets at West Point 
at regulated prices. 



DEPOSIT PRIOR TO ADMISSION. 

Immediately after being admitted to 
the Institution, Cadets must be provid- 
ed with an outfit of uniform, the cost 
of which will be about $100, which 
sum must be deposited ivith the Treas- 
urer of the Academy before the candi- 
date is admitted. It is best for a can- 
didate to take with him no more 
money than will. defray his traveling 
expenses, and for the parent or guar- 
dian to send to "The Treasurer of the 
V. S. Military Academy," the re- 
quired deposit of $100. This amount 
is sufficient to equip a new Cadet with 
uniform and to supply him with all 
articles and books. 



PROMOTION AFTER GRADUATION. 

The attention of applicants and can- 
didates is called to the following pro- 
visions of an Act of Congress ap- 
proved May 17, 1886, to regulate the 
promotion of graduates of the United 
States Military Academy : 

"That when any Cadet of the United 
States Military Academy has gone 
through all its classes and received a 
regular diploma from the Academic 
Staff, he may be promoted and com- 
missioned as a second lieutenant in any 
arm or corps of the army in which 
there may be a vacancy and the duties 
of which he may have been judged 
competent to perform ; and in case 
there shall not at the time be a va- 
cancy in such arm or corps, he may, 
at the discretion of the President, be 
prompted and commissioned in it as an 
additional second lieutenant, with the 
usual pay and allowances of a second 
lioutenant, until a vacancy shall hap- 
pen." 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



THE NEW SPRINGFIELD MAGAZINE RIFLE. 



3 I 

!* I 

~ y - 

tf -c 




W JQ 
fc < 

o 



The new Springfield magazine rifle, 
which has undergone its preliminary 
tests with very gratifying results, will 
take the place of the Krag-Jorgensen, 
which now, for several years, has been 
doing excellent service in the United 
States Army. We present a photo- 
graph of the gun, which will be known 
as Springfield Magazine Rifle Model 
1902, and also a line-drawing which 
shows several sectional views of the 
gun. By means of the carefully let- 
tered parts a good idea is obtained of 
the details of the gun. The weapon is 
supplied with a cleaning rod. which 
can be partially pulled from its place 
below the barrel, and held with a catch 
so as to form a bayonet. The great 
advantage of the rod bayonet is that 
it lightens the weight made up of the 
gun, bayonet and bayonet's scabbard, 
and, by dispensing with the latter two 
as separate articles to carry, permits 
the soldier to carry with him an en- 
trenching tool of sufficient size and 
weight to be serviceable. While there 
is some diversity of opinion as to the 
value of the rod bayonet, which is con- 
sidered to be less effective than the 
type now in use, it still is of value 
as converting the musket into a pike. 
Moreover, in view of the growing value 
of the entrenching tool and the ever- 
decreasing opportunities for the use of 
the bayonet, the substitution of an en- 
trenching tool for the latter is certain- 
ly in line with the recent development 
of field operations. The piece is cen- 
trally fed by means of clips, each of 
which holds five cartridges ; and it will 
be noticed that the bolt has two lugs 
instead of one as in the old gun. In 
a recent report of the Chief of Ord- 
nance the trials of the piece are spoken 
of as having given "very satisfactory 
results." The chief points of difference 
from the Krag-Jorgensen are this use 
of two lugs in place of one for holding 
the bolt against the rearward pressure 
of the powder the increased strength 
so obtained being sufficient to allow 
of an increase of velocity with the 
same weight of bullet, from 2,000 feet 
per second in the Krag-Jorgensen to 
2,300 feet per second in the new piece, 
the resulting increase in muzzle energy 
being from 1,952 foot-pounds to 2,582 
foot-pounds. The Krag-Jorgensen is 
capable of penetrating 45.8 inches of 
white pine at a distance of 53 feet, 
whereas the new weapon penetrates 
."4.7 inches at the same distance. The 
striking energy at 1,000 yards has been 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 







100 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



raised from 30(5 foot-pounds to 448. 
Other data regarding the new piece are 
as follows : The caliber is 0.30 ; the 
rifling is made up of four grooves of a 
depth of 0.004 inch, the twist being 
one turn in 10 inches. The bullet 
weighs 220 grains, which is the same 
as that of the Krag-Jorgensen, but the 
powder charge has been raised from 
37.6 to 43.3 grains. In spite of the 
considerable increase in its power the 
weapon has been greatly reduced in 
weight ; for while the present service 
magazine rifle weighs 10.64 pounds, 
and the Mauser 10.5 pounds, and the 
German military rifle 11.54 pounds, the 
new weapon weighs only 9.47 pounds. 
It follows, as a matter of course, that, 
with such high velocity and fairly 
heavy bullet, the trajectory is corre- 



spondingly flat, the maximum prdinate 
of the 1,000 yard trajectory being only 
20.67 feet as against 25.8 "feet for the 
Krag-Jorgensen, 24.47 for the Mauser 
and 23.73 for the German military 
rifle. 

In addition to those mentioned above 
there are other improvements, such as 
housing of the magazine in the stock 
directly below the chamber, instead of 
having it project at the side of the 
gun. and there are many changes of 
detail which both improve the rifle 
and cheapen and accelerate its pro- 
duction. 

In closing it should be mentioned 
that the new gun is considerably short- 
er than any existing rifle, and is only 
slightly longer than the military car- 
bine. 



NEW SPRINGFIELD MAGAZINE RIFLE COMPARED WITH THE 

KRAG-JORGENSEN, THE MAUSER AND THE 

GERMAN MILITARY RIFLE. 



Data. 


Springfield 
Magazine 
Rifle. 


Service 
Magazine 
Rifle. 


Mauser 
7 Mm. 
Rifle. 


German 
Military 
Rifle. 


Caliber inch 


30 


30 


275 


311 


Rifling: 
Number of grooves. . 


4 


4 


4 


4 




004 


004 


0049 


004 


Twist, one turn in inches. . 
Weight of bullet. . . grains 


10 

220 


10 
220 


8.66 
173 


9.45 

226 82 




43 3 


37 6 


38 58 


41 2 


Weight of complete cartridge. grains 


451 15 


438 85 


385 63 


430 24 


Initial velocity, feet per second 
Remaining velocity at 1,000 yards. . 


2300 

958 


2000 
901 


2200 
895 


2145 
906 


Muzzle energy foot-pounds . . 
Striking energy at 1,000 yards, .foot-pounds. . 
Penetration in white pine at 53 feet inches 


2581.6 
447.9 
54 7 


1952 
396.2 
45 8 


1857.4 
307.4 
50 8 


2135 
413 


Weight of rifle, including bayonet and scab- 
bard. . . . pounds 


9.47 


10 64 


10 5 


11.54 


Weight of rifle, including bayonet, scabbard, 
and 100 cartridges pounds. . 
Capacity of magazine. . rounds 


15.91 
5 


16.91 
5 


16.18 
5 


17.68 
5 


Maximum ordinate of 1000 yd. trajectory, feet. . 


20.67 


25.8 


24.47 


23.73 



THE SIXTEEN-INCH GUN. 



The great 16-inch 126-ton gun. built 
for the United States at the Water- 
vliet arsenal, is 49 1 / 4 feet long, over 6 
feet in diameter at the breech, and it 
has an extreme range of over twenty 
miles. Its projectile weighs 2,370 
pounds, and costs $865 to fire the gun 
once. The map on page 102 will 
give graphic illustration of the range 
of this gun. If fired at its maximum 
elevation from the battery at the south 
end of New York in a northerly direc- 
tion, its projectile would pass over the 
city of New York, over Grant's Tomb, 
Spuyten Duyvil, Riverdale, Mount St. 



Vincent, Ludlow, Yonkers, and would 
land near Hastings-on-the-Hudson, 
nearly twenty miles away, as shown in 
our map. The extreme height of its 
trajectory would be 30,516 feet, or 
nearly six miles. This means that if 
Pike's Peak, of the Western Hemi- 
sphere, had piled on top of it Mont 
Blanc, of the Eastern Hemisphere, this 
gun would hurl its enormous projectile 
so high above them both as to still 
leave space below its curve to build 
Washington's Monument on top of 
Mont Blanc, as shown. The model, 
page 101, was exhibited at St. Loute. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



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102 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



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Height of parabola, 5J miles. Weight of projectile, 2,370 pounds. 
Powder charge, 576 pounds. 




RADIUS OF ACTION OF SIXTEEN-INCH GUN. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



FOREIGN ARMIES. 

The latest particulars relating to the military power of the countries of Europe, Abyssinia, 
China, Egypt, Japan, Mexico, etc., from Hazell's Annual for 1904, will be found below. 



ABYSSINIA. 

The organization is feudal in character, and 
the constitution is by provinces, each governor 
or Ras having a standing force as garrison 
and at call in case of war, and a considerable 
number of retainers not embodied. The garri- 
son forces united constitute the new army of 
Menelik, and are estimated at 70,000 men. 
The central control is weak, and there are no 
organized divisions into the three arms, as in 
Europe; but the forces are readily grouped, the 
mounted men forming an irregular cavalry, 
and have great mobility. Practically every 
man has a sword and a rifle, but the firearms 
are extraordinarily varied, and the mounted 
troops also carry a javelin or spear. They do 
not exceed 5,000 altogether. The guns are 
mostly adapted for mountain work, there being 
about 50 modern and 30 old ones. The un- 
embodied retainers, who may be likened to a 
militia, number about 140,000 men. 

ARGENTINA. 

The army is sanctioned by an annual vote, 
as in Great Britain. The standing force and 
reserve consist of 120,000 men (18 battalions 
of Infantry, 12 regiments of cavalry, 8 of 
artillery, and 4 battalions of engineers). Out- 
side these are the National and Territorial 
Guard, which have little training. Compul- 
sory military service (25 years in all) was 
adopted in 1901, and it is believed that 500,000 
men could be mobilized in case of war. 

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 

The active army of the Dual Monarchy is an 
organization common to both kingdoms, and 
has its Ersatz, or supplementary Reserve, 
with local forces for Bosnia and Herzegovina 
attached. There are fifteen army corps, and 
certain troops in the military districts of Zara 
in Dalmatia. In addition are the Austrian 
Landwehr and Landsturm and the Hungarian 
(or Transleithan) Landwehr and Landsturm, 
known as the Honved. 

During 1903 the army question rose to great 
prominence between the national parties in 
Austria and Hungary, and certain concessions 
were made to the latter in regard to the 
language of command, regimental colors, and 
other matters, but these do not affect the 
unity of the army. 

The fifteen army corps comprise 5 cavalry 
divisions and 31 infantry divisions of the act- 
ive army, and on mobilization a Landwehr 
division would be attached to each. There are 
466 battalions of infantry (102 regiments of 
the line, 4 of Tyrolese rifles and 4 Bosnian, and 
26 battalions regular rifles. The cavalry on a 
peace footing comprises 252 squadrons (15 
regiments of Dragoons, 11 of Uhlans, and 16 
of Hussars), and the artillery 251 batteries, 



exclusive of 18 battalions of fortress artillery 
and 15 of pioneers. The field artillery is 
formed in 14 brigades, and a group of 3 
mountain batteries in the Tyrol. On a peace 
footing there are 224 field batteries, 16 horse 
batteries, 11 mountain batteries, 56 ammu- 
nition columns (in skeleton), and 56 depots. 
The war strength would give a total of 328 
batteries (exclusive of fortress units), with a 
total of 2,464 guns. The Austrian and Hun- 
garian cavalry have won the admiration of 
European soldiers, and the Empire unquestion- 
ably possesses a thoroughly practical mounted 
arm fit for service at a moment's notice. 

The following table shows the total strength 
of the forces in 1903; but it is believed that by 
embodying all classes of the Landsturm the 
dual monarchy could put 3,000,000 men in the 
field. 



Forces. 


Peace. 


War. 


Field Army 


266,000 


687,000 


Landwehr and Honved . 
Reserve troops 
Fortress troops 
Transport Staff, etc ... 


51,000 
6,000 
7,000 
16,000 


237,000 
192,000 
31,000 

393 666 




346,000 


1,540,000 



The Honved (national Hungarian army) is 
subject in war time only to the commander- 
in-chief, and in peace time only to the Royal 
Hungarian jurisdiction. 

BELGIUM. 

The Belgian army was recently reorganized 
as the outcome of a popular agitation, leading 
to the appointment of a mixed commission 
which prepared a scheme. The main feature 
was the adoption of volunteer enlistment, with 
the purpose of bringing about a progressive 
decrease in the annular levy by subscription. 
Special advantages were offered, but the re- 
sult has been very disappointing. 

The establishment on Oct. 1st, 1903, when 
the recruits were embodied, was 42,000 men, 
but there was a deficiency of 7,000, owing to 
substitutes not having been found for men who 
had been absolved from service. The regi- 
ments were in some places so weak that train- 
ing was impossible. The nominal liability 
is eight years with the colors and five in the 
reserve, and the recruit contingent is 13,300, 
the volunteers being in addition. 

The composition is as follows: Cavalry 
2 regiments of chasseurs, 2 of guides, and 4 
of lancers. Each regiment consists of 4 
squadrons active and 1 reserve. To the above 
have to be added the gendarmerie (over 1,700 



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men). Artillery 4 field and 4 fortress 
regiments (in all 204 guns). Engineers 1 
regiment of 3 battalions, a reserve battalion, 
and 5 special technical companies. Infantry 
14 regiments of the line, of 4 battalions of 4 
companies each, 3 active and 1 reserve bat- 
talion ; 1 regiment of grenadiers, similarly 
organized; 1 regiment of carbineers of 6 bat- 
talions (4 active and 2 reserve), and 3 regi- 
ments of chasseurs-a-pied. 

The Civic or National Guard is under the 
Minister of the Interior in peace time, and 
numbers approximately 45,000 men reckoned 
as "active," and 100,000 "non-active." The 
effect of the new law cannot yet be estimated 
fully. 

BRAZIL. 

Gradual progress is being made in the re- 
organization of the army, but much remains 
yet to be done. The strength and organiza- 
tion, given in the official Revista Militar, is as 
follows: staff, 28; engineer corps, 66; general 
staff corps, 124; medical staff, 163; artillery 
staff, 62; 6 regiments of artillery, 2,562; 6 
battalions of artillery, 2,100; 2 battalions of 
engineers, 862; 14 cavalry regiments, 6,020; 
1 transport corps, 292; 40 infantry battalions, 
17,840; total, 30,1 19. The troops are divided 
into seven military districts, the most import- 
ant being Rio Grande do Sul (11,226 men). 

BULGARIA. 

Military service is popular, and the peasantry 
have a great deal of excellent military spirit. 
The officer is also efficient, and the Govern- 
ment has taken very great care in selection 
and training, the Russian army being the 
pattern. 

The forces are divided into three categories: 
the regular army, the reserve and the militia, 
and all Bulgarians are liable for personal 
service, with few exceptions, from the age of 
20 to 45, substitution not being permitted. 
The country is divided into six divisional 
districts, and the annual contingent is about 
18,000 men. 

The peace strength is: irifantrj', 1,300 officers 
and 28,550 men; cavalry, 200 officers and 3,850 
men ; field artillery, 280 officers and 5,020 men ; 
mountain artillery, . 45 officers and 900 men ; 
fortress artillery, 65 officers and 950 men; 
engineers, 18 officers and 1,900 men; transport, 
20 officers and 160 men : total, 1900 officers and 
41,330 men. 

The total war strength is 3,810 officers, 202,- 
500 men, and 29,200 horses. In addition 
Bulgaria can count upon at least 20 ,000 Komi- 
tajis, a force of semi-trained and experienced 
guerillas. The infantry arm is the 8 mm. 
Mannlicher rifle. 

CHILE. 

The army does not exceed 6,000 men, in 
accordance with the law of Feb. 2d, 1892, 
and the formations are: 7 regiments of in- 



fantry, 4 of cavalry, 3 of artillery, and a corps 
of engineers. The National Guard numbers 
over 50.000 men. 

CHINA. 

The Chinese army came under close ob- 
servation during the Boxer Rebellion, and, 
although in many ways it gave proof of want 
of organization, it was recognized that in ar- 
mament, training, and the things that go to 
make up the efficiency of the army, remark- 
able progress had been made. General Frey 
who commanded the French forces in China, 
says it is a mistake to hold that the Chinese 
Government has any repugnance to the crea- 
tion of military forces. The Emperor is said 
to have issued an order extolling military 
discipline and disavowing any purpose of dis- 
armament, and training is going on under 
Japanese officers. The Black Flags are now 
a force of real value. 

It was never easy to ascertain facts concern- 
ing the Chinese forces. They may be divided 
into the old armies, comprising the Imperial 
or Banner troops; the new armies, composed 
of troops of comparatively recent formation 
(since the war with Japan) ; and the Mongolian 
and Thibetan Militias, which in peace time 
only exist on paper. 

The elite of the old armies is composed of 
the Shen-Che-Ying or Black Flag troops, and 
the Pa-Ki or Eight-Banner men. The former 
are said to number 50,000 men with the colors. 
Next in importance to the Black Flags come the 
Banner men of the army of Manchuria, com- 
posed of soldier-like troops, but some of them 
still armed with bows and arrows, or with the 
old jingal. The Banner men have been 
estimated at something like 300,000. Service 
with the Manchus is hereditary, and the Banner 
men are still the chief support of the Ta-tsing 
dynasty. The army of Manchuria must be 
profoundly affected by the Russian occupa- 
tion of the country. The Luh-Ying or Green 
Flags, with a paper strength of 500,000 men, 
scattered through the empire, possess little 
military value, and as now organized can be 
of no real service. 

The new armies consist of enrolled or con- 
script armies (irregulars), strength about 
100,000 men, raised at the initiative of the 
viceroys and governors of provinces in the 
event of revolution or of war with Europeans ; 
and the active armies, dressed like Europeans, 
and formed of the best men drawn from the 
Green Flag Army strength 210,000 men. 
These troops occupy important strategic 
points, and are under the orders of the pro- 
vincial authorities. The best of them are in 
the province of Chi-Li, where the army was 
reorganized by Yun-Hu and Lu-Chang. 

Before the Boxer troubles, Major A. E. J. 
Marshall, of the British Army, one of the best 
authorities, summed up the number and dis- 
position of the whole available force of China 
thus: 



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107 



FIGHTING TROOPS. 

Manchurian Field Force 

Manchurian Irregulars 

Fighting Braves 

Chien-Chun, or Disciplined Troops. 



RESERVES UNDER ARMS. 

Peking Field Force 

Banner Troops in Peking 

Banner Troops in Provinces 

Luh-Ying, or Green Flags 



50,000 

50,000 

125,000 

10,000 



205,000 



13,000 

75,000 

95,000 

506,000 



689,000 

DENMARK. 

Service is obligatory on all able-bodied men 
who have reached the age of 22. Terms of 
service, eight years with the colors and eight 
in the extra reserve. A reorganization of the 
Danish army was introduced in 1894, and the 
late War Minister, General Bahnson, calculated 
that the contingent brought under training 
7,947 men yearly. The service in the various 
branches of the army is 16 years; but, reckon- 
ing 14 years only, and allowing for waste, the 
General concludes that by the year 1910 Den- 
mark will be able to mobilize 83,000 men, of 
whom 58,500 will be infantry, 5,000 cavalry, 
6,800 field artillery, and 8,600 fortress artillery. 
The really effective force would be about 70,- 
000. At present the peace strength (31 bat- 
talions, 16 squadrons, and 12 field batteries, 
with fortress artillery and engineers) is 13,750, 
increased on mobilization to 50,000. 



The Egyptian army, under strong leader- 
ship and the command of British officers, has 
shown excellent quality. All the inhabitants 
are liable for service six years in the army, 
five in the police, and four in the reserve, and 
there are always about 150,000 young men on 
the rolls for conscription; but the burden is 
very light, and the men are all selected. The 
cavalry are recruited from the fellaheen of 
the Delta. The infantry battalions are drawn 
mostly from the fellaheen, but several are 
Soudanese blacks. The first are filled by 
conscription, and have about 800 men each, 
mostly fellaheen, in 6 companies. The in- 
terior economy and drill of the recruits is ex- 
cellent, and the musketry good. The arm is 
the Martini-Henry. In the Soudanese bat- 
talions the service is voluntary. This force 
was raised largely from the Khalifa's black 
riflemen, but men from Lower Egypt have been 
enlisted. 

The artillery is the force that shows most 
markedly the impress of the European train- 
ing. The horse battery has Syrian horses and 
light Krupp guns. The field batteries have 
Krupp mountain guns carried by mules, with 
a second line of camels. There is also a bat- 
talion of garrison artillery, organized as in our 
service. 



The Egyptian Army has been reduced re- 
cently, owing to the smaller demand for its 
services, and some of the Soudanese have been 
disbanded. About 8,000 men have left the 
colors. The command is vested in Major- 
Gen. Sir Reginald Wingate, with the title of 
Sirdar. 

The British forces in Egypt are 4 regiments 
of infantry, 1 of cavalry, 2 field batteries, and 
detachments of fortress artillery and engineers, 
with a strength of 5,482 in 1903-4. 

FRANCE. 

The French army is administered by the 
War Departments, or Ministry of War, with 
General Andre at its head, assisted by a mili- 
tary cabinet and the chiefs of various bureaux. 
The chief of the general staff of the army is 
responsible to the Minister, and controls the 
directorates of infantry, cavalry, engineers, 
artillery, finance, etc. 

In 1904 the effectives with the colors are 
estimated as follows: 29,000 officers, 520,831 
men, and 142,474 horses, being a diminution of 
76 officers and 6,228 men as compared with 
1903. The establishment will be 515,600 
men. The smaller number embodied results 
from the contingent being less than in previous 
years. 

The Active Army is constituted as follows: 
652 battalions of infantry, 30 battalions of 
chasseurs, 10 foreign, 20 zouaves, 24 Algerian 
tirailleurs, 1 Saharan tirailleurs, and 5 
African light infantry: total, 742 battalions, 
13,370 officers, 24,432 non-commissioned 
officers, 342,068 men: total, 379,890. The 
cavalry form 31 regiments of dragoons, 21 of 
chasseurs, 14 of hussars, 13 of cuirassiers, 

6 of chasseurs d'Afrique (all of 5 squadrons), 
and 4 of Spahis, variously constituted, num- 
bering in all 448 squadrons, 3,891 officers, 
4,552 non-commissioned pfficers, 64,756 men: 
total, 73,199; and 61,028 horses. The organi- 
zation of the artillery is as follows: field bat- 
teries, 434; horse batteries, 52; mountain bat- 
teries, 22; foot (or fortress) batteries, 112: 
in all, 620; officers and men, 77,213. The 
engineers (including railway troops) number 

7 regiments, 20 bat'talions and 3 railway com- 
panies) with telegraphists, ballooning troops, 
etc., officers and men, 13,426; and the military 
train has 20 squadrons (comprising 72 com- 
panies), officers and men, 8,167. 

In relation to the organization given above, 
it must be noted that owing to the class em- 
bodied in November, 1903, consisting only of 
196,000 men, as compared with 238,000 en- 
rolled in the previous year, it has been decided 
to abolish 68 companies of the fourth battal- 
ions of regiments which had not been com- 
pletely formed. These fourth battalions 
were raised in 1897, and could only be proper- 
ly organized in 93 out of 145 subdivisional 
regiments. In consequence of the latest 
abolition there remain only 65 fourth battal- 



108 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



ions, not including the 18 belonging to dis- 
trict regiments, which are all up to strength. 
The forces are organized in 20 army corps, 
exclusive of the Paris garrison; their 
headquarters being at Lille, Amiens, Rouen, 
Le Mans, Orleans, Chalons-sur-Marne, Besan- 
con, Bourges, Tours, Rennes, Nantes, Limoges 
Clermont-Ferrand, Lyons, Marseilles, Mont- 
pelier, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Algiers, Nancy. 

A proposal is before the French parliament 
for reducing the period of service with the 
colors to two years, and it is the general opin- 
ion that the measure will become law. It is 
proposed to embody a considerable number of 
re-enlisted men in order to make good the 
deficiency that will arise. 

Under the existing rules every Frenchman 
should serve three years in the active army, 
ten years in the reserve of the active army, six 
years in the territorial army and six years in 
the reserve of the territorial army. For 
administration, training and mobilization, the 
units of the territorial army, as well as the 
active reserve, are attached to the correspond- 
ing units of the active army. The reserve 
troops are: 145 infantry regiments, 30 
chasseur battalions, 38 cavalry regiments 
formed with the line and light cavalry regi- 
ments of the corps cavalry brigades, 41 other 
squadrons formed with the divisional cavalry 
regiments, and 216 batteries of field artillery. 
12 to each artillery brigade. The territorial 
forces are 145 battalions of infantry, 7 of rifles, 
10 of zouaves, 40 battery groups of field 
artillery and 16 of foot artillery, 21 battalions 
of engineers, and 19 squadrons of train. There 
are special dispositions in regard to some army 
corps, and a large number of battalions and 
independent companies are employed in the 
customs and forest service. In regard to the 
localization of the troops, it should be noted 
that a large force is quartered on the German 
frontier, where the 6th corps has been divided 
into two, and a new corps thus created. The 
reserve of the active army includes about 
1,320,000 men, and the Territorial Army and 
its reserve about 2,270,000. 

It has been estimated that the French army, 
with its various reserve and territorial forces, 
includes-3, 500,000 trained men on a war foot- 
ing, and that 4,000 ",000 untrained men might 
be embodied. 

The French colonial army has been brought 
under the authority of the Ministry of War, 
and comprises 6 brigades of infantry, 12 bat- 
talions of field artillery, 6 mountain batteries, 
and 12 garrison batteries. 

In Madagascar and Indo-China are 10 bat- 
talions of French and 18 battalions of native 
infantry, and 4 field, 6 mountain, and 5 garri- 
son batteries; in West Africa, 2 French and 8 
native battalions, 2 mountain and 3 garrison 
batteries; in Martinique, 7 French and 10 
native battalions, and 2 field, 3 mountain and 
3 garrison batteries; and in various other sta- 



tions some 6 French and 3 native battalions, 
with 1 mountain and 5 garrison batteries. 
For some time past France has been strength- 
ening her military forces in French Indo- 
China, where there are now at disposal 3 
brigades of troops in actual existence, with a 
reserve brigade. The approximate strength 
of the native forces in the colony is as follows: 

French infantry, 3 regiments 3,000 men 

Foreign Legion, 4 battalions .... 3,000 
Native infantry, 6 regiments .... 18,000 " 
"Milice indigene" (native con- 
stabulary) 10,000 " 

Total of infantry 34,000 " 



GERMANY. 

The administration and command of the 
army is exercised through the great general 
staff, a most powerful and efficient organiza- 
tion, by which the work of the army is pre- 
pared for in peace and molded in war. It is 
at once a close and yet flexible organization, 
which permeates the whole structure of the 
army, consisting for Prussia of about 200 offi- 
cers. Nearly 100 of these are detached on 
service with the staffs of corps or divisions, 
while the remainder constitute the great gen- 
eral staff in Berlin. There is constant inter- 
change between regimental work and staff 
work, and between the latter locally and with 
the headquarters staff in Berlin. Scarcely 
any regimental officer rises high in his corps 
without having been called to staff service; 
so that the ideas of the staff are based upon 
practical experience, and react upon the whole 
army, to which they come as a kind of tradition 
of duty and policy, sharpening and directing 
the life and work of the army. Recently the 
inspection of the cavalry and artillery has 
been improved. 

The forces are organized in 22 army corps, 
and comprise 625 battalions of infantry, 482 
squadrons of cavalry, 754 batteries of artil- 
lery, 38 battalions of foot artillery, 25 bat- 
talions of pioneers, 11 battalions of Army 
Service troops, and 23 battalions of train, 
with a peace strength of 495,500 rank and file, 
exclusive of one-year volunteers. The estab- 
lishment is given as 620,918. The contingent 
annually embodied approaches 275,000 men. 
The service in the standing army is of six 
years, two of these with the colors in the in- 
fantry and three in the cavalry and horse ar- 
tillery, and the rest in the reserve. After 
quitting the reserve of the Active Army the 
soldier passes five years in the Landwehr and 
seven in its reserve. The recruiting service of 
the Guard, conisting of the tallest and finest- 
looking men, is carried out by a committee, 
consisting of officers specially nominated for 
the purpose. Under the system of recruiting 
there are always more men than are necessary 
to keep up the army strength, the surplus 
constituting the Ersatz Reserve. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



109 



The strength upon mobilization is estimated 
at 2,310,000 infantry, 151,000 cavalry, 329,000 
artillery, 78,000 technical troops, 168,000 oth- 
er formations, making a total of 3,036,000 
trained men. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

Under the new system, the British Army 
has been organized in Army Corps. It was 
designed to form six of these, but up to the 
present time only four have been constituted. 

The organization of a British Army Corps is 
as follows: Infantry, 25 battalions; artillery, 
150 guns viz., 18 batteries of field artillery, 
two batteries horse artillery, three batteries of 
howitzers, and three batteries of 4.7-in. guns. 
These last batteries have only four guns each, 
all the others six. The cavalry of an Army 
Corps includes two regiments, one immediate- 
ly attached to the Divisions, the other to the 
Special Corps troops, and, in addition, for 
purposes of peace organization, there is a 
cavalry brigade of three regiments in each 
Army Corps command. 

The local organization of the Army Corps 
districts does not supersede that of the older 
regimental districts, of which there are 67, 
each under the command of a colonel. The 
regimental district is the recruiting ground of 
a territorial regiment, with which are linked, 
as junior battalions, the militia and volunteer 
corps within the area; and the reserve men are 
pensioners of their respective territorial regi- 
ments. The Royal Artillery, through 9 re- 
cruiting areas, and the Royal Engineers, 
through the commanding Royal Engineer in 
each district, have also a territorial organiza- 
tion; but this is not the case with the Cavalry, 
which has special recruiters or staff officers 
located in various districts. In theory, one 
battalion of each Infantry regiment is at 
home, as a feeder for the other abroad; but 
in practice this system has never been uni- 
formly maintained, and was completely dis- 
located by the war in South Africa. The 
Army Service and several departmental corps 
are part of the organization. 

The following is the organization of the 
Regular Army according to the units of each 
arm of the service. The strength is given 
below : 

Household Cavalry .... Regiments 3 
Cavalry of the Line. ... do 28 

Horse Artillery Batteries 30 

Field Artillery do 158 

Mountain Artillery .... do 11 

Garrison Artillery Companies 111 

Royal Engineers do 100 

Foot Guards Battalions 10 

Infantry of the Line. ... do 161 

Army Service Corps. . . . Companies 72 

R. A. Medical Corps ... do 56 

Army Ordnance Corps . do 24 

In addition to these are Colonial Corps and 

Indian Infantry in Egypt, Barbados, Jamaica, 

Bermuda, Malta, West Africa, Mauritius, 

Ceylon, China, and Hong Kong, the Straits 

Settlements, etc. 



The Army Reserve is a vital element in the 
Army organization, the Reserve men being 
liable by the terms of their agreement to gen- 
eral service with the arms in which they were 
enrolled with the colors. The Reserve was 
profoundly affected by the war in South Africa, 
and the general mobilization of the force 
showed that the force could be relied upon. 
Reservists, who have served their period with 
the colors, and who are of the best soldiering 
age, and available for service if required, are an 
excellent set of men. The reserve men are 
pensioners of the respective territorial regi- 
ments, and look to the officer commanding the 
district as their commanding officer. 

The establishment as at present authorized 
is 80, 000. Subsequently to the war men have 
been drafted in large numbers to the Reserve, 
and the numbers increased by 18,288 between 
Jan. 1st and April 1st, 1903. The Reserve 
comprises Sections A, B, C and D, the B sec- 
tion being the most important, comprising 
all who have enlisted for short service and have 
discharged their active duties. The following 
was the strength of the several sections on 
Jan. 1st, 1903: A, 328; B, 28,759; C, 697; D, 
3081: total, 32,865. 

A new scheme for the enlistment of railway 
employe's into the Reserve, through the agency 
of the Engineer and Railway Volunteer Staff 
Corps, and under the direct supervision of the 
commandant of that corps, has borne fruit, 
and bids fair to be a success. 

A further reserve force connected with each 
regimental district is the Militia Reserve, to be 
embodied with the Militia upon mobilization. 

MILITIA. 

During the Boer War the Militia, though it 
was kept in the background, accomplished 
what no other branch of the army could do. 
Without external aid it provided a large num- 
ber of organized and completed battalions for 
home, foreign, and active service, thus main- 
taining its old traditions, and demonstrating 
its high value among the military forces of the 
Crown. The service upon the lines of com- 
munication was most arduous. The Militia 
is a force of very oLd standing, the purpose of 
which is to provide a body of trained men, 
available in case of need or of imminent nation- 
al danger, to supplement, support, or relieve 
the regular army at home and on the Medi- 
terranean stations. There are in all 124 In- 
fantry battalions attached to the Line regi- 
ments, 32 corps of Garrison Artillery, 3 Field 
Batteries, 2 fortress corps of Engineers, 10 
divisions of Submarine Miners, and 2 com- 
panies of the Medical Staff Corps. The Malta 
regiment, some colonial corps, and 8 Channel 
Island regiments are in addition. It has often 
acted as a feeder to the Regular Army, and, 
under the territorial system, this has come to 
be regarded as its chief function. A very large 
number of militia recruits are every year 
transferred to the line as many, indeed, as 



110 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



one-third of the whole number enlisted and 
the force is a channel through which many 
commissions are annually gained in the regu- 
lar Army. This system is to be continued. 
Great dissatisfaction was felt owing to the re- 
tention of Militia battalions for so long a period 
in South Africa, whereby a real hardship was 
inflicted upon officers and men, and the feeling 
is general in the force that it is neglected. 

The Militia recruit is enlisted for six years, 
and may re-engage if under 45 years of age 
for a further period of four years. Recruits 
are liable, at any time after enlistment, to be 
assembled for preliminary drill for such period, 
not exceeding six months, as may be directed, 
from time to time by the Secretary of State 
for War. Brigades and regiments are called 
out annually for 27 days' training, which may 
be extended to 56 days if deemed expedient. 

The Lord-Lieutenant of a county recom- 
mends to the consideration of the Secretary of 
State for War, for submission to His Majesty, 
the names of candidates for first appointment 
to Commissions, commanding officers being 
directed to assist him in the selection if called 
upon. For subaltern officers in the Militia, 
candidates must be seventeen years of age or 
upwards. The appointment of officers as 
captains and field officers is recommended by 
the Militia commanding officer direct. 

The New Militia Reserve, to be formed as a 
"Reserve Division of the Militia," was author- 
ized by a Royal Warrant (Feb. 4th, 1903), 
under the Militia and Yeomanry act, 1892, and 
has an establishment of 50,000. It is intend- 
ed to raise the force in round numbers from 
100,000 to 150,000, and, in order to stimulate 
recruiting, men joining from the garrison 
Regiment receive $30 annually, and other men 
$22.50, with quarters and rations during train- 
ing. The arrangements for musketry training 
are to be increased. Men of the Reserve Divi- 
sion are liable to serve with the Militia when- 
ever that force is embodied by proclamation. 

The services of the Imperial Yeomanry in 
South Africa, in the organizations of which the 
old Yeomanry Cavalry played a very large 
part (although in the actual composition of the 
force the regular yeomen formed only about 
one-fifth of the total strength), caused the 
military authorities to reorganize the force. 
An Army Order of April 17th, 1901, provided 
that it should, in future, be entitled the "Im- 
perial Yeomanry," and that the brigade organ- 
ization should be abolished, and the force be 
organized in regiments of four squadrons, with 
a regimental staff and a machine-gun section. 
The order included rules as to efficiency, drills, 
and pay. During the period of training, and 
under conditions laid down, the daily pay, 
including ration allowance, varies from $1.35 
in the case of a private to $2.38 in the case of a 
regimental sergeant-major, with Is. additional 
when a non-commissioned officer acts as 
quartermaster. It was also announced that 
after Oct. 31st, 1901, all corps of Volunteer 



light horse and Volunteer companies of 
mounted infantry would be disbanded or 
merged into squadrons of the Imperial 
Yeomanry. The number of regiments so far 
constituted is 52. A Committee on the or- 
ganization of arms and equipment of the Yeo- 
manry Force reported upon the subject in 
January, 1901, and it was decided, under the 
new Army scheme, to provide the Yeomanry 
with rifles, to give them extra pay as indicated 
above, with horse allowance of $25 and to 
raise the force to 35,000 as Imperial Yeomanry 
intended to furnish mounted troops for home 
defense, while Colonial Yeomanry are to be 
affiliated for Imperial services.. There is a 
school for instruction for officers of Imperial 
Yeomanry, with a lieutenant-colonel as com- 
mandant and a staff of 66. 

THE VOLUNTEERS. 

Volunteer corps are raised under the Volun- 
teer Act 1863 (26 & 27 Viet., c. 65). They are 
subject to the provisions of that Act and any 
Acts amending it, and likewise to all regula- 
tions made with regard to Volunteer corps. 
The Volunteer (Military Service) Act of '96 
provides that whenever an order for the em- 
bodiment of the Militia is in force, any member 
of a Volunteer corps may offer Himself for 
actual military service, and if the services of 
such members of any corps are sufficient to 
enable them to be separately organized are 
accepted, then those members may be called 
out either as a corps or as part of a corps. 
Under the Volunteers Act 1900 new regulations 
were made as follows: I. A member of a 
Volunteer corps may contract to come out for 
actual military service in Great Britain when- 
ever summoned, and to serve for a period not 
exceeding one month in the absence of a Royal 
Proclamation calling out the Volunteers gen- 
erally. II. A member of a Volunteer corps 
may contract to proceed upon active service 
to any part of the world in a unit or company 
formed of Volunteers, on special conditions as 
defined by the terms of his contract. 

The Volunteers, like the Militia, form junior 
battalions attached to the line regiments in 
their respective districts. Their own organ- 
ization as a cohesive and independent fighting 
force is still imperfect, and the new Army 
scheme proposes a much higher level of effi- 
ciency and an improved organization. 

Like the Militia, the Volunteers hold a con- 
siderable place in the new Army scheme of 
1901-2, and now enter into the composition of 
the fourth Army Corps. The force numbers 
223 battalions, and of these 27 are included in 
the Army Corps scheme. The Volunteers are 
to be specially trained for its work with the 
Army Corps and for positions round London, 
while increased drill and rifle shooting are to 
contribute to efficiency. The Government 
programme for reorganizing the Army, present- 
ed in February, 1900, included the providing 
for extended training in camp during the 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Ill 



summer and for the supply of regimental 
transport and caused very considerable diffi- 
culty and dissatisfaction. The view of the 
War Office is that if Volunteers cannot con- 
form to the new regulations, they must face 
some reduction of numbers, since it would be 
more to the purpose of the Government to get 
a smaller body of efficient men upon which it 
could rely. A controversy has raged round 
this point, and it was contended by many 
Volunteers that the most zealous among them 
could not conform to the requirements. The 
returns of Nov. 1st, 1902, showed a con- 
siderable decline in numbers as compared with 
the previous year (268,550 as compared with 
288,476), and a decrease in the percentage of 
efficients to the enrolled strength (95.49 as 
compared with 97.43), and in numbers present 
at inspections (77.48 as compared with 83.93). 
The decline has been continued. Particulars 
are given below. 

EFFECTIVES AND DISTRIBUTION. 

Establishment and Strength of Army, Army 
Reserve, Militia, Imperial Yeomanry, and 
Volunteers on Jan. 1st, 1903 (all ranks). 



Forces. 


Normal 
Estab- 
lishment 


Actual 
Strength 


Want- 
ing to 
com- 
plete 


Army, Regular: 
Forces, Regi- 
mental Estab- 
lishments 
General and 
Departmental 
Staff and Mis- 
cellaneous Es- 
tablishments. . 
Army Reserves, 
Class I 


284,378 

2,400 

80,000 
131,737 

50,000 

6,002 

35,164 
346,450 

319 


*324,653 

2,400 

32,865 
108,568 

t 

5,068 

22,942 
250,990 

233 


47,135 
23,169 

50,000 

934 

12,222 
95,460 

86 


Militia 
Militia Reserve 
(New) 
Channel Islands 
and Colonial 
Militia 
Imperial Yeom'n- 
ry at Home. . . . 
Volunteers 
Bermuda Rifle 
Volunteers .... 

General total. . 


936,450 


747,719 


188,731 


ACTUAL STRENGTH 

Household Caval 
Cavalry of the Lin 
Imperial Yeoman 
Royal Horse Ar 
Field Artillery. 
Royal Garrison A 
Royal Engineers. 
Foot Guards. 


OF THE REGULAR 1 
ARMS. 

ry 


LRMY BY 

1,490 
29,297 
1,610 

34,959 
23,174 
13,757 
9,966 
176,580 

15,503 


e 
ry. . 
tillery and Royal 

rtillery 




Infantry of the Line 
Colonial Corps and Indian Infantry 
borrowed for garrison and expedi- 
tionary purposes 



Army Service Corps 8,443 

Royal Army Medical Corps 6,020 

Army Ordnance Corps 2,638 

Army Pay Corps 853 

Army Post Office Corps 362 

It appears from the General Annual Return 
of the Army that in the year ending Dec. 31st, 
1902, 51,677 recruits joined (2,317 for long 
service, 49,360 for short service), as compared 
with 47,039 in 1901. 

THE STRENGTH OF THE ARMY RESERVE 

from 1898 to 1903 has been as follows: 1898, 
82,063; 1899, 78,839; 1900, 24,388; 1901, 
5,434; 1902, 2,573; 1903, 32,865. The reduced 
numbers since 1901 have been due to Reserv- 
ists being embodied with the Regulars for the 
war. The establishment is 80,000, and on 
April 1st, 1903, the strength had increased to 
51,153, leaving 28,847 wanting to complete 
the establishment. It is impossible to give 
satisfactory details, there being,a large number 
of men on gratuity furlough, eventually to be 
transferred to the Reserve. 

CHANGES IN ESTABLISHMENT AND EFFECTIVE 
OF THE MILITIA 

during the last seven years, exclusive of the 
permanent staff; 



Date. 


Effective 
strength 


Estab- 
lishment 


Wanting 
to com- 
plete 


1st Jan., 1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 


108,350 
107,878 
105,531 
103.647 
98,130 
92,741 
102,845 
131,737 


126,723 
126,609 
125,435 
124,481 
123,137 
124,252 
123,993 
108,568 


18,373 
18,731 
19,904 
20,834 
25,007 
31,511 
21,148 
23,160 



The figures from 1900 onwards do not in- 
clude Militia Reservists called out on perma- 
nent service with the Line. Recruiting in 
1902 showed a material increase 41,486, as 
compared with 37,644 in the previous year. 
Returns are not available for 1903. 

The new Militia Reserve has an established 
strength of 50,000. Its formation began in 
1903, but particulars are not available of the 
effective attained., 



ENROLLED 



STRENGTH OF THE 
YEOMANRY 



IMPERIAL 



*Parliament in 1902 sanctioned 200,300 ex- 
cess numbers. 

tNot formed on Jan. 1st, 1903. 



in 1902, 21,840, and the number present at the 
inspection 19,570. The establishment being 
35,164, the number wanting to complete was 
13,324. On Jan. lst,1903,the enrolled strength 
had increased to 22,945, the recruits number- 
ing 8,845, and the net increase during the year 
1902 having been 5,546. These figures are 
exclusive of Imperial Yeomanry in South 
Africa (2,449 raised in 1902), who are included 
in the strength of the Regular Army, and cer- 
tain regiments not yet formed are included in 
the establishment. On Jan. 1st, 1903, the 
establishment of the recruits formed was 30,- 
992, and the strength 22,942. 



112 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



STRENGTH OF THE VOLUNTEERS. 

The conditions affecting unfavorably the 
strength of the Volunteers have been given 
above. The establishment is 346,450, and the 
actual strength by the latest return (Jan. 1, 
1903) 250,990, leaving 95,460 wanting to com- 
plete. The enrolled strength has been as 
follows since the establishment of the force: 
'60, 119,146; '61, 161,239; '62, 157,818; 
'63, 162,935; '64, 170,544; '65, 178,484; 
'66, 181,565; '67, 187,864; '68, 199,194; 
'69 195,287; 70, 193,893; 71, 169,608; 
72, 178,279; 73, 171,937; 74, 175,387; 
75, 181,080; 76, 185,501; 77, 193,026; 
78. 203,213; 79, 206,265; '80, 206,537; 
'81, 208,308; '82, 207,336; '83, 209,365; 
'84, 215,015; '85, 224,012; '86, 226,752; 
'87 228,038; '88, 226,469; '89, 224,021; 
'90 221,048; '91, 222,046; '92, 225,423; 
'93, 227741; '94, 231,328; '95, 231,704; 
'96 236^059; '97, 231,796; '98, 230,678; 
'99, 229,854; 1900, 277,628; 
1901, 288,476; 1902, 268,550. The later re- 
turn mentioned above (250,990) shows a fur- 
ther falling off of 17,560, and it is believed 
that the diminution has not ceased. The 
shortage of officers on Jan. 1st, 1903, was 1895. 

GREECE. 

Service is for two years with the colors and 
eight in the reserve, eight in the National 
Guard and ten in its reserve; the cavalry, how- 
ever, spending ten years in the National 
Guard and eight in its reserve. 

The Standing Army consists of ten in- 
fantry regiments, eight battalions of light in- 
fantry and rifles, three cavalry regiments, and 
three regiments of field artillery. The Gen- 
darmerie consists of sixteen divisions, and the 
men are borne upon the strength of the line. 
The peace strength of the army is about 
1880 officers and 25,000 men. As a matter of 
fact these numbers are never attained under 
ordinary circumstances, the number with the 
colors varying from 16,000 to 18,000. There 
are three general commands. The total war 
strength is 82,000 men and 114 guns. In- 
cluding the territorial army, and its reserve, 
there are said to be some 160,000 men avail- 
able, but the organization is very defective. 
The Evzonoi highlanders are by far the best 
troops. 

ITALY. 

The Italian army consists of the Active 
Army, the Mobile Militia, and the Territorial 
Militia. There are 12 army corps, each hav- 
ing 2 infantry divisions, except that in the 
Rome district , where are three. The organi za- 
tion of the permanent army comprises 96 regi- 
ments of line infantry (288 battalions), 12 regi- 
ments of bersaglieri (36 battalions) and 7 
Alpine regiments (22 battalions). The 
strength varies considerably, the company 
having upon a peace strength a maximum of 
100 and a minimum of 60, with a mean of 80, 
known as the forza bilanciatia. Large num- 
bers of men are upon what is known as unlim- 



ited leave. There are 24 regiments of cavalry 
(144 squadrons), each squadron having a 
mean strength of 145 men and 124 horses. 
There are 24 regiments of field artillery, with 
186 6-gun batteries, but in peace time the bat- 
tery has only 4 guns. The army also com- 
prises 1 regiment of horse artillery (6 batteries), 
1 of mountain artillery (12 batteries), 1 bri- 
gade of mountain artillery, with 3 batteries in 
Venetia, 3 regiments of coast artillery and a 
brigade in Sardinia, 2 regiments of fortress 
artillery and 5 of engineers, comprising 60 
companies of the various branches. 

The total strength of the forces is given as 
follows : 

Officers 
and Men. 

With the colors 248,111 

On unlimited leave 486,290 

Mobile Militia 320,170 

Territorial Militia 2,275,631 



Total. . . . 



3,330,202 



There are about 1,250 guns with the Regular 
Forces and 378 with the Mobile Militia. 



JAPAN. 

The military forces of Japan are the Per- 
manent Army, with reserves and recruiting 
reserves, the Territorial Army, the National 
Militia and the militia of certain of the islands. 
The Permanent Army is available for foreign 
service,* the Territorial Army for home 
defense, and the militia for auxiliary opera- 
tions in more distant parts of the country. 

Service is personal and obligatory from the 
age of 17 to 40. The total actual period is 12 
years and 4 months, of which 3 years are in 
the Regular Army, 4 years and 4 months in the 
Reserve, and 5 years in the Territorial Army. 
The recruiting reserve is drawn from the ex- 
cess of the contingent, and the men, after 
passing their 7 years and 4 months in the 
Reserves, pass to the Militia. 

The Emperor is supreme head of the army, 
and military affairs are directed through the 
War Minister and the Chief of the General 
Staff by the Superior War Council. In order 
to insure unity of action between the various 
branches of the navy, there is a council con- 
sisting .of the War Minister, the Naval Min- 
ister, the chiefs of the General Staff and the 
Naval Staff and the Director-General of Mili- 
tary Training. 

The following are details of the effective 
strength of the army on a war footing, not 
comprising the troops in the island of For- 
mosa: Administrations and establishments, 
1,000 officers, 2,900 men; Permanent Army, 
infantry, 156 battalions; cavalry, 55 squad- 
rons with 9,000 horses; field artillery, 19 regi- 
ments of 6 batteries with 684 guns; fortress 
artillery, 20 battalions; engineers, 13 sapper 
battalions and 1 railway battalion; transport, 
13 battalions: total, 203 battalions, 55 squad- 
rons, 684 guns; or 7,500 officers, 193,790 men, 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



113 



61,390 horses. Depot troops: 52 battalions, 
17 squadrons, 26 companies, 19 batteries; or 
1,000 officers, 34,600 men, 9,000 horses, 114 
guns. Territorial Army: 130 battalions, 26 
squadrons, 312 guns, 3,200 officers, 118,530 
men, 11,860 horses. Militia: 35 officers, 1,180 
men, 210 horses. Grand total, 386 battalions, 
26 companies, 99 squadrons, 1,116 guns, 
11,735 officers, 348,100 men and 84,460 
horses. The total fully trained force, accord- 
ing to the St. Petersburg Gazette, is 509,960. 
The Military College and Academy train ac- 
complished officers of great intelligence. They 
were pronounced by General Grant to be 
among the foremost of the kind in the world. 
The barracks and gymnasia are of the best 
type, and every care is paid to the physical 
development of the men. 

MEXICO. 

The Mexican army consists in peace time of 
3,500 officers, 31,000 men, and 11,000 horses 
or mules. It was proposed to introduce per- 
sonal or obligatory service, but the plan has 
been postponed, and the army is recruited by 
voluntary engagement of 3, 4 and 5 years, with 
special levies drawn by lot. The passage of 
the forces to a war footing has been denned by 
law, and provision is made for mobilizing the 
first and second reserve, including the rural 
and urban police, the national guard and other 
forces. 

The following is the strength: Regular army, 
2,700 officers, 61,000 men: reserves, 1,000 offi- 
cers, 155,000 men; total, 3,700 officers, 186,000 
men, with 32,000 horses and 12,000 mules. 

MOROCCO. 

The Sultan's forces comprise about 30,000 
excellent men of all arms, under command for 
training of Kaid Sir Harry Maclean. The 
infantry arm is the Martini. 

THE NETHERLANDS. 

Holland has at present no standing army, 
but a cadre of officers and non-commissioned 
officers (establishment about 2,200) for train- 
ing the forces embodied. 

The Landwehr, which has replaced the old 
Schutterij, received its first contingent re- 
cently, and the country has been divided into 
48 Landwehr districts. The corresponding 
battalions cannot, however, be formed before 
1909. The Landwehr and Landsturm to 
which men are to be transferred will have a 
peace strength of about 20, 000, and a volunteer 
establishment in time of war, the militia to be 
increased to 12,300, to be permanently em- 
bodied, with 5,200 more to be called up for 
short periods; and the reorganization is being 
proceeded with. The total armed strength is 
estimated at 69,000. 

The army of the Dutch East Indies numbers 
about 35,000 officers and men, recruited vol- 
untarily, one-half of the men natives, and a 



plan of mobilization for war has recently been 
adopted. 

PORTUGAL 

The army was reorganized on October I, 
1899. The peace footing is 62,427, including 
33,420 militia. The infantry of the line are 
18,000, the cavalry 3,032, the dragoons 1,804, 
the light troops 1,012, the field artillery 
3,375 and the horse artillery 479. The total 
number of guns is 448. The war footing is 
100,264 including 52,675 militia. 

A new law was introduced in September, 
1895, by which the service is three years with 
the colors, five with the first reserve and four 
with the second. There is in addition a colo- 
nial army of 9,000. The rules of exemption 
are most liberal, a sum of money paid to the 
Government being accepted as an equivalent. 



ROUMANIA. 

The armed forces of Roumania consist of 
the Regular Army, the Militia, and the Opol- 
tchenie. In peace time there only exist cadres 
for the regular army, which is divided into per- 
manent and territorial troops. The period of 
service for the permanent troops is three 
years, and for the territorial troops five years 
for the infantry and four for the calvary; but 
in this latter force the soldier at first only puts 
in three months of continuous service; he is 
then sent to his home and called up, in his 
turn, for one week each month. 

The effective of the army in war is as fol- 
lows: Infantry: 8 rifle battalions; 34 infantry 
regiments (102 battalions; altogether 2,250 
officers, 126,000 men, and 4,700 horses). 
Cavalry: 6 Roshiori regiments (24 squadrons, 
forming an independent division); 11 Caal- 
rashi regiments (44 squadrons) ; total, 530 
officers, 13,200 men, 12,100 horses. Artillery: 
12 regiments (75 batteries, 450 guns; 40 am- 
munition columns; 2 fortress artillery regi- 
ments) ; total, 930 officers, 26,900 men, 22,800 
horses. Engineers: 12 sapper companies, 4 
telegraph, 4 pontoon, and 4 railway com- 
panies: total, 140 officers, 6,200 men, 1,500 
horses. Grand total, 2,850 officers, 169,800 
men, and 41,400 horses. If to these are added 
the transport, auxiliary troops, 32 militia regi- 
ments, etc., the numbers will amount to 7,500 
officers, 314,000 men, and 65,000 horsea. 



RUSSIA. 

The huge Russian army makes continual 
progress, and its varied composition and little- 
known development make it very difficult to 
describe. It may be said to consist of several 
armies: the European, the Caucasian, the Tur- 
kestan, and the Amur force; the first of these 
organized like other European armies, and the 
constitution of the others varying in confor- 
mity with local requirements. Moreover, the 
strength of each varies according to the neces- 
sities of the situation, the troops being on the 



114 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



ordinary peace footing, on the higher peace 
establishment as in the frontier districts, or on 
the war footing as in Asiatic Russia. There 
are 13 greater military districts, the Trans- 
caspian district, and the territorial region of 
the Don Cossacks. There are 25 army corps in 
Europe and the Caucasus, 2 in Turkestan, and 
2 in the Amur district. 

The peace strength has been given as follows : 

Europe and the Asiatic 
Caucasus. Russia. 

Infantry 627,000 men. 83,000 men. 

Cavalry 116,000 " 14,000 " 

Artillery 138,000 " 15,000 " 

Engineers 34,000 " 8,000 " 

Army services . . 34,000 " 5,000 " 

Total 949,000 " 124,000 " 

Of these forces the active army numbers 
731,000 in Europe and the Caucasus, and 
87,000 in Asiatic Russia. Baron von Tettau, 
in a volume on the Russian Army (1902), gives 
the peace strength, including Cossacks and 
Frontier Guards, as 1,100,000. 

It must be understood that in regard to the 
preceding estimate and in what follows con- 
cerning the distribution of the Russian forces, 
considerable doubt exists. The troops were 
moved secretly in view of the war with 
Japan, and very various statements have 
been made as to the force actually available 
in the Far East. 

An Imperial order of November 12, 1903, 
gave instructions for the formation of 2 new 
brigades. 

The Cossack forces have a special constitu- 
tion. Every Cossack becomes liable to serve 
as soon as he has completed his eighteenth 
year. For the first three years, which are 
looked on as "preparatory," his service is, 
however, purely local ; but for the next twelve 
years he is considered as belonging to the 
"front" category. This category consists of 
three bans, the first of which is formed of men 
actually serving, and the two others of men 
who have been granted unlimited leave. The 
last five years are spent in the Reserve cate- 
gory. There is, however, a still further cate- 
gory, for which no limit of age is fixed: this 
comprises all able-bodied Cossacks not other- 
wise classified. These have to supply and 
maintain their own horses, besides providing 
their own clothing and equipment. The 
peace effective of the Cossacks is stated to be 
65,930, with 52,400 horses, but it is probable 
that not more than 54,000 are permanently 
with the colors. The war strength is given as 
182,065, including 4,275 officers, and there are 
173,150 horses. This gives a percentage of 
13.2 to the male population liable to Cossack 
service. 

In the Russian Empire considerably over a 
million men annually attain the age for joining 
the army. In 1902 the number liable to 
serve was 1,122,000, and 315,832 were em- 
bodied in the standing army. Seventy per 



cent, of the men so entered are illiterates. 
About 5,000 enlist annually as volunteers, and 
16,000 join the Cossacks. The period of 
liability to personal service lasts from the 
twenty-first to the forty-third year of age. 
Those who join the standing army spend five 
years with the colors (four in the infantry), 
thirteen in the reserve, and the remainder in 
the Opoltchenie, or militia. In some in- 
stances, however, the War Minister has 
power to retain men for a longer period with 
the colors; whilst, on the other hand, this 
period is shortened by one, two, three, or four 
years for those possessing a superior educa- 
tion. The Opoltchdnie, which has been de- 
veloped from a simple militia into a first re- 
serve formation, now embraces two different 
classes: (1) Men between 21 and 43 years of 
age, who have never served; (2) men who 
have completed 5 years' service with the 
colors and 13 years in the reserve. The ages 
of the men vary between 39 and 43 years. 

The Finnish Military Service Law, whereby 
the Finnish army has lost the independence 
guaranteed by treaty, was promulgated on 
August 1, 1901. The offices of Finnish com- 
mander-in-chief and staff have been abolished. 

The war strength- of the Russian forces con- 
sists of about 56,500 officers and 2,855,000 
men, including 1,792,000 infantry and 196,000 
cavalry. These form the active army of all 
classes. To these figures must be added the 
available reserves, estimated at 1,064,000; 
frontier battalions, 41,000; Cossacks, 142,000. 
There are besides these the Territorial Re- 
serves, some 2,000,000 men, and the Opol- 
tchenie, 1,300,000, which could be employed 
in case of emergency. Gen. Redigers, a well- 
known authority, estimates the trained re- 
serve to be 2,700,000. It is expected that 
under new organization the Opoltchenie, or 
militia, in time of war will form 40 infantry 
divisions, 640 battalions; 20 regiments of 
cavalry, 80 squadrons; 80 batteries of artil- 
lery, and 20 battalions of sappers; but owing 
to the vast distances to be covered, and the 
want of railway accommodations, the mobili- 
zation of this great force would be neither 
easy nor rapid. In regard to the embodi- 
ment of the reserve force in the event of war, 
great advances have been made by the estab- 
lishment of brigade commands and the organi- 
zation of reserve brigades. 

SERVIA. 

The military forces consist of the national 
army and the militia (Opoltchenie). 

The national army is divided into three 
levies: 1st, men from 20 to 30 years of age, 
and containing permanent cadres and a re- 
serve; 2nd, men from 31 to 37 years; and 
3rd, men from 38 to 45 years, with no con- 
stituted cadres in peace time. 

The militia consists of men from 17 to 50 
years of age not in the national army. No 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



115 



substitution or buying off is allowed. The 
annual contingent is usually about 20,500 
conscripts, of whom 6,000 are generally unfit 
for service. 

The peace effective is difficult to calculate, 
because, for economic reasons, it is usual to 
send down men before their proper date for 
release. The units are strongest in the spring, 
and from then gradually dwindle away until a 
company barely consists of more than 10 or 15 
men. The army is a species ol semi-militia. 

The war effective, according to official tables, 
the accuracy of which must be accepted with 
caution, amounts to 8,110 officers, 331,900 
men, 420 guns, and 39,070 horses. The num- 
ber of actual combatants would be about 
228,000, but a very large proportion are of 
the 2d and 3d levies, with little or no training. 

SPAIN. 

Under the terms of an order of January 29, 
1903, the army has been reorganized on the 
basis of an effective of 80,000 men; the second 
battalions of the infantry regiments and the 
fourth squadrons of the cavalry being reduced 
to skeleton formations. There are in all about 
23,000 officers provided for the old establish- 
ment, but the supernumeraries are on half-pay, 
and their places are not being filled. There 
are eight captain-generalcies, but the eight 
army corps are replaced by divisions, and 
further reductions are being introduced. The 
headquarters are respectively: 1st, Madrid 
2nd, Seville; 3rd, Valentia; 4th, Barcelona 
5th, Saragossa; 6th, Burgos; 7th, Valladolid 
8th, Corunna. 

The following is the constitution, by units 
of the army: Infantry, 56 regiments, 20 bat 
talions of Chasseurs, 4 African regiments, 2 
regiments in the Balearic Islands, 2 regiments 
in the Canaries, recruiting cadres, etc. The cav- 
alry, 28 regiments, and 3 squadrons for foreign 
possessions. Artillery, 13 field, 1 siege and 

3 mountain regiments (all with four 6-gun bat- 
teries), 14 fortress battalions, 1 central gun- 
nery school, 1 central remount committee, and 

4 companies of artificers. The engineer corps 
consists of 4 regiments of sappers and miners, 
1 pontoon regiment, 1 telegraph battalion, 1 
railway battalion, 1 topographical brigade, 1 
company of artificers, and 8 reserve depots, 
with 5 separate companies of sappers and 
miners for the Balearic Islands, etc. For 
recruiting purposes the Peninsula has 116 dis- 
tricts, the Canaries and Balearics have 2, and 
Ceuta and Melilla have 2. The total armed 
strength is estimated to be 500,000. 

SWEDEN AND NORWAY. 

SWEDEN. The Swedish army underwent a 
reorganization in 1901, which is progressive 
and will have its full effect in 1914. General 
personal service has been adopted, with short 
periods with the colors: one year for service in 
the cavalry and artillery, and eight months for 



the infantry. The army will be substantially 
increased in strength. The 24 existing infantry 
regiments are to have a third battalion each, 
and 3 fortress regiments of similar strength 
are to be raised. Some of. the new formations 
have already been brought into existence. 

On a peace footing there are 2,606 officers, 
1,797 non-commissioned officers, 6,947 cor- 
porals and others, 557 cadets, 7,792 volunteers, 
and 22,332 men, being a total of 40,031. The 
artillery are to receive Krupp quick-firing 
guns, of which the pattern is still under trial 
in an experimental battery. There are 4 
corps of engineers. Steps are also to be taken 
to increase the body of reserve officers. One 
great object in the recent change is to give 
a more homogeneous character to the forces. 
The plans for mobilization of the reserves have 
been improved, and a Landsturm is being 
organized. 

NORWAY. The force now availabe for ser- 
vice beyond the frontier numbers, with officers 
and men, 25,109; but the total armed strength 
is estimated to be 38,000, There is, however, 
the defect that there is no reserve of the line to 
fill up the gaps which might arise during a war, 
without taking men from the militia (Land- 
vaern). Besides the troops of the line there 
exists the militia or Landvaern for the defense 
of Norway, in case the troops of the line should 
be taken over to Sweden. 



SWITZERLAND. 

The federal forces do not constitute a 
standing army, the principle being that of a 
militia, and the liability to serve twelve years 
in the Elite, twelve in the Landwehr, and six 
in the Landsturm. During the twelve years in 
the Elite (ten for the cavalry) the aggregate 
service is 141 days in the infantry, 146 in the 
engineers, 160 in the cavalry, and 163 in the 
artillery. 

The total military strength consists of: Elite 
(20 to 32 years of age): 96 battalions of in- 
fantry, 8 battalions of rifles, 24 squadrons of 
dragoons, 48 field batteries of 6 guns, 2 moun- 
tain batteries, 10 position batteries, and 12 
companies of light horse. Landwehr (32 to 44 
years of age) : 96 battalions of infantry, 8 bat- 
talions of rifles, 24 squadrons of dragoons, 8 
field batteries, and 15 position batteries. An 
aggregate total, in round numbers, of 200,000 
men, of whom 130,000 are in the first 12 classes 
of the Elite, formed into 4 army corps. In 
addition, the Landsturm can furnish fully 
300,000, giving an armed strength of 500,000, 
maintained at a cost of about $5,000,000 a 
year for a total population of 3,500,000. 

TURKEY. 

The Turkish military forces are organized on 
the territorial system, the whole empire being 
divided into seven territorial districts. By the 
recruiting law all Mussulmans are liable to mili- 
tary service. Christians and certain sects pay 



116 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



an exemption tax. The nomad Arabs, although j 
liable to service by law, furnish no recruits, j 
and many Kurds evade service. The conscrip- j 
tion therefore falls somewhat heavily on the 
Osmanlis, or Turks proper. 

The men liable to service are divided into 

(1) Nizam, or regular army, and its reserve; 

(2) Redif, corresponding to Landwehr; and 

(3) Mustahfiz, or Landsturm. There are also 
660 Ilaveh battalions, mostly skeleton forma- 
tions, in which men supplementary to the 
establishments are enrolled. Liability to ser- 
vice until recently commenced at twenty years 
of age, and lasted for twenty years i.e., with 
colors of the Nizam, four years; in the reserve 
of the Nizam, two years; in the Redif, four 
years in first class and four years in second 
class; and in the Mustahfiz, six years. An 
Irade issued in November, 1903, increases the 



total Nizam service to nine years and the Redif 
service to nine years, it being estimated that 
this will add 250,000 men to the army. The 
cavalry are set down at 55,300; the artillery 
(174 field and 22 mountain batteries) at 54,720 
1,356 guns; the engineers at 7,400; infantry, 
583,200; total, 700,620. The Nizam has 320 
battalions, 203 squadrons, and 248 batteries, 
and the Redif 374 battalions, 666 supplemen- 
tary battalions (incomplete), and 48 squad- 
rons. An irregular "Hamidieh" cavalry has 
been raised among the Kurds, and has 266 
squadrons. 

The total war strength is estimated to be: 
46,400 officers, 1,531,600 men, 1,530 guns, and 
109,900 horses. The Ottoman army has been 
trained and reorganized largely by German 
officers, and is composed of the best fighting 
material, as the war with Greece proved. 



CHAPTER V. 



THE RAILROADS OF THE WORLD. 



In the Railroad Gazette (New 
York) for May 30, 1902, there ap- 
peared exhaustive tables, compiled 
from the Archiv fur Eisenbahnweseu 
of Prussia, of the railroads of the 
world in the year 1900 and in previ- 
ous years. With the help of these 
tables the Railroad Gazette, in its is- 
sue for June 6, makes the following 
comparative statements : 

The mileage built in each decade has 
been for the world : Ten years to 
1840, 4,772; 1850, 19,198; 1860, 43,- 
160; 1870, 63,255; 1880. 101,081; 
1890, 152,179 ; 1900, 107,421. 

The mileage built before 1830, in- 
significant in amount, is included with 
the 4,772 miles credited above to the 
following decade. 

Of the total of 491,066 miles com- 
pleted at the end of the century more 
than one-half had been built since 
1880 and nearly three-fourths since 
1870. The total built in the forty 
years down to 1870 (130.385 miles) 
was one-seventh less than the construc- 
tion in the single decade ending with 
1890. It is notable, however, that in 
the last decade of the century 44,758 
miles less were built than in the pre- 
ceding ten years. This is one of the 
indications that the civilized and pro- 
ductive industrial countries of the 
world are now generally well equipped 
vyith these instruments of transporta- 
tion. Europe (except Russia) and 
North America have immediate need 
of no large additions to their mileage. 
There is still abundant room for rail- 
roads in Asia, Africa and South 
America, but the slow growth of indus- 
tries of these continents, two of which 
are over rather than under populated, 
but whose population is to a great ex- 
tent a bar to progress such as Europe 
and North America have had in the 
past century, gives no promise of rapid 
railroad extension. 

Nevertheless, the most notable de- 
velopment of the last decade has been 
the greater activity in Asia and Afri- 
ca. In Asia, until after 1890, there 



was scarcely any railroad except in 
British India, a very little in Asia 
Minor, a beginning in Russia and Ja- 
pan. But the 20,960 miles in Asia in 
1890 had become 37,477 miles in 1900, 
and the 6,113 miles in Africa, 12,501. 
The additions, considering the size of 
the continents, are small ; but they are 
only beginnings, and considerable new 
additions have been made since 1900, 
chiefly the Siberian Railroad in Asia 
and the Uganda in Africa. It is prob- 
ably not generally known that even in 
this last decade it is India and not 
Russia which leads in railroad con- 
struction in Asia ; India had added 
6,982 miles (42 per cent) to the 16,- 
781 it had in 1890, while the additions 
in Asiatic Russia were but 4,622 
miles. 

In Europe more railroad was built 
from 1890 to 1900 than in the 'previ- 
ous decade, but less than from 1870 to 
1880. The increase in the last decade 
was wholly due to Russia, where it 
was 10,659 miles, against 4,413 miles 
ii> the previous decade. In the rest of 
Europe 29,700 miles were built from 
1880 to 1890, and only 26,418 in the 
following decade. 

The most notable change in the last 
decade, however, is the decrease in 
construction in North America, which 
was so long the great field for railroad 
construction. With 2,834 miles built 
in 1840, the increase in mileage for 
successive decades has been : 1840- 
1850, 9,099; 1850-1860, 23,644; 1860- 
1870, 22,887 ; 1870-1880, 45,629 ; 1880- 
1890, 85,766 ; 1890-1900, 33,856. 

Thus the new construction on this 
continent in the last decade was 60 per 
cent less than from 1880 to 1890, and 
even 20 per cent less than from 1870 
to 1880. The decrease in the last de- 
cade was common to Canada and 
Mexico, as well as to the United 
'States. It was altogether healthy. 
But this country and Canada, at 
least, are richer to-day than they 
would have been if they had built 
as much railroad in the last decade as 



117 



118 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



119 




Great Britain, S 
62,252. 



120 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



in the erne precedi 
000,000,000 more 
been expended for n 
have been requhec 
tions are that the 
has been most pro! 
productive industri 
railroads traffic to 

South and Cen 
eluding West Indies 
of a figure in the r 
ing no^v altogether 
or less than Asia. 
South American m 
tina and Brazil. 

Australia also ha 
in railroad construe 
for more roads, but 
as yet to support 
slowlv. It had 1,( 
added 3,780 by 18 
1890, and only 3,18 
of the century, i 
14,925 miles. 

The last annua 
same source, publis 
shows the world's 
the end of 1901. 

Europe, IS 
Mileage of 
Principal 
Countries. 
Germany 32,943 


ng it. Fully $2.- 
than has actually 
ew railroads would 
: and the indica- 
capital thus saved 
itably employed in 
es which give the 
carry. 

:ral America (in- 
do not cut much 


TYPES OF AMP:RICAN LOCOMOTIVES. 

O4O ^OO a WHEEL SWITCHER 


060 A 000 - 


080 A OOOO 


240 An O O 4 COUPLED 


26O An OOO MOGUL 


280 ^0 OOOO CONSOLIDATION 


>IOO ^0 OOOOO DECAPOD 


440_^o o O O a WHEEL 


only 29,071 miles, 
Two-thirds of the 
ileage is in Argen- 

s slackened its pace 
?tion. It has room 
not people enough 
hem, and it grows 
)97 miles in 1870, 
80, 6,8G3 more by 
5 in the last decade 
Australia now has 

return from the 
hed in Tune, 1903, 
railroad mileage at 

,760 miles. 
Mileage of 
Principal 
Countries. 
Holland 2,035 
Roumania 1,982 
Turkey (includ- 
ing Bulgaria 
andRoumelia) 1,963 
Denmark 1,917 
Portugal 1,492 
Norway 1,313 
Greece. . 607 


460 AO OOOO 10 WHEEL 


480 An oOOOO ,2 


O42 A O O O 4COUPLED4TRAILING 


62 A OOO 6 


082 A OOOO 08" 


Q44 A OO O O FORNEV 4 COUPLED 


0^4 A OOO on - 


O46 A OOoOO fORNEY 4 COUPLED 


066 A OOO OOO roPNEVB COUPLED 


242 AQ OO o COLUMBIA 


262 An OOO o PRA,R,E 


282 Art OOOO O COUPLED DOUBLE KNOER 


244^0 OOoo 4 


264 An OOO on 


284^0 OOOO oo a 


246^So OOooo 4 - 


266^0 OOO ooo * - 


420^0 oOo BICYCLE OB SINGLE 


442 Ac, O O ATLAMTIfl 


462 An o O O O o M( .in R 


444 An O OO O O 4 COUPLED DOUBLE CNDtR 


France 27,285 
Austro-Hung'y 23,432 
Great Britain 
and Ireland.. 22,164 
Italy . 9,881 


464_^o oOOO oo fl 


446 ^foo OOooo - 


466^00 OOO ooo 


Encyclopedia Americana. 

RAILWAY SIGNALS. 

One blast of the whistle means 
"stop at once," or what is known 
as "down brakes"; two blasts of 
the whistle mean "off brakes" ; 
three blasts of the whistle mean 
"back up"; a continuous blast means 
"danger." A semaphore signal at 
right angles to the post indicates dan- 
ger ; when the semaphore drops to 
an angle it is a signal to proceed. A 
red lantern indicates danger, as does 
a red flag ; a green lantern or a green 
flag indicates "caution." Lanterns 
which are swung at right angles across 
the tracks mean "stop" ; a lantern 
raised and lowered means "start" ; 
when lanterns are swung in a circle 
it means "back the train." 


Spain 8,447 
Sweden 7,242 
Belgium . 4,047 


Servia 361 


Switzerland. . . 2,443 

Total America (Nort 
mi 
United States. 198,346 
British North 
America. . . . 18,397 
Argentina. . . . 10,479 

Total Asia, 
British India. . 25,515 
Siberia and 
Manchuria. . 5,697 

Total Africa 
British South 
and Central 
Africa 5,504 

Total Australia and 
mi 

Grand Total of Wo 
miles. 


h and South), 256,643 
es. 
Mexico . . 9 660 


Brazil 9,248 
Chili 2,896 

42,057 miles. 
Japan 4,093 


Dutch Indies.. . 1,392 
China 772 

14,270 miles. 
Algiers and 
Tunis 3,060 
Egypt 2,903 

New Zealand, 15,470 
les. 

rld's Railroads, 510,470 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



121 



THE RAILROAD SYSTEM OF THE UNITED STATES.* 



If one were called upon to name the 
field of engineering in which the vast 
scale upon which things are done in 
this country is most strikingly shown, 
he would be safe in pointing to the 
colossal railroad system of the United 
States. In respect of the total length 
of track, the total number of locomo- 
tives and cars, the veritable army of 
employees, and the gross value of 
capital invested, our railway system is 
so huge that it stands absolutely in a 
class by itself among the railroad sys- 
tems of the world. It is equally true 
that in respect of the character of its 
track, rolling stock, its general equip- 
ment, and methods of operation, it is 
marked by national characteristics 
which distinguish it far more sharply 
from the great European and Asiatic 
roads, than they are distinguished 
from each other. 

In attempting to impress upon the 
mind the magnitude of the properties 
and the operations represented by the 
statistics of such huge interests as the 
railroads of the United States, where 
the figures run into the millions and 
billions, it is necessary to translate 
these figures into concrete terms and 
refer them to some widely known 
standard of measurement, whether of 
distance, weight, or bulk. On the fol- 
lowing pages, our artist has endeavored 
and we think very successfully to 
transform the statistics of our rail- 
roads into concrete form by taking as 
a unit of measurement the greatest 
single constructive work of man, the 
great Pyramid of Egypt, with whose 
dimensions every voting American 
citizen is perfectly familiar, or, if he is 
not, ought to be. From time immemo- 
rial the great Pyramid, being one of 
the original seven wonders of the 
world, has been a favorite standard of 
comparison with other great construc- 
tive works. It measures some 750 feet 
on the base by 481 feet in height, and 
contains about 91 % million cubic feet. 
Now. before we can use even this well- 
known standard and be sure that it 
will convey its full impression to the 
average reader, we must compare the 
Pyramid itself with some big and well- 
known structure, and for this purpose 
our artist has drawn the Capitol of 
Washington at the side of the Pyra- 
mid, both on the same scale. If it 
were possible to take a shell of the 
Pyramid, composed merely of the outer 



layer of stone, and place it over the 
Capitol, it would practically shut it 
out from view, and the apex of the 
Pyramid would extend 200 feet above 
the highest point of the Capitol dome. 

The total length of the railroads in 
operation in the United States at the 
close of the fiscal year 1901 was 195,- 
887 miles, this total not including 
track in sidings, etc. If these rail- 
roads could be stretched out in one 
continuous line, they would ba suffi- 
cient to girdle the earth at the equator 
mo're than eight times ; or, if started 
from the earth and stretched outward 
into space, they would reach four- 
fifths of the distance from the earth to 
the moon. 

Steel Rails. Now, to arrive at an 
estimate of what it has taken in ma- 
terial to build this length of railroad, 
let us assume that a fair average size 
of rail is one weighing 75 Douuds to 
the yard. Much of the track in the 
Eastern States weighs 80. 90 and 100 
pounds to the yard, while most of the 
track west of the Mississippi weighs 
70, (50 and in some instances as low as 
56 pounds to the yard. On this basis 
it is an easy calculation to determine 
that the total weight of these rails is 
over 25,000,000 tons ; and if the mass 
were melted and cast in solid pyra- 
midal form it would contain 105,540,- 
000 cubic feet, and would be over 
15 per cent larger than the great 
Pyramid itself. If the rails were cast 
in one rectangular block, it would 
form a mass 430 feet square on the 
base and equal in height to the Wash- 
ington Monument, which towers 550 
feet above its base. 

Railroad Ties. The railroad ties 
used in this country vary in size from 
f\ tie 8 inches wide, 6 inches deep and 
9 feet long to ties as much as 12 inches 
in width and 8 'inches in depth. A 
fair average would be a tie 10 inches 
in width and 7 inches in depth and 9 
feet long, and a good average spacing 
would be 24 inches, center to center 
of the ties, or say 2,000 to the mile. 
On this basis we find that, could all 
these ties be gathered together on the 
Nile desert and piled one upon an- 
other into a pyramid of the same pro- 
portions as that at Gizeh, it would 
form a mass twenty-four times as great 
as the Pyramid of the Pharaohs, meas- 
uring 2.200 feet on its base and reach- 
ing 1.390 feet into the air. 



* Reprinted from the " Transportation Number" of the Scientific American, Dec. 13. 1902, 
therefore the figures and the comparisons are for that year. 



122 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



123 




124 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Rock and Gravel Ballast. After the 
ties and rails have been laid in the 
construction of a railroad the ballast 
cars pass over it and unload their 
broken rock or gravel, which is tamped 
beneath and filled around the ties to 
form a solid. but well-drained founda- 
tion. On some of our Eastern roads 
the depth of the ballast will exceed 
18 or 20 inches ; on the other hand, 
some of the Western roads have none 
at all, although of late years a vast 
advance has been made in the ballast 
ing of the more cheaply constructed 
systems. Assuming an average depth 
of 12 inches of ballast, we find that 
if the railroad builders of the United 
States had concentrated their efforts, 
as did the Egyptians of old, on a sin- 
gle structure on the banks of the Nile, 
they would, in a period of years not 
much greater than that required to 
build the Pyramid, have raised a pyra- 
mid of their own 135 times greater in 
bulk than the tomb of Cheops. This 
vast pile would measure 3.900 feet on 
each side at the base, and would lift 
its head nearly half a mile into the 
air, or to be exact, just 2.500 feet. 
Were the spirit of the great Cheops 
to return to earth, and attempt to 
pace off the distance around the base, 
it would have to step out some 5,000 
paces, or say three miles, to make the 
circuit ; and should it climb to the 
summit, it would have to make a jour- 
ney *of about three-quarters of a mile. 
So much for the roadbed and the 
track. Now let us turn our attention 
to the equipment. 

Locomotives. At the close of the 
fiscal year 1901, there were in service 
on the United States railroads 39.729 
locomotives. Assuming that the av- 
erage locomotive fills a block 10 feet 
wide by 15 feet high by 50 feet long, 
and that all these locomotives could be 
brought into review at Gizeh and there 
piled up into one great block, a loco- 
motive that would fill that block would 
be 510 feet in height and 1,700 feet, 
or, say, a third of a mile, in length, its 
smokestack towering 29 feet above the 
summit of the Pyramid. 

Passenger Cars. There are 35,800 
passenger, mail and baggage cars on 
our railroads, and a typical car repre- 
senting the space occupied by these 
would be 500 feet high and 1,950 feet 
in length, and it would take 3 1-2 great 
Pyramids to equal it in bulk. 

Freight Cars. As far as the equip- 
ment is concerned it is in the extraor- 
dinary number of the freight cars em- 
ployed that we get the best idea of 



the great scale upon which our rail- 
roads are operated. The total number 
of cars is 1,409,472. They vary, of 
course, considerably in size, capacity 
and type, there being in addition to the 
familiar box car, the coal cars of va- 
rious size and type, the freight cars, 
and a small number of miscellaneous 
cars for railroad construction and 
other purposes. A single box car repre- 
senting the space occupied by all these 
freight cars would be two-thirds of a 
mile in length and one-quarter of a 
mile in height. The Pyramid of Che- 
ops would reach about to the floor of 
the car. Were the Eiffel Tower set 
alongside of it, it would reach only 
two-thirds of the distance to its roof, 
while the whole Brooklyn Bridge, with 
its anchorages, could be placed bodily 
inside the car, and if the foundations 
of its piers rested upon the car floor, 
the summit of its towers would still 
reach only half way to the roof of the 
car. 

Employees. It requires over one mil- 
lion employees for the maintenance and 
operation of our railroads. Of these 
nearly one-half are engaged upon the 
track and roadbed, in proportions 
made up as follows : There are 33,- 
817 section foremen, each of whom has 
a stretch of a few miles of track under 
his charge, and a gang of from five to 
eight or ten section men, his duties be- 
ing those of maintaining the track in 
proper level and line, seeing that the 
track bolts are kept tight, the joints in 
good order, and that the roadbed is 
properly trimmed, graded and drained. 
The total number of trackmen em- 
ployed in the section gangs, as they 
are called, is 239,166. There are also 
47,576 switchmen, flagmen and watch- 
men, who are engaged in switching 
work at the yards, in guarding the 
level crossings, and in patrolling the 
ti-ack. There are also over 7,423 men 
employed on work trains and other 
work incidental to track maintenance. 
In addition to these there are 131,722 
laborers engage'd in construction and 
repair and maintenance work of va- 
rious kinds, making a total engaged 
on track work and general labor con- 
nected therewith of 459,704 men. Car- 
rying out our system of comparison 
with some standard of bulk, we have 
chosen the Park Row Building, New 
York, which has a, total height of 390 
feet. If this army of trackmen and 
laborers were combined in one typical 
giant, he would be some 385 feet in 
height and of proportionate weight and 
bulk. The next largest item is the 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



125 




Trackmen 
and laborers. 



Machinists 
and shopmen 



Station 
agents and 
stationmen. 



Conductors 
and brakemen. 



Enginemen 
and firemen. 



Clerks, etc. 



- Telegraph 
g operators. 



General 
officers. 



126 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



machinists, of which there are 34,698, 
the carpenters, of which there are 48,- 
946, and various other shopmen en- 
gaged in the repair and general main- 
tenance of the rolling stock to the 
number of 120,550, making a total 
number of skilled and unskilled men 
in the railroad shops of 204,194. The 
next largest total is that of the sta- 
tion agents, baggage masters, porters, 
etc., there being 32,294 station agents 
and 94,847 baggage masters, porters, 
etc. Then follow the conductors and 
brakemen, 32,000 of the former and 
84,493 of the latter. There are 92,- 
458 enginemen and firemen, 45,292 of 
the former and 47,166 of the latter. 
Employed in the general offices of the 
various railroad companies, in per- 
forming the vast amount of clerical 
work required, there are 39,701 clerks, 
while sheltered under the same roof 
is a body of men upon whom as much 
as or more than any other in the whole 



army of railroad employees fails the 
responsibility of the safety of trains 
and passengers the telegraph opera- 
tors and dispatchers, of whom there 
are altogether 26,606. The smallest in 
number, but controlling the whole of 
this vast organization, are the general 
officers, presidents, vice-presidents, 
treasurers, secretaries, etc., of whom 
there are 4.780. 

Money Value. Perhaps, after all, 
the most remarkable figures are those 
which show the total value of the rail- 
road system of the United States, 
which expressed in figures is 13,308, 
029,032 dollars. If this sum were rep- 
resented in ten-dollar gold pieces, and 
these pieces were set on edge, side by 
side, they would reach more than half 
way from New York to San Fran- 
cisco, or 1,700 miles. Or, were this 
coin melted and run into a single cast- 
ing, it would form a column 15 feet 
in diameter and 259 feet in height. 



ABSTRACT OF STATISTICS OF RAILWAYS IN THE UNITED STATES 
FOR THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1903. 



From summaries which appear in 
the Sixteenth Statistical Report of the 
Interstate Commerce Commission, pre- 
pared by its statistician as the com- 
plete report for the year ending June 
30, 1903, this information is obtained : 

MILEAGE AND CAPITALIZATION OF 
ROADS. 

The total single-track railway mile- 
age in the United States on June 30, 
1903, was 207,977.22 miles, having in- 
creased 5,505.37 miles in the year end- 
ing on that date. This increase ex- 
ceeds that of any previous year since 
1890. The nineteen states and terri- 
tories for which an increase in mileage 
exceeding 100 miles is shown are Ar- 
kansas, California, Georgia, Illinois, 
Louisiana, Michigan. Minnesota, Mis- 
sissippi, Missouri, North Carolina, 
North Dakota, Pennsylvania, Texas, 
Washington, West Virginia, Wiscon- 
sin, Indian Territory, New Mexico, 
and Oklahoma. Most of the railway 
mileage of the country, excepting that 
of street lines, is covered by reports 
rendered to the Commission by the car- 
riers. 

For the year under consideration the 
operated mileage concerning which sub- 
stantially complete. returns were made 
was 205.313.54 miles, including 5,902.87 
miles of line on which trackage privi- 
leges were exercised. The aggregate 



length of railway mileage, including 
tracks of all kinds, was 283,821.52 
miles, being classified as follows : 
Single track, 205,313.54 miles; sec- 
ond track, 14,681.03 miles; third 
track, 1.303.53 miles; fourth track, 
963,36 miles; and yard track and 
sidings. 61,560.06 miles. Thus it ap- 
pears that there was an increase of 
9.626.16 miles in the aggregate length 
of all tracks, of which 3,339.13 miles, 
or 34.69 per cent, were due to the ex- 
tension of yard track and sidings. 

The number of railway corporations 
included in the report was 2,078. Of 
this number 1,036 maintained operat- 
ing accounts, 805 being classed as in- 
dependent operating roads and 231 as 
subsidiary roads. Of roads operated 
under lease or some other form of con- 
tract, 316 received a fixed money rent- 
al, 150 a contingent money rental, and 
275 were operated under conditions 
not readily classified. In the course 
of the year railway companies owning 
11.074.19 miles of line were reorgan- 
ized, merged, consolidated, etc. For 
the year 1902 the corresponding item 
was 7,385.99 miles. 

The length of mileage operated by 
receivers on June 30, 1903, was 1,- 
185.45 miles, showing a decrease of 
289.87 miles as compared with the 
previous year. The number of roads 
in the hands of receivers was the same 
as at the close of the previous year, 9 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



127 




128 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



roads having been taken from the 
hands of receivers and a like number 
having been placed in charge of the 
courts. 

EQUIPMENT. 

On June 30, 1903, there were in 
the service of the railways 43,871 loco- 
motives, the increase being 2,646. As 
classified, these locomotives were : Pas- 
senger, 10,570; freight, 25,444; 
switching, 7.058. There were also 799 
not assigned to any class. 

The total number of cars of all 
classes was 1,753,389, this total hav- 
ing increased 113,204 during the year. 
The assignment of this rolling stock 
was, to the passenger service, 38,140 
cars ; to the freight service, 1,653.782 
cars ; the remaining 61,467 cars being 
those employed directly by the rail- 
ways in their own service. Cars used 
by the railways that were owned by 
private companies and firms are not 
included in this statement. The aver- 
age number of locomotives per 1,000 
miles of line was 214, showing an in- 
crease of 8. The average number of 
cars per 1,000 miles of line was 8,540, 
showing an increase of 345 as com- 
pared with the previous year. The 
number of passenger-miles per pas- 
senger locomotive was 1,978,786. show- 
ing an increase of 70,476 miles. The 
number of ton-miles per freight loco- 
motive was 6,807,981, showing an in- 
crease of 141,482 miles as compared 
with June 30, 1902. 

The aggregate number of locomo- 
tives and cars in the service of the 
railways was 1,797,260. Of this num- 
ber 1,462,259 were fitted with train 
brakes, indicating an increase during 
the year of 155,414, and 1,770,558 
were fitted with automatic couplers, 
indicating an increase of 122,028. 
Practically all locomotives and cars in 
passenger" service had train brakes, 
and of the 10,570 locomotives in that 
service. 10110 were fitted with auto- 
matic couplers. Only a few cars in 
passenger service were without auto- 
matic couplers. With respect to 
freight equipment it appears that most 
of the freight locomotives had train 
brakes and 98 per cent of them auto- 
matic couplers. Of 1,653.782 cars in 
freight service on June 30. 1903, 1.- 
352,123 had train brakes and 1,632,330 
automatic couplers. In this report 
there have been continued several sum- 
maries, first presented in the report for 
1902. to show the general type of 
efficiency of locomotives and the ca- 
pacity of freight cars. 



In these summaries' locomotives are 
classified under the heads of single-ex- 
pansion locomotives, four-cylinder com- 
pound locomotives, and two-cylinder 
compound or cross-compound locomo- 
tives. Each of these classes of locomo- 
tives is further classified according to 
the number of drivers, and the number 
of pilot wheels and trailers. 

Freight cars are first classified as 
box cars, flat cars, stock cars, coal 
cars, tank cars, refrigerator cars, and 
other cars. The cars in these classes 
are further distributed among the 
requisite number of subclasses, the 
lowest of which. Class I, being for cars 
having capacities in the 10,000 of 
pounds; Class II for cars in the 20,- 
000 of pounds, the other classes suc- 
cessively increasing in the same ratio. 



EMPLOYEES. 

The number of persons on the pay 
rolls of the railways in the United 
States, as returned for June 30, 1903, 
was 1,312,537, or 639 per 100 miles of 
line. These figures, when compared 
with the corresponding ones for the 
year 1902, show an increase of 123,222 
in the number of employees, or 45 per 
100 miles of line. The classification 
of employees includes enginemen, 52,- 
993; firemen, 56,041; conductors, 39,- 
741, and other trainmen, 104,885. 
There were 49.961 switch tenders, 
crossing tenders, and watchmen. With 
regard to the four general divisions of 
railway employment it appears that 
general administration required the 
services of 45,222 employees ; mainte- 
nance of way and structures, 433,648 
employees ; maintenance of equipment, 
253,889 employees, and conducting 
transportation, 576,881 employees. 
This statement disregards a few em- 
ployees of which no assignment was 
made. 

The usual statement of the average 
daily compensation of the 18 classes of 
employees for a series of years is con- 
tinued in the present report, which 
shows also the aggregate amount of 
compensation paid to more than 97 per 
cent of the number of employees for 
the year 1903 and more than 99 per 
rent for the six years preceding. The 
amount of wages and salaries paid to 
employees during the year end'ng June 
30. 1903, as reported, was $757,321,- 
415; but this amount, as compared 
with the total reported for the year 
1902, is understated for want of re- 
turns by $18,000,000 at least. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



129 



CAPITALIZATION OF RAILWAY PROPERTY. 

The par value of the amount of 
railway capital outstanding on June 
30, 1903, was $12,599,990,258, 
which represents a capitalization 
of $63,186 per mile for the rail- 
ways of the United States. Of 
this capital, $6,155,559,032 existed as 
stock, of which $4,876,961,012 was 
common and $1,278,598.020 preferred, 
and the remaining part, $6,444,431,226, 
as funded debt, which consisted of 
mortgage bonds, $5,426,730.154 ; mis- 
cellaneous obligations, $640,704,135; 
income bonds, $234,016,821, and equip- 
ment trust obligations, $142,980,116. 
Current liabilities are not included in 
railway capital for the reason that this 
class of indebtedness has to do with 
the operation rather than with the 
construction and equipment of a road. 
Current liabilities for the year amount- 
ed to $864,552,960, or $4,211 per mile 
of line. 

Of the total capital stock outstand- 
ing, $2,704,821,163, or 43.94 per cent, 
paid no dividends. The amount of 
dividends declared during the year was 
$196.728,176. being equivalent to 5.70 
per cent on dividend-paying stock. For 
the year ending June 30, 1902, the 
amount of dividends declared was 
$185,391,655. Of the total amount of 
stock outstanding, $6,155,559,032, 6.59 
per cent paid from 1 to 4 per cent 
13.51 per cent from 4 to 5 per cent 
10.34 per cent from 5 to 6 per cent 
11.39 per cent from 6 to 7 per cent, 
and 9.10 per cent from 7 to 8 per cent. 
The amount of funded debt (omitting 
equipment trust obligations) that paid 
no interest was $272788.421. or 4.33 
per cent. Of mortgage bonds, $194,- 
295,524, or 3.58 per cent, of miscel- 
laneous obligations, $7,377,925. or 1.15 
per cent, and of income bonds, $71,- 
114,972, or 30.39 per cent, paid no in- 
terest. 



PUBLIC SERVICE OF RAILWAYS. 

The number of passengers reported 
as carried by the railways in the year 
ending June'30, 1903, was 694.891,535, 
indicating an increase of 45,013 030 as 
compared with the year ending June 
30. 1902. The passenger-mileage, or 
the number of passengers carried 1 
mile, was 20.915,763,881, having in- 
creased 1.225,826261. 

The number of tons of freight re- 
ported as carried (including freight 
received from connecting roads and 
other carriers) was 1,304,394,323, 



which exceeds the tonnage of the pre- 
vious year by 104,078,536 tons. The 
ton-mileage, or the number of tons car- 
ried 1 mile, was 173222,278,993, the 
increase being 15,932,908,940. The 
number of tons carried 1 mile per mile 
of line was 855,447, which figures in- 
dicate an increase in the density of 
freight traffic of 62,096 ton-miles per 
mile of line. 

The average revenue per passenger 
per mile for the year mentioned was 
2.006 cents, the average for the pre- 
ceding year being 1.986 cents. The 
average revenue per ton per mile was 
0.763 cent. This average for the pre- 
ceding year was 0.757 cent. Earnings 
per train mile show an increase both 
for passenger and freight trains. The 
average cost of running a train 1 mile 
appears to have increased between 8 
and 9 cents. The ratio of operating 
expenses to earnings, 66.16 per cent, 
also increased in comparison with the 
preceding year, when it was 64.66 per 
cent. 

A summary of freight traffic, classi- 
fied on the basis of a commodity classi- 
fication embracing some thirty-eight 
items, is continued for the year under 
review. 

EARNINGS AND EXPENSES. 

The gross earnings of the railways in 
the United States from the operation 
of 205,313.54 miles of line were, for 
the year ending June 30, 1903, $1,900,- 
846,907, being $174.466,640 greater 
than for the previous year. Their 
operating expenses were $1,257.538,- 
852, or $141,290,105 more than in 
1902. The following figures give gross 
earnings in detail, with the increase 
or the decrease of the several items as 
compared with the previous year : Pas- 
senger revenue, $421 ,704,592 increase, 
$28,741.344 : mail, $41,709,396 in- 
crease, $1,873,552: express, $38.331,- 
964 increase, $4.078,505 ; other earn- 
ings from passenger service, $9,821,- 
277 increase. $962,508; freight reve- 
nue, $l,338,020,026^increase, $130.- 
791,181 ; other earnings from freight 
service, $4.467,025 decrease, $379,- 
693 ; other earnings from operation, 
including unclassified items, $46,792,- 
627 increase, $8,399,243. Gross 
earnings from operation per mile of 
line averaged $9.258, the correspond- 
ing average for the year 1902 being 
$633 less. 

The operating expenses were as- 
signed to the four general divisions of 
such expenses, as follows : Mainte- 



130 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



nance of way and structures, $266,421,- 
774 ; maintenance of equipment, $240,- 
429,742 ; conducting transportation, 
$702,509,818; general expenses, $47,- 
767,947; undistributed, $409,571. Op- 
erating expenses were $6,125 per mile 
of line, haying increased $548 per mile 
in comparison with the preceding year. 
The statistical report contains an 
analysis of the operating expenses for 
the year according to the fifty-three 
accounts prescribed in the official 
classification of these expenses, with 
the percentage of each item of the ex- 
penses as classified for the years 1897 
to 1903. 

The income from operation, or the 
net earnings, of the railways amount- 
ed to $643,308,055. This item, when 
compared with the net earnings of the 
year 1902, shows an increase of $33,- 
176,535. Net earnings per mile for 
1903 averaged $3,133; for 1902, $3,- 
048, and for 1901, $2,854. The 
amount of income obtained from other 
sources than operation was $205.687,- 
480. In this amount are included the 
following items : Income from lease 
of road, $109,696,201; dividends on 
stocks owned, $40,081,725 ; interest on 
bonds owned, $17,696,586, and miscel- 
laneous income, $38,212,968. The to- 
tal income of the railways, $848,995,- 
535 that is, the income from opera- 
tion and from other sources is the 
amount from which fixed charges and 
similar items of expenditure are de- 
ducted to ascertain the sum available 
for dividends. Deductions of such na- 
ture totalized $552,619,490, leaving 
$296,376,045 as the net income for the 
year available for dividends or surplus. 

The amount of dividends declared 
during the year (including $420,400, 
other payments from net income) was 
$197,148,576, leaving as the surplus 
from the operations of the year ending 
Tune 30, 1903, $99.227.469, that of 
the previous year having been $94,855.- 
088. The amount stated above for de- 
ductions from income, $552,619,-! 90, 
comprises the following items : 
Salaries and maintenance of organi- 
zation, $430,427: interest accrued on 
funded debt, $283,953,124; interest on 
current liabilities, $9,060,645; rents 
paid for lease of road, $112.230,384; 
taxes, $57,849,569; permanent im- 
provements charged to income account, 
$41,948,183; other deductions, $47,- 
147,158. 

It is perhaps appropriate to mention 
that the foregoing figures for the in- 
come and expenditures of the railways, 
being compiled from the annual re- 



turns of leased roads as well as of op- 
erating roads, necessarily include du- 
plications in certain items of income, 
and also of expenditure, since, in gen- 
eral, the income of a leased road is the 
rent paid by the company which op- 
erates it. 

RAILWAY ACCIDENTS. 

The statement of accidents to per- 
sons in the summaries in the statisti- 
cal report under consideration are pre- 
sented under the two general classes 
of accidents resulting from the move- 
ment of trains, locomotives, or cars, 
and of accidents arising from causes 
other than those resulting from the 
movement of trains, locomotives, or 
cars. These classes include all the 
casualties returned by the carriers in 
their annual reports to the Commis- 
sion, whether sustained by passengers, 
employees, trespassers, or other per- 
sons, and for a number of reasons they 
are not in all respects comparable with 
others in the bulletins that are based 
on monthly reports. 

The total number of casualties to 
persons on the railways for the year 
ending June 30, 1903, was 86,393, of 
which 9,840 represented the number 
of persons killed and 76,553 the num- 
ber injured. Casualties occurred 
among three general classes of rail- 
way employees, as follows : Train- 
men, 2,070 killed and 25,676 injured ; 
switch tenders, crossing tenders and 
watchmen, 283 killed, 2,352 injured; 
other employees, 1,253 killed, 32,453 
injured. The casualties to employees 
coupling and uncoupling cars were, 
employees killed, 281 ; injured, 3,551. 
For the year 1902 the corresponding 
figures were, killed, 167; injured, 2.- 
864. The casualties connected with 
coupling and uncoupling cars are as- 
signed as follows : Trainmen killed, 
211 ; injured, 3,023 ; switch tenders, 
crossing tenders and watchmen killed, 
57 ; injured, 416 ; other employees 
killed, 13; injured, 112. 

The casualties due to falling from 
trains, locomotives, or cars in motion 
were : Trainmen killed, 440 ; injured, 
4,191 ; switch tenders, crossing tenders 
and watchmen killed, 39 ; injured, 
461 ; other employees killed, 72 ; in- 
jured, 536. The casualties due to 
jumping on or off trains, locomotives, 
or cars in motion were : Trainmen 
killed, 101 ; injured, 3,133 ; switch 
tenders, crossing tenders and watch- 
men killed, 15; injured, 279; other 
employees killed, 82; injured, 508. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



131 



The casualties to the same three 
classes of employees in consequence of 
collisions and derailments were : 
Trainmen killed, 648; injured, 4,526; 
switch tenders, crossing tenders and 
watchmen killed, 17 ; injured, 137 ; 
other employees killed, 128; injured, 
743. 

The number of passengers killed in 
the course of the year 1903 was 355, 
and the number injured 8,231. In the 
previous year 345 passengers were 
killed and 6,683 injured. There were 
173 passengers killed and 4,584 injured 
because of collisions and derailments. 
The total number of persons, other 
than employees and passengers, killed 
was 5,879; injured, 7,841. These fig- 
ures include the casualties to persons 
classed as trespassing, of whom 5,000 
were killed and 5,079 were injured. 
The total number of casualties to per- 
sons other than employees from being 
struck by trains, locomotives, or cars, 
were 4 : 534 killed and 4,029 injured. 
The casualties of this class were as 



follows : At highway crossings, pas- 
sengers killed, 3 ; injured, 7 ; other 
persons killed, 895 ; injured, 1,474 ; at 
stations, passengers killed, 24 ; in- 
jured, 108 ; other persons killed, 390 ; 
injured, 501 ; at other points along 
track, passengers killed, 8; injured, 
14 : other persons killed, 3,214 ; in- 
jured, 1,925. The ratios of casualties 
indicate that 1 employee in every 364 
was killed, and 1 employee in every 22 
was injured. With regard to train- 
men that is, enginemen, firemen, con- 
ductors, and other trainmen it ap- 
pears that 1 trainman was killed for 
every 123 employed, and 1 was injured 
for every 10 employed. 

One passenger was killed for every 
1,957,441 carried, and 1 injured for 
every 84,424 carried. With respect to 
the number of miles traveled, how- 
ever, the figures show that 58.917,645 
passenger-miles were accomplished for 
each passenger killed, and 2,541,096 
passenger-miles for each passenger in- 
jured. 



INTERESTING FACTS CONCERNING RAILWAYS. 



Differences of Gauge. It is not really 
known what, if any, principle governed the 
determination in the first instance of the 
gauge between the rails of 4 ft. 8 ins., which 
is the standard railway gauge of the world. 
It is supposed to have been adopted from the 
roads of the collieries in the north of England, 
whose uniform width necessitated the use of 
wagons having axles of an outside width of 
5 feet. In places these wagons ran on tram- 
ways, with a flange on the outer edge of the 
rail. Then came the edge rail, which trans- 
ferred the flange to the wheel. However, the 
same width of track was continued, but meas- 
ured from the inner edge of the rail it gave a 
gauge of 4 ft. 8^ ins. When Stephenson was 
selected from these collieries to build the Liv- 
erpool and Manchester railway, he brought 
with him the gauge with which he was familiar. 

The 4ft. 8^ ins. gauge is the standard one in 
Europe, with but few exceptions, and in North 
America, and throughout the world generally, 
though every country possesses lines of nar- 
rower gauges. European countries having a 
different gauge are Ireland, 5 ft. 3 ins., Russia, 
5 ft., and Spain, 5 ft. 6 ins. The standard 
gauge of India is 5 ft. 6 ins., while there are 
also a number of railways whose mileage 
amounts to 42 per cent, of the whole, built on 
the 3 ft. 3f ins. gauge. In New Zealand, Tas- 
mania, South Africa and the Sudan the stand- 
ard gauge is 3 ft. 6 ins. Australia has no 
standard gauge. In New South Wales the 
gauge is 4 ft. 8 ins., in Queensland 3 ft. 6 ins., 
and in Victoria, 5 ft. 3 ins. 



CAPE TO CAIRO RAILWAY. 

The Cape to Cairo Railway, which was the 
late Mr. Rhodes's scheme for joining the 
south and north of Africa, a distance of nearly 
5,000 miles, is making rapid progress. North- 
wards from the Cape the line has been carried 
forward by the Chartered Company to the 
Wankie coal-fields, which are 200 miles north 
of Buluwayo (or 1,560 miles north from the 
sea), and some 70 miles south of the Victoria 
Falls. At the present rate of progress it is 
expected that the railway will reach the Vic- 
toria Falls about April, 1905. In the north 
the railway only runs as far as Khartoum, and 
in spite of the agreement with Abyssinia per- 
mitting the making of a line through its terri- 
tory, no extension south is likely in the present 
generation. 

Mr. Rhodes's idea was to fit the main lines 
with branches to the coast; there will be 
many of these in time. Two are finished, the 
Uganda Railway (British) and the Beira-Sal- 
isbury line (Portuguese); others are planned, 
such as the Congo-Katanga Railway (Belgian) 
to Rhodesia and one through German East 
Africa. The Cape to Cairo telegraph is 
rapidly approaching completion; it has now 
reached Central Africa. 



TRANS-SIBERIAN RAILWAY. 

The opening of the Trans-Siberian Mail 
route promises to accelerate the transmission 
of European letters to and from the north of 



132 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



China. A letter posted from Tientsin on the 
30th August, 1902, and forwarded by this 
route, was delivered in Liverpool on the 28th 
September just 28 days later. The trans- 
mission of letters via Brindisi or via Van- 
couver usually takes from 36 to 40 days. 
Therefore, the Trans-Siberian Railway saves 
at least a week, which is a matter of great im- 
portance to commercial houses. Delivery is, 
however, erratic, and no working arrange- 
ment has yet been arrived at between the 
Post Offices of Great Britain and Russia. All 
that the former does is to forward letters 
marked "Via Siberia" by the Russian route; 
all others go by sea. 

On Sept. 27th, 1903, the mails to the Far 
East were despatched from Paris (Nord) for 
the first time via Berlin and Moscow. 

Moscow is the western terminus of the 
Trans-Siberian Railway, the main line of 
which extends thence to Dalny, a distance of 
5,403 miles. The Manchuria-Dalny section, 
1,171 miles, embraces the following important 
junctions: Harbin, for Vladivostok via Gro- 
dekovo; Tachitchiao, for Pekin via Inkoo 
(Newchang), and Nangaline for Port Arthur. 

The most direct route from London to Mos- 
cow is via Dover, Ostend, Berlin, Alexan- 
drowo, Warsaw, and Brest Litewski. The 
distance is 1,800 miles, and the through jour- 
ney occupies 67 hours. 

The Coast terminals of the Trans-Siberian 
Railway, viz., Dalny, Vladivostok, and Port 
Arthur, are also ports of call with various 
steamship companies, whose boats are ar- 
ranged to connect with the train service gen- 
erally. Thus, the boats of the East China 
Railway Company ply between Dalny and 
Shanghai, Dalny and Nagasaki, and Dalny, 
Port Arthur, and Chifu, and between Vladi- 
vostok and Shanghai. The "Oiye" (Japan) 
Line call at Vladivostok and sail to and from 
all Japanese ports. The Russian Volunteer 
fleet has a steamship service between Odessa 
and Vladivostok, calling at Singapore, Port 
Arthur, and Nagasaki. The "Nipon Yusen- 
Kaisha"Company furnish boats between Kobe, 



Nagasaki, Fusan, Gensan, and Vladivostok, 
and between Kobe, Chifu, Dalny, Port Arthur, 
and Taku. The Hamburg-American Line 
gives a service between Hongkong and Vladi- 
vostok. 

Fares from London, via Dover, Ostend, and 
Alexandrowo: 

1st 2d 

Class. Class 

To Dalny $195 $135 

To Pekin 200 140 

To Port Arthur 200 140 

To Vladivostok 185 125 

To Shanghai 215 150 

To Nagasaki 215 150 

Trains are ferried across Lake Baikal, but 
the railway round the south of the lake is 
being built. The Manchurian Railway itself 
is in a very bad condition, owing to poor con- 
struction. Days and sometimes weeks of de- 
lay are common. The Siberian main line, 
now single, is to be doubled. 

New Trans-Canadian Railway. The Grand 
Trunk Railway Company has secured the 
assent of the Dominion Parliament to the 
construction of a new railroad straight across 
Canada, from New Brunswick in the east te 
the Pacific Ocean in the west. The Govern- 
ment will themselves be the owners of the 
whole line from New Brunswick to Winnipeg, 
but the line is to be leased to and worked by 
the Grand Trunk Pacific. The Grand Trunk 
Pacific will be restricted in its possession and 
ownership of the road west of Winnipeg. 

Sahara Railway. A project which is being 
much discussed in France is a railway across 
the Sahara. Three routes have been sug- 
gested, one from Igli to the Niger, one from 
Biskra, 214 miles southeast of Algiers, to the 
west shore of Lake Chad, and the third from 
Bizerta in Tunis to Lake Chad. M. Paul 
Bonnard, an expert in African affairs, recom- 
mends the latter, as it would connect the 
French possessions in North Africa with the 
French Congo, and thus become a trans- 
African railway. 

Daily Mail Year Book. 



STREET AND ELECTRIC RAILWAYS IN THE UNITED STATES, 1902. 



The statistics contained in this sec- 
tion cover all street and electric rail- 
ways in the United States that were 
in operation during any part of the 
year ending June 30, 1902. The term 
"street and electric railways" as here 
used includes all electric railways irre- 
spective of their length or location, 
and all street railways irrespective of 
their motive power. At the census of 
1890 the railroads that used motive 
power other than steam were confined 
almost exclusively to urban districts 
and were properly classed as "street 
railways," but the application of elec- 



tricity has enabled these roads to 
greatly extend their lines in rural dis- 
tricts, and a large proportion of the 
trackage is now outside the limits of 
cities, towns, or villages. That the 
use of electric power has been the 
principal factor in the development of 
these railways during the past feu- 
years is shown by the table which 
presents for the years 1890 and 1902, 
the number of companies and miles 
of single track in the United 
States, segregated according to char- 
acter of motive power which is em- 
ployed. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



133 



NUMBER OF COMPANIES AND MILES OF SINGLE TRACK GROUPED 
ACCORDING TO MOTIVE POWER: 1890 AND 1902. 



CHARACTER OF POWER. 


1902 


1890 


PER CENT OF 
INCREASE. 


Num- 
ber of 
com- 
pa- 
nies. 


Miles of 
single 
track. 


Num- 
ber of 
com- 
pa- 
nies. 


Miles of 
single 
track. 


Num- 
ber of 
com- 
pa- 
nies. 


Miles of 
single 
track. 


United States 

Electric 
Animal 
Cable 


849 


*22,589.47 


761 


8,123.02 


11.6 


178.1 

1,637.0 
J95.4 
+50.7 
J76.2 


747 
67 
26 
9 


t21, 920.07 
259.10 
240.69 
169.61 


126 
506 
55 
74 


1.261.97 
5,661.44 
488.31 
711.30 


492.9 
186.8 
152.7 
187.8 


Steam 



* Includes 12.48 miles of track duplicated in reports of different companies, 
t Includes 6.06 miles operated by compressed air. 
J Decrease. 



At both censuses some companies 
reported the use of more than one kind 
of power, and in order to show the 
total number of companies for each 
class, they have been counted more 
than once ; therefore the total given in 
table above exceeds the actual number 
of separate companies. The increase 
in the length of track is confined en- 
tirely to the roads operated by electric 
power. The use of electric power was 
reported by 12(5 companies in 1890 
and 747 in 1902. The single track 
mileage operated by this power in- 
creased from 1,261.97 miles in 1890 



to 21,920.07 in 1902. A decided de- 
crease is shown in the number of 
companies and the trackage for each 
of the other classes of power. 

The length of single track, 22,589.47 
miles, reported for 1902, consists of 
1(5,651.58 miles of first main track, 
5,030.36 miles of second, main track, 
and 907.53 miles of sidings and turn- 
outs. The second table reproduces 
the totals for the United States and 
shows the mileage of each of the dif- 
ferent classes of track and the per 
cent which each class forms of the 
total. 



SINGLE-TRACK MILEAGE AND PER CENT. WHICH EACH CLASS IS 
OF TOTAL: 1902. 



CLASS OF TRACK. 



Total. 



First main track 

Second main track 

Sidings and turnouts 

Overhead trolley 

Other electric power 

Compressed air 

Animal 

Cable 

Steam 

Trackage owned 

Trackage leased 

Operated under trackage rights 

Constructed and opened for operation during the year. . . 

On private right of way owned by company. 

On private right of way not owned by company 

Located within city limits 

Located outside city limits 

Equipped with cast welded joints 



Single-track 


Per cent 


mileage. 


of total. 


*22,589.47 


100.0 


16,651.58 


73.7 


5,030.36 


22.3 


907.53 


4.0 


21.302,57 


94.3 


611.44 


2.7 


6.06 


(!) 


529.10 


1.1 


240.69 


1.1 


169.61 


.8 


19,038.33 


84.3 


3,551.14 


15.7 


560.92 


2.5 


1,549.73 


6.9 


3,424.96 


15.2 


377.11 


1.7 


J 13,208.24 


65.8 


J6,855.58 


34.2 


1,642.68 


7.3 



* Includes 12.48 miles of track duplicated in reports of different companies. 

t Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 

j Exclusive of the mileage of Massachusetts. 



134 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Of the total single-track mileage, 
21,914.01 miles, or 97 per cent, were 
operated by electric power and 416.36 
miles, or 1.9 per cent, by other me- 
chanical traction, while only 259.10 
miles, or 1.1 per cent, were operated 
by animal power, as compared with 
69.7 per cent in 1890. Of the total 
trackage in use by all companies, 84.3 
per cent was owned by the operating 
companies and 15.7 per cent leased. 
The mileage of track constructed and 
opened for operation during the year 
covered by this report was 1,549.73 
miles, or'6.9 per cent of the total, but 
this does not cover all of the track un- 
der construction. A number of miles 
of track were in various stages of com- 
pletion, but it was impracticable to 
fix upon any stage of the work at 
which the trackage could be enume- 
rated other than that of actual com- 
pletion. The statistics concerning 
track located on private right of way 
refer particularly to rural electric rail- 
ways, many of which have bought or 
have had surrendered to them a sepa- 
rate roadbed, either adjoining or in- 
dependent of the highway, in the same 
manner as a steam railroad. It ap- 
pears from the reports that 3,424.96 
miles of single track were on private 
right of Avay owned by the company. 
Occasionally the railway is built on a 
private right of way not owned by the 
company, an example of which would 
be a toll bridge owned by a bridge com- 
pany, to whom payment for the privi- 
lege of using it was made. There were 



377.11 miles of single track on right of 
way of this character. 

The . inquiries concerning the loca- 
tion of track, whether within or with- 
out city limits, were made with the 
intention of ascertaining the relative 
length of track operated in urban and 
rural districts, respectively. In a num- 
ber of cases it was impossible to de- 
termine exactly the trackage that 
should be assigned to these two sub- 
divisions. In some instances the track 
was within or passed through thickly 
settled communities that were not or- 
ganized as cities or towns, and there- 
fore had no legal limits, and it was 
difficult to obtain the length that 
should be considered as within the ur- 
ban district. In the New England 
states densely populated communities 
are legally part of the town govern- 
ment, which includes also rural dis- 
tricts. Many companies in Massachu- 
setts reported that it was impractica- 
ble to make the distinction, and ac- 
cordingly the trackage for that state 
has not been included in this classifica- 
tion. For the United States, exclusive 
of Massachusetts, 13,208.24 miles of 
single trackage, or 65.8 per cent of the 
total, were reported as within urban 
limits and 6,855.58 miles, or 34.2 per 
cent, as outside of such limits. 

The increase in the trackage is due 
net only to the establishment of new 
companies, but very largely to the ex- 
tension of the lines of established com- 
panies. 



COMPANIES GROUPED ACCORDING TO LENGTH 
1890 AND 1902. 



OF LINE: 











yu 


LENGTH OF ROAD BED. 


Number 
of com- 
panies. 


Length of 
line. 


Number 
of com- 
panies. 


Length of 
line. 


Total 


*817 


16,651.58 


t691 


J5, 119.53 


Under 10 miles 
10 to 20 miles 
Over 20 to 30 miles 


394 
219 
76 


1,957.16 
3,148.94 
1,878 54 


557 
99 
16 


2,304.49 
1,353.42 
400.39 


Over 30 to 40 miles 
Over 40 to 50 miles 
Over 50 to 60 miles 


34 
25 
16 


1,197.83 
1,117.05 
89 9 86 


7 
4 
2 


251.74 
178.04 
101 57 


Over 60 to 70 miles 
Over 70 to 80 miles 
Over 80 to 90 miles 


12 
7 
6 


785.22 
532.46 
515 30 


2 

1 
1 


130.33 
76.48 
84 42 


Over 90 to 100 miles 


3 


277 12 






Over 100 miles 


25 


4,349.10 


2 


238.65 



* Operating companies. 

t Exclusive of 15 lessor companies. 

J Exclusive of 663.94 miles estimated in 1890. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



135 



COMPARATIVE SUMMARY, ALL COMPANIES: 1890 AND 1902. 



ITEMS. 


1902 


1890 


Per cent 
of 
increase. 




987 


706 


39 8 


Cost of construction and equipment 
Capital stock issued . 


$2,167,634,077 
$1 315 572 960 


$389,357,289 
$289 058 133 


456.7 
355 1 


Funded debt outstanding 
Earning" from operation. . . 


992,709,139 
$247 553,999 


$189,177,824 
$90 617 211 


424.7 
173 2 




$142 312 597 


$62 Oil 185 


129 5 


Percentage operating expenses of earnings 
Number of passenger cars . 


57.5 
60 290 


68.4 
32 505 


85 5 


Number of fare passengers carried 
Number of employees* 


4,809,554,438 
133,641 


2,023,010,202 
70,764 


137.7 
88.9 



* Exclusive of salaried officials and clerks. 

The "length of line" as given in the 
report means the length of the road- 
bed, or, in the case of a railway lying 
entirely within city limits, the length 
of street occupied. In determining 
the length of single track, switches and 
sidings are included, and double track 
is reckoned as two tracks. The in- 
crease in the length of line during the 
period of twelve years amounted to 
11,532.05 miles, or 225.3 per cent, as 
compared with an increase of 14,466.45 



miles, or 178.1 per cent, in the length 
of single track. Single-track roads are 
characteristic of rural districts, and 
the fact that the percentage of increase 
in length of line is greater than in 
length of single track is due princi- 
pally to the great development of in- 
terurban single-track lines since 1890. 
The average length of line per 
operating company in 1890 was 7.41 
miles as compared with 20.38 miles in 
1902. The average operating com- 



RELATION OF STREET AND ELECTRIC RAILWAYS TO POPULATION 

1890 AND 1902. 



GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS. 


Year. 


Population.* 


Total number 
of fare passen- 
gers carried. 


Average 
number 
of rides 
per in- 
habitant. 


United States 


1902 


75,994,575 


4,809,554,438 


63 




1890 


62,622,250 


2,023,010,202 


32 


Increase 




13,372,325 


2,786,544,236 


31 


North Atlantic 


1902 
1890 


21,046,695 
17,401,545 


2,618,528,979 
1,141,187,460 


124 

66 


Increase 
South Atlantic 


1902 
1890 


3,645,150 

10,443,480 
8,857,920 


1,477,341,519 

332,541,075 
101,647,174 


58 

32 
11 


Increase 
North Central 


1902 
1890 


1,585,560 

26,333,004 
22,362,279 


230,893,901 

1 ,344,000,951 
538,309,887 


21 

51 
24 


Increase ... 




3,970 725 


805,691,064 


97 


South Central 


1902 


14 080 047 


210 103 861 


15 




1890 


10,972,893 


98,005,026 


9 


Increase 
Western. . . . 


1902 


3,107,154 
4 091 349 


112,098,835 
304 379 572 


6 
74 




1890 


3,027,613 


143,860.655 


48 


Increase 




1 .063,736 


160,518,917 


26 



* Population shown for 1902 is that reported at the census of 1900. 



136 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



pany in 1902 controlled almost three 
times the length of line that was con- 
trolled by the average company in 
1890. In 1890 there were only 8 com- 
panies operating more than 50 miles 
of line, and in 1902 the number of 
such companies had increased to G9. 
Of the total number of companies re- 
ported for 1890, 94.9 per cent operated 
less than 20 miles of line each, and 
their combined length of line amounted 
to 71.5 per cent of the total in the 
United States; in 1902 corresponding 
percentages were 75 and 30.7, respec- 
tively. Thus, while there are still a 
large number of companies that op- 
erate less than 20 miles of track, the 
portion of the total length of line 



operated by them is not half as great 
as in 1890. 

The extent to which street and elec- 
tric railways are used, and the in- 
crease in their use as measured by the 
average number of rides per inhabi- 
tant, are shown below. 

From this table it appears that the 
most extensive use of street and elec- 
tric railways is in the North Atlantic 
states, where the average number of 
rides per inhabitant in 1902 was 124; 
the Western states come next with an 
average of 74. The greatest increase 
in this respect is shown for the South 
Atlantic states, where the average was 
almost three times as great in 1902 as 
it was in 1890. 



NUMBER OF OPERATING AND LESSOR COMPANIES BY STATES AND 
TERRITORIES: 1902. 



STATES AND TERRITORIES 


Total. 


Operat- 
ing. 


STATES AND TERRITORIES. 


Total. 


Operat- 
ing. 


United States 


987 


817 




5 


5 














Alabama 


9 


9 




5 


5 


Arizona 

Arkansas. . . . 


2 

7 


2 

7 


Nebraska 


4 
13 


4 

7 


California 
Colorado 
Connecticut 


35 
9 

27 


35 

8 
23 


New Jersey 
New Mexico 
New York 


30 

1 
119 


26 
1 
96 


Delaware 


3 


3 


North Carolina 


7 


7 


District of Columbia 


8 


8 


Ohio. . . 


67 


63 


Florida 
Georgia 


6 
10 


6 
10 


Oregon 
Pennsylvania. . 


6 
196 


6 
98 


Idaho 


I 


1 








Illinois 
Indiana 
Iowa 
Kansas 


58 
27 
22 
12 


50 
27 
22 
12 


South Carolina 
South Dakota 
Tennessee 
Texas. . . 


7 
1 
8 
17 


7 
1 
8 
17 


Kentucky 


12 


12 


Utah 


3 


3 


Louisiana 


8 


8 


Vermont. . 


9 


9 


Maine 
Maryland 
Massachusetts. 


20 
12 
93 


19 
10 
75 


Virginia 
Washington 


21 
8 
g 


21 
8 
g 


Michigan 


24 


24 






17 


Minnesota 


5 


5 









ACCIDENTS. The following state- 
ment reproduces the totals concerning 
the number of persons killed and in- 
jured in the United States for the vear 
1902 : 



Persons. 


Killed. 


Injured. 


Total. . 


1 218 


47 429 


Passengers. . 


265 


26 690 


Employees. . . 
Others 


122 
831 


3,699 
17,040 



"Others" referred to in this 
statement, include persons on foot or 
' riding in vehicles other than street 
cars who were killed or injured in col- 
lision with street cars. The number 
of persons reported as killed, 1,218, 
and injured, 47,429, form only an in- 
appreciable percentage of the total 
number of passengers carried. From 
a Bulletin published by the Census 
Bureau. 



CHAPTER VI. 



POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES. 



The population of the United States, 
according to the Twelfth Census, was 
75,991,575, divided as follows: 38,- 
816,448 males, 37,178,127 females. Of 
the total, 65,653,299 were native born, 
and 10,341,276 foreign born. The 



population is again divided as follows : 
White, 66,809,196 ; negroes, 8,833,994 ; 
Indians 237,196, but this figure does 
not include the population of Indian 
territory or on Indian reservations ; 
Chinese, 89,863 ; Japanese, 24,326. 



POPULATION OF EACH STATE AND TERRITORY OP THE 
UNITED STATES. 



States and Territories. 


1790. 


1800. 


1860. 


1880. 


1890. 


1900. 








964,201 


1,262,505 


1,513,017 


1,828 697 


Alaska 










32 052 


63 592 










40,440 


59^620 


122 931 








435,450 


802,525 


1,128,179 


1 311 564 








379,994 


864,694 


1,208,130 


1 485 053 


Colorado 
Connecticut. . . 


237,946' 


251,662 


34,277 
460,147 


194,327 
622,700 


412,198 
746,258 


539,700 
908 420 


Delaware 


59,096 


64,273 
14,093 


112,216 
75,080 


146,608 
177,624 


168,493 
230 392 


184,735 
278 718 


Florida 






140,424 


269,493 


391 422 


528 542 


Georgia 
Idaho 


82,548 


162,686 


1,057,286 


1,542,180 
32,610 


1,837,358 
84 385 


2,216,331 
161 772 


Illinois 
Indiana 




5,64i 


1,711,951 
1,350,428 


3,077,871 
1,978,301 


3,826,351 
2,192 404 


4,821,550 
2 516 462 


Indian Territory 
Iowa 






' 674,9i3 


1,624 6>i 5 


180,182 
1 911 896 


302,060 
2 231 853 


Kansas 
Kentucky 
Louisiana 


" V'3,677' 


' "220,955' 


107,206 
1,155,684 
708,002 


996,096 
1,648,690 
939 946 


1,427,096 
1,858,635 
1 118 587 


1,470,495 
2,147,174 
1 381 625 


Maine 
Maryland 
Massachusetts 
Michigan. . . 


96,540 
319,728 

378,787 


151,719 
341,548 
422,845 


628,279 
687,049 
1,231,066 
749,113 


648,936 
934,943 
1,783,085 
1 636 937 


661,086 
1,042,390 
2,238,943 
2 093 889 


694,466 
1,188,044 
2,805,346 
2 420 982 


Minnesota 






172,023 


780,773 


1 301 826 


1 751 394 


Mississippi 
Missouri . 





8,850 


791,305 
1 182,012 


1,131,597 
2 168 380 


1,289,600 
2 679 184 


1,551,270 
3 106 665 


Montana 








39 159 


132 159 


243 329 


Nebraska. . . 






28 841 


452 402 


1 058 910 


1 066 300 


Nevada 
New Hampshire 


141 885 


183 858 


6,857 
326 073 


62,266 
346 991 


45,761 
376 530 


42,335 
411 588 


New Jersey 
New Mexico. . 


184,139 


211,149 


672,035 
93 516 


1,131,116 
119 565 


1,444,933 
153 593 


1,883,669 
195 310 


New York 
North Carolina 
North Dakota. . 


340,120 
393,751 


589,051 
478,103 


3,880,735 
992,622 
4 837 


5,082,871 
1,399,550 
135 177 


5,997,853 
1,617,947 
182 719 


7,268,894 
1,893,810 
319 146 


Ohio 




45 365 


2 339 511 


3 198 062 


3 672 316 


4 157 545 


Oklahoma 










61 834 


398,331 


Oregon. 






52 465 


174 768 


313 767 


413 563 


Pennsylvania 
Rhode Island 


434,373 

68 825 


602,365 
69 122 


2,906i215 
174 620 


4,282,891 
276 531 


5,258,014 
345 506 


6,302,115 
428 556 


South Carolina 
South Dakota 


249,073 


345,591 


703,708 


995,577 


1,151,149 
328 808 


1,340,316 
401 570 


Tennessee . 


35 691 


105 602 


1 109 801 


1 542 359 


1 767 518 


2 020 615 


Texas 






604 215 


1 591 749 


2 235 523 


3 048 710 


utah : 






40,273 


14.VJH3 


207,905 


276,749 



Includes 6,394 negroes. 



t Included in the population of the several States. 
137 



138 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



POPULATION OF EACH STATE AND TERRITORY OF THE UNITED STATES 

Continued. 



States and Territories. 


1790. 


1800. 


1860 


1880. 


1890. 


1900. 


Vermont 


85,425 


154,465 


315,098 


332,286 


332,422 


343,641 


Virginia 


747,610 


880,200 


1,596,318 
11,594 


1,512,565 
75,116 


1,655,980 
349,390 


1,854,184 
518,103 










618,457 


762,794 


958 800 








775 881 


1,315 497 


1 686 880 


2 069 042 










20,789 


60,705 


92,531 


Persons on public ships 
in the service of the 
United States or sta- 












*91 219 
















Total United States, 


3,929,214 


5,308,483 


31,443,321 


50,155,783 


62,622,250 


75,693,734 


Alaska 










32 052 


63 592 


Hawaii 










89,990 


154 001 


Indian Territory . . 










180 182 


302 060 


Indians on Reservations 










145,282 


(t) 
















Total.. 












76.303.387 



* Includes 6,394 negroes 



t Included in the population of the several States. 

[From Reports of the Census.] 



The figures of the Bureau of Statis- 
tics vary somewhat from those of the 
Census, and their table given farther 
on is later than the Census figures. 
The census of the Philippine Islands 
taken 1904, gives the population as 7,- 
035,426, of which 647,740 are classi- 



fied as wild and uncivilized. Luzon 
contains 3,798,507 persons ; Panay 
has 743,646 people; Mindanao is 
fourth with 499,634 inhabitants; 
Jolo follows with 44,718 people, of 
whom only 1,270 are civilized. The 
population of Manila is 219,028. 



OFFICIAL CENSUS OF THE UNITED STATES, BY COUNTIES, 

FOR 1900. 



ALABAMA. 

AREA, 50,722 SQUARE MILES. 



Autauga 17,915 


Conecuh 17,514 


Jackson. . 


. 30 508 


Perry. . 


Baldwin 13,194 


Coosa 16,144 


Jefferson. . . 


. . 140,420 


Pickens. . 


Barbour 35,152 
Bibb 18,498 
Blount 23,119 
Bullock 31,944 


Covington. . . . 15,346 
Crenshaw .... 19,668 
Cullman 17,849 
Dale 21,189 


Lamar 
Lauderdale. 
Lawrence . 
Lee .... 


. . 16,084 
. . 26,559 
. 20,124 
. 31,826 


Pike 
Randolph . . 
Russell .... 
St. Clair 


Butler 25,761 
Calhoun 34 874 


Dallas 54,657 
Dekalb 23 558 


Limestone. 


. 22,387 
35 651 


Shelby 


Chambers 32,554 
Cherokee 21,096 
Chilton 16,522 
Choctaw 18,136 


Klmore 26,099 
Escambia .... 11,320 
Etowah 27,361 
Fayette 14,132 


Macon. . . . 
Madison . . 
Marengo . . 
Marion . 


. 23,126 
. 43,702 
. 38,315 
14 494 


Talladega . . 
Tallapoosa . 
Tuscaloosa . 
Walker 


Clarke 27 790 


Franklin 16511 


Marshall 


23 289 




Clay 17,099 


Geneva 19 096 


Mobile 


62 740 


Wilcox 


Cleburne 13,206 


Greene 24,182 


Monroe 


23 666 


Winston 


Coffee 20 972 


Hale 31 Oil 




72 047 




Colbert 22,341 
Total. . 


Henry ...'.'.'.'. 36,147 


Morgan 


. . 28,820 





31,783 
24,402 
29,172 
21,647 
27,083 
19,425 
23,684 
32,710 
35,773 
29,675 
36,147 
25,162 
11,134 
35,631 
9,554 



1,828,697 



Apache 

Cochise 

Coconino. . . . 

Gila 

Total. . 



8,297 
9,251 
5,514 
4,973 



ARIZONA. 

AREA, 113,916 SQUARE MILES. 



Graham 14,162 

Maricopa 20,457 

Mohaye 3,426 

Navajo 8,829 



Pima . 
Pinal . 



14,689 
7,779 



Santa Cruz . . . 4,545 



Yavapai 



13,799 



Yuma 4,145 

San Carlos In- 
dian Reserv'n. 3,065 

. . 122,931 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



139 





140 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Arkansas .... 
Ashley 
Baxter 


12,973 
19,734 
9,298 
31,611 
16,396 
9,651 
8,539 
18,848 
14,528 
21,289 
15,886 
9,628 
11,620 
22,077 
19,772 
19,505 
21,270 
14,529 
11,051 


AREA, 

Dallas 
Desha 
Drew 
Faulkner. . . 
Franklin . . . 
Fulton 
Garland ... . 
Grant 


ARKA 
52,198 f 

11,518 
11,511 
19,451 
20,780 
17,395 
12,917 
18,773 
7,671 
16,979 
24,101 
12,748 
14,076 
22,557 
13,506 
18,383 
40,972 
17,448 
10,594 
16,491 


NSAS. 

SQUARE MILES. 

Lee . 


19,409 
13,389 
13,731 
20,563 
22,544 
19,864 
11,377 
17,558 
16,384 
16,816 
9,444 
16,609 
12,538 
20,892 
7,294 
26,561 
10,301 
7,025 
18,352 


Pope 
Prairie. 


. 21,715 
11 875 


Lincoln 
Little River . . 
Logan 
Lonoke 
Madison 
Marion 
Miller 
Mississippi . . . 
Monroe 
Montgomery. . 
Nevada 
Newton 
Ouachita 
Perry. 


Pulaski 
Randolph . . 
St. Francis . 
Saline 
Scott 
Searcy. 
Sebastian . . 
Sevier 
Sharp 
Stone 
Union 
Van Buren . 
Washington 
White 
Woodruff . . 
Yell 


. . 63,179 
. . 17,156 
.. 17,157 
. . 13,122 
. 13,183 
.. 11,988 
. . 36 935 
.. 16,339 
. . 12,199 
. . 8,100 
. . 22,495 
. . 11,220 
. . 34,256 
. 24,864 
. . 16,304 
. . 22,750 

.1,311,564 


Benton 


Boone 
Bradley 
Calhoun .... 
Carroll 
Chicot 
Clark 
Clay 
Cleburne. . . . 
Cleveland . . . 
Columbia . . . 
Conway 
Craighead. . . 
Crawford 
Crittenden . . 
Cross 
Total. . . 


Greene 
Hempstead. . 
Hot Spring . . 
Howard 
Independence 
Izard . 


Jackson 
Jefferson. . . . 
Johnson .... 
Lafayette . . . 
Lawrence . : . 


Phillips 
Pike. . . . 


Poinsett 


Polk 


Alameda. . . . 
Alpine. . 


130,197 
509 
11,116 
17,117 
11,200 
7,364 
18,046 
2,408 
8,986 
37,862 ! 
5,150' 
27,104 
4,377 
16,480 
9,871 


AREA, 

Lake 
Lassen 
Los Angeles . . 
Madera 
Marin 
Mariposa. . . 
Mendocino . . 
Merced 
Modoc 
Mono. ...... 
Monterey . . . 
Napa 


CALIF( 
188,981 
6,017 
4,511 
170,298 
6,364 
15,702 
4,720 
20,465 
9,215 
5,076 
2,167 
19.380 
16,451 
17,789 
19,696 
15,786 


)RNIA. 

SQUARE MILES. 

Plumas 


4,657 
17,897 
45,915 
6,633 

27,929 
35,090 
342,782 
35,452 

16,637 
12,094 
18,934 
60,216 
21,512 


Shasta 
Sierra 
Siskiyou . . . 
Solano. 


. 17,318 
. . 4,017 
. . 16,962 
24 143 


Riverside .... 
Sacramento . . 
San Benito . . . 
San Bernar- 
dino 
San Diego. . . . 
San Francisco. 
San Joaquin. . 
San Luis Obis- 
po 
San Mateo . . . 
Santa Barbara 
Santa Clara . . 
Santa Cruz . . . 


Amador 
Butte 
Calaveras . . . 
Colusa 
Contra Costa 
Del Norte . . . 
Eldorado. . . . 
Fresno 
Glenn 
Humboldt . . . 
Inyo 
Kern 
Kings 
Total. . . 

Arapahoe . . . 
Archuleta . . . 
Baca 
Bent 
Boulder 
Chaffee 
Cheyenne . . . 
Clear Creek. . 
Conejos 
Costilla 
Custer 
Delta 
Dolores 
Douglas 


Sonoma. . . . 
Stanislaus. . 
Sutter 
Tehama. . . . 
Trinity . . . . 
Tulare 
Tuolumne. . 
Ventura. . . . 
Yolo 


. . 38,480 
. . 9,550 
. . 5.885 
.. 10,996 
. . 4,383 
. . 18,375 
.. 11,166 
. . 14,367 
13 618 


Nevada 
Orange 
Placer 


Yuba 


. . 8,620 
.1,485,053 

. . 1,690 
. . 4,080 
. . 3,661 
. . 3,853 
. . 2,342 
. . 5,379 
971 
2 744 


153,017 
2,117 
759 
3,049 
21,544 
7,085 
501 
7,082 
8,794 
4,632 
2,937 
5,487 
1,134 
3,120 
. 3,008 


AREA, 

Elbert . . 
El Paso 
Fremont .... 
Garfield 
Gilpin 
Grand 
Gunnison . . . 
Hinsdale. . . . 
Huerfano . . . 
Jefferson. . . . 
Kiowa 
Kit Carson . . 
Lake 
La Plata 
Larimer 


COLO! 
104,500 
3,101 
31,602 
15,636 
5,835 
6,690 
741 
5,331 
1,609 
8,395 
9,306 
701 
1,580 
18,054 
. 7,016 
. 12,168 


IADO. 

SQUARE MILES. 

Las Animas . . 
Lincoln 
Logan 
Mesa 
Mineral 
Montezuma . . 
Montrose 
Morgan 
Otero 
Ouray 


21,840 
926 
3,292 
9,267 
1,913 
3,058 
4,535 
3,268 
11,522 
4,731 
2,998 
1,583 
7,020 
3,766 
34,448 


Rio Blanco . 
Rio Grande. 
Routt 
Saguache . . 
San Juan. . . 
San Miguel 
Sedgwick . 


Teller 
Washington 
Weld 


. . 29,002 
. . 1,241 
. 16,808 


Park ........ 
Phillips 


Yuma .... 


. . 1,729 
. .539,700 


Pitkin 


Prowers 
Pueblo 


Eagle 
Total . . . 


Fairfield 


. 184,203 


AREA 

Litchfield . . 
Middlesex. . . 


CONNECTICUT. 

, 4,674 SQUARE MILES. 

. 63,672 1 New Haven . . 
. 41, 760 | New London. . 


269,163 

82,758 


Tolland. . . 
Windham . . 


.. 24,523 
. . 46,861 
QOS a*. 1 ! 


Hartford. . . . 
Total 


. 195,415 


Kent . 
Total .. 


DELAWARE. 

AREA, 2,120 SQUARE MILES. 

. . 32,762 | Newcastle. . . . 109,697 | 


Sussex 42,276 
. . 184,735 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



141 



PLATE No. 14 



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142 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

AREA, 60 SQUARE MILES. 



Alachua 
Baker 
Bradford 
Brevard 
Calhoun 
Citrus 
Clay 
Columbia .... 
Dade 
De Soto 
Duval 
Kscambia .... 
Total .... 

Appling 
Baker 
Baldwin 
Banks 
Bartow 
Berrien 
Bibb 
Brooks 
Bryan 
Bulloch 


32,245 
4,516 
10,295 
5,158 
5,132 
5,391 
5,635 
17,094 
4,955 
8,047 
39,733 
28,313 

12,336 
6,704 
17,768 
10,545 
20,823 
19,440 
50,473 
18,606 
6,122 
21,377 
30,165 
12,805 
9,274 
7,669 
9,518 
26,576 
5,823 
3,592 
71,239 
5,790 
12,952 
15,243 
17,708 
8,568 
9,598 
8,732 
24,664 
16,169 
13,636 
10,653 
24,980 
10,368 
4,578 
5,442 
29,454 


AREA, 

Franklin 
Gadsden 
Hamilton 
Hernando. . . . 
Hillsboro 
Holmes 
Jackson 
Jefferson 
Lafayette 
Lake 
Lee 
Leon 

AREA, 

Dekalb 
Dodge 
Dooly 
Dougherty . . . 
Douglas 
Early 
Echols 
Effmgham 
Elbert 
Emanuel 
Fannin 
Fayette 
Floyd 
Forsyth 
Franklin 


FLOE 
59,268 . 
4,890 
15,294 
11,881 
3,638 
36,013 
7,762 
23,377 
16,195 
4,987 
7,467 
3,071 
19,887 

GEOR 
58,000 s 
21,112 
13,975 
26,567 
13,679 
8,745 
14,828 
3,209 
8,334 
19,729 
21,279 
11,214 
10,114 
33,113 
11,550 
17,700 
117,363 
10,198 
4,516 
14,317 
14,119 
16,542 
25,585 
13,604 
20,752 
18,277 
11,922 
18,009 
14,492 
11,177 
18,602 
22,641 
13,645 
24,039 
15,033 
18,212 


JDA. 

3QUARE MILES. 

Levy 
Liberty 
Madison 
Manatee 
Marion 
Monroe 
Nassau 
Orange 
Osceola 
Pasco 
Polk 
Putnam 

GIA. 

QUARE MILES. 

Johnson 
Jones 
Laurens 
Lee .- 


8,603 
2,956 
15,446 
4,663 
24,403 
18,006 
9,654 
11,374 
3,444 
6,054 
12,472 
11,641 

11,409 
13,358 
25,908 
10,344 
13,093 
7,156 
20,036 
7,433 
9,804 
6,537 
. 14,093 
13,224 
10,080 
23.339 
6,319 
6,763 
14,767 
20,682 
16,359 
15,813 
8,623 
29,836 
16,734 
8,602 
17,881 
12,969 
8,641 
8,100 
18,761 
17,856 
18,489 
13,436 
4,701 
6,285 
16,847 


St. John . . 
Santa Rosa. 
Sumter . . . 
Suwanee . . 
Taylor. . . . 
Volusia . . . 
Wakulla . . 
Walton 


.. 9,165 
. . 10,293 
. . 6,187 
. . 14,554 
. . 3,999 
. . 10.003 
. . 5,149 
9 346 


Washingori. 

Richmond. 
Rockdale. . 
Schley. . . 


. . 10,154 

. . .528,542 

. 53,735 
.. 7,515 
5 499 


Screven. . . 
Spalding. . . 
Stewart. . . 
Sumter. . . . 
Talbot 


. . 19,252 
. . 17,619 
. . 15,856 
. . 26,212 
12 197 


Liberty 
Lincoln 
Lowndes. . . . 
Lumpkin 
McDuffie 
Mclntosh 
Macon 
Madison 
Marion 
Meriwether. . . 
Miller 


Taliaferro. . 
Tattnall. . . 
Taylor. . . . 
Telfair. . . . 
Terrell. . . . 
Thomas. . . 
Towns 


7,912 
... 20,419 
. . 9,846 
. 10,083 
. . 19,023 
. . 31,076 
4 748 


Burke 
Butts 


Calhoun 
Camden 
Campbell .... 
Carroll 
Catoosa 
Charlton 
Chatham 
Chattahoochee 
Chattooga. . . . 
Cherokee 
Clarke 
Clay 
Clayton 


Fulton 
Gilmer 
Glascock 
Glynn 
Gordon 
Greene 
Gwinnett . . . . 
Habersham. . . 
Hall 
Hancock 
Haralson 
Harris 


Milton 
Mitchell 
Monroe 
Montgomery. . 
Morgan 
Murray 
Muscogee 
Newton 
Oconee 
Oglethorpe. . . 
Paulding 
Pickens 
Pierce 
Pike 
Polk 


Troup 
Twiggs 


. 24,002 
8 716 


Union 
Upson. . . . 
Walker. . . 
Walton. . . . 
Ware. 


. . 8,481 
. . 13,670 
. . 15,661 
. . 20,942 
13 761 


Warren. . . 
Washington 
Wayne. . . . 
Webster. . . 
White 
Whitfield. . 


.. 11,463 
. . . 28,227 
. . 9,449 
. . 6,618 
. . 5,912 
. . 14,509 


Clinch 
Cobb 
Coffee 
Colquitt 
Columbia .... 
Coweta 
Crawford 
Dade 
Dawson 
Decatur 
Total. . . . 

Ada 
Bannock 
Bear Lake. . . . 
Bingham 
Blaine. . , 


Hart 
Heard 


Wilcox 
Wilkes 


. . 11,097 
. . 20,866 
. . 11,440 
. . 18,664 

.2,216,331 

3,804 
.. 11,950 
'. . 6,882 

...161,772 


Henry 
Houston 
Irwin 


Pulaski 
Putnam 
Quitman 
Rabun 
Randolph .... 


Wilkinson. . 
Worth. . . . 


Jackson 
Jasper 
Jefferson. . . . 


11,559 
11,702 
7,051 
10,447 
4,900 
4,174 


AREA, 

Canyon 
Cassia 
Custer 
Elmore 
Fremont 
Idaho 


IDA 
86,294 s 
7,497 
3,951 
2,049 
2,286 
12,821 
9,121 


HO. 

SQUARE MILES. 

Kootenai 
Latah 
Lemhi 
Lincoln 
Nez Perces. . . . 
Oneida 


10,216 
13,451 
3,446 
1,784 
13,748 
8,933 


Owyhee. . . . 
Shoshone. . 
Washington 


Boise 


Total 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



143 




144 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Adams 
Alexander. . . . 
Bond 
Boone 
Brown 
Bureau 
Calhoun 
Carroll 
Cass. 
Champaign. . . 
Christian 
Clark 
Clay 


67,058 
19,384 
16,078 
15,791 
11,557 
41,112 
8,917 
18,963 
17,222 
47,622 
32,790 
24,033 
19,553 
19,824 
34,146 
838,735 
19,240 
16,124 
31,756 
18,972 
19,097 
28,196 
28,273 
10,345 
20,465 
28,065 

22,232 
77,270 
24,594 
13,123 
17,213 
26,321 
9,727 
19,953 
34,545 
31,835 
34,285 
28,202 
13,476 
29,914 
22,194 
19,518 
25,711 
49,624 
20,357 
45,052 
13,495 
30,118 
21,446 


AREA, 

Ford 
Franklin. . . . 
Fulton 
Gallatin 
Greene 
Grundy 
Hamilton 
Hancock 


ILLI? 
55,405 s 
18,359 
19,675 
46,201 
15,836 
23,402 
24,136 
20,197 
32,215 
7,448 
10,836 
40,049 
38,014 
33,871 
20,160 
28,133 
14,612 
24,533 
15,667 
78,792 
37,154 
11,467 
43,612 
34,504 
87,776 
16,523 
29,894 


JOIS. 

QUARE MILES. 

Livingston. . . . 
Logan 
McDonough. . . 
McHenry 
McLean 
Macon 
Macoupin 
Madison 
Marion 
Marshall 
Mason 
Massac 
Menard 
Mercer 
Monroe 
Montgomery. . 
Morgan 
Moultrie 
Ogle 
Peoria 
Perry 
Piatt 
Pike 
Pope 
Pulaski 
Putnam 


42,0351 
28,680 
28,412 
29,759 
67,843 
44,003 
42,256 
64,694 
30,446 
16,370 
17,491 
13,110 
14,336 
20,945! 
13,847 i 
30,836 
35,006 
15,224 
29,129 
88,608 
19,830 
17,706 
31,595 
13,585 
14,554 
4,746 


Randolph. . . 
Richland. . . 
Rock Island 
St. Clair 
Saline 
Sangamon. . 
Schuyler. . . . 
Scott 
Shelby 
Stark 
Stephenson. 
Tazewell. . . . 
Union. ..... 
Vermilion. . . 
Wabash .... 
Warren. . . . 
Washington. 
Wayne 
White 
Whiteside. . . 
Will 


. 28,001 
. 16,391 
. 55,249 
. 86,685 
. 21,685 
. 71,593 
. 16,129 
. 10,455 
. 32,126 
. 10,186 
. 34,933 
. 33,221 
. 22,610 
. 65,635 
. 12,583 
. 23,163 
. 19,526 
. 27,626 
. 25,386 
. 34,710 
. 74,764 
. 27,796 
. 47,845 
. 21,822 

4 821 550 


Henderson. . . . 
Henry 
Iroquois 
Jackson 
Jasper 
Jefferson 
Jersey 
Jo Daviess. . . . 
Johnson 
Kane 
Kankakee. . . . 
Kendall 


Clinton 
Coles 
Cook 1 
Crawford . . . 
Cumberland. 
Dekalb 
Dewitt 


Dupage 
Edgar 
Edwards. . . . 
Effingham. . . 
Fayette 
Total. . . . 

Adams 
Allen 
Bartholomew . 
Benton 
Blackford. . . . 
Boone 
Brown 
Carroll 
Cass 
Clark 
Clay 
Clinton 
Crawford 
Daviess 
Dearborn 
Decatur 
Dekalb 
Delaware. . . . 


Williamson. . 
Winnebago. . 
Woodford. . 


Lake 
Lasalle 
J Lawrence 
^ee 

AREA, 

Franklin 
Fulton 
Gibson 
Grant 
Greene 
Hamilton. . . . 
Hancock. . . . 
Harrison. . . . 
Hendricks. . . 
Henry 
Howard 
Huntington. . 
Jackson 
Jasper 
Jay 
Jefferson. . . . 
Jennings. . . . 
Johnson 
Knox 
Kosciusko. . . 
Lagrange. . . . 
Lake 
Laporte. . 


INDI 

33,809 t 
16,388 
17,453 
30,099 
54,693 
28,530 
29,914 
19,189 
21,702 
21,292 
25,088 
28,575 
28,901 
26,633 
14,292 
26,818 
22,913 
15,757 
20,223 
32,746 
29,109 
15,284 
37,892 
38,386 

10) 

50,914 
18,569 
20,319 
21,274 
19,371 
20,672 
16,570 
. 17,037 
12,440 
13,401 
27,750 
43,832 
21,685 


ANA. 

KJUARE MILES. 

Lawrence 
Madison 
Marion 
Marshall 
Martin 
Miami 
Monroe 
Montgomery. . 
Morgan 
Newton 
Noble 


25,729 
70,470 
197,227 
25,119 
14,711 
28,344 
20,873 
29,388 
20,457 
10,448 
23,533 
4,724 
16,854 
15,149 
23,000 
18,778 
20,486 
19,175 
22,333 
14,033 
21,478 
28,653 
19,881 


Rush. . . 


. 20 148 


St. Joseph. . 
Scott 
Shelby 


. . 58,881 
. . 8,307 
26 491 


Spencer. . . . 
Starke 
Steuben .... 
Sullivan. . . . 
Switzerland. 
Tippecanoe. 
Tipton 
Union 
Vanderburg 
Vermilion . 
Vigo 
Wabash... 
Warren . . . 
Warrick . . . 
Washington 
Wayne 
Wells 
White 
Whitley 


. . 22,407 
. 10,431 
. . 15,219 
. . 26,005 
. . 11,840 
. . 38,659 
. 19,116 
. 6,748 
.. 71,769 
. . 15,252 
. . 62,035 
. . 28,235 
. . 11,371 
. . 22,329 
. . 19,409 
. . 38,970 
. . 23,449 
. . 19,138 
17 328 


Ohio 
Orange 
Owen 
Parke 
Perry 


Pike 
Porter 
Posey 
Pulaski 
Putnam 
Randolph. . . . 
Ripley 


Dubois. .... 
Elkhart 
Fayette 
Floyd 
Fountain 
Total 




.2,516,492 

. . 17,820 
. . 13,757 
18 729 


Adair 
Adams. . . . 
Allamakee. 
Appanoose. 
Audubon. . 
Benton 
Blackhawk. . . 
Boone 
Bremer 
Buchanan. . . 
Buena Vista. 
Butler 


16,192 
13,601 
18,711 
25,927 
13,626 
25,177 
32,399 
28,200 
16,305 
21,427 
16,975 
17,955 


AREA, 

Calhoun 
Carroll 
Cass 
Cedar 
Cerro Gordo. 
Cherokee. . . . 
Chickasaw. . . 
Clarke 
Clay 
Clayton 
Clinton 
Crawford .... 


\ T A. 

SQUARE MILES. 

Dallas 
Davis 
Decatur 
Delaware. . . . 
Des Moines. . 
Dickinson. . . 
Dubuque ... 
Emmet 
Fayette 
Floyd 
Franklin. . . . 
Fremont. . . . 


23,058 
15,620 
18,115 
19,185 
35,989 
7,995 
56,403 
9,936 
29,845 
17,754 
14,996 
18,546 


Greene 
Grundy. . . . 
Guthrie 


Hamilton. . . 
Hancock. . . 
Hardin 


. . 19,514 
. . 13,752 
22 794 


Harrison. . . 
Henry 


. . 25,597 
20,022 


Howard. . . . 
Humboldt. . 
Ida 
Iowa 


. . 14,512 
. . 12,667 
. . 12,327 
. . 19,544 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



145 



Jackson 
Jasper 
Jefferson: .... 
Johnson 
Jones 
Keokuk 
Kossuth 
Lee 
Linn 
Louisa 
Lucas 


23,615 
26,976 
17,437 
24,817 
21,954 
24,979 
22,720 
39,719 
55,392 
13,516 
16,126 
13,165 
17,710 


Mahaska. . . . 
Marion 
Marshall 
Mills 
Mitchell 
Monona 
Monroe 
Montgomery . 
Muscatine. . . 
O'Brien 
Osceola 
Page 
Palo Alto. . . . 


IOWA < 

. 34,273 
. 24,159 
. 29,991 
. 16,764 
. 14,916 
. 17,980 
. 17,985 
. 17,803 
. 28,242 
. 16,985 
. 8,725 
. 24,187 
. 14,354 


Continued. 

Plymouth. . . . 
Pocahontas. . . 
Polk 
Pottawattamie 
Poweshiek .... 
Ringgold 
Sac 
Scott 
Shelby 
Sioux 
Story 
Tama 


22,209 
15,339 
82,624 
54,336 
19,414 
15,325 
17,639 
51,558 
17,932 
23,337 
23,159 
24,585 
18,784 


Union 
Van Buren. . 
Wapello 
Warren. . . . 
Washington. 
Wayne 
Webster 


. 19,928 
. 17,354 
. 35,426 
. 20,376 
. 20,718 
. 17,491 
31 757 


Winnebago. . 
Winneshiek. 
Woodbury. . 
Worth 
Wright 


. 12,725 
23,731 
. . 54,610 
. 10,887 
. 18,227 

2,231,853 

. 7,960 
. 6,134 
. 8,489 
. 17,076 
. 1 ,098 
. . 44,037 
822 
. 53,727 
. 3,819 
3 341 


Lyon 
Madison 


Taylor. . . 


Total 


Allen 
Anderson 
Atchison 
Barber 
Barton 
Bourbon 
Brown 
Butler 
Chase 
Chautauqua. . 
Cherokee 
Cheyenne 
Clark 
Clay 
Cloud 
Coffey 
Comanche. . . . 
Cowley 
Crawford 
Decatur 
Dickinson. . . . 
Doniphan. . . . 
Douglas 
Edwards 
Elk 


19,507 
13,938 
28,606 
6,594 
13,784 
24,712 
22,369 
23,363 
8,246 
11,804 
42,694 
2,640 
1,701 
15,833 
18,071 
16,643 
1,619 
30,156 
38,809 
9,234 
21,816 
15,079 
25,096 
3,682 
11,443 
8,626 
9,626 


ARKA 

Finney 
Ford 
Franklin 


KAN 

, 78,418 
. 3,469 
. 5,497 
21 354 


SAS. 

SQUARE MILES. 

Logan 
Lyon 
McPherson. . . 


1,962 
25,074 
21,421 
20,676 
24,355 
1,581 
21,641 
14,647 
29,039 
11,967 
304 
20,376 
19,254 
4,535 
11,325 
23,659 
11,844 
11,182 
5,084 
14,442 
18,470 
7,085 
5,241 
29,027 
18,248 
14,745 
13,828 


Rooks. . . 
Rush 
Russell 
Saline 
Scott 
Sedgwick. . . 
Seward 
Shawnee. . . . 
Sheridan. . . 
Sherman 


Geary 
Gove 
Graham 
Grant 
Gray 
Greeley 
Greenwood. . 
Hamilton. . . . 
Harper 
Harvey 
Haskell 
Hodgeman. . . 
Jackson 
Jefferson. . . . 
Jewell 
Johnson 
Kearny 
Kingman. . . . 
Kiowa 
Labette 
Lane 
Leavenworth. 
Lincoln 
Linn 


. 10,744 
2,441 
. 5,173 
422 
. 1,264 
493 
. 16,196 
. 1,426 
. 10,310 
. 17,591 
457 
. 2,032 
. 17,171 
. 17,533 
. 19,420 
. 18,104 
1,107 
. 10,663 
. 2,365 
. 27,387 
. 1,563 
. 40,940 
. 9,886 
. 16,689 


Marshall 
Meade 


Miami 
Mitchell 


Montgomery. . 
Morris 


Morton 
Nemaha 


Smith 
Stafford 
Stanton. . . . 
Stevens. . . . 
Sumner. . . . 
Thomas. . . . 
Trego 
Wabaunsee. 
Wallace. . . . 
Washington. 
Wichita. . . . 
Wilson 
Woodson. . . 
Wyandotte. . 


. 16,384 
. . 9,829 
327 
620 
. 25,631 
. 4,112 
. 2,722 
. 12,813 
1,178 
. 21,963 
1,197 
. 15,621 
. 10,022 
. 73,227 

1,470,495 

. 9,172 
. 17,868 
. 17,059 
. 11,354 
. 25,994 
. 9,319 
. 28,733 
. 12,448 
. 25,607 
. 12,006 
. 16,290 
. 13,692 
. 5,780 
. 20,446 
. 10,533 
. 6,818 
. 14,426 
. 9,978 
13 053 


Neosho 

Ness 


Norton 
Osage 
Osborne 
Ottawa 
Pawnee 
Phillips 
Pottawatomie 
Pratt 
Rawlins 
Reno 
Republic 
Rice 
Riley 


Ellis 
Ellsworth 
Total. . . 


Adair 
Allen 
Anderson 
Ballard 
Barren 


14,888 
14,657 
10,051 
10,761 
23,197 
14,734 
15,701 
11,170 
18,069 
18,834 
13,817 
12,137 
14,322 
20,534 
9,602 
15,896 
14,510 
17,633 
54,223 
10,195 
9,825 
20.228 


AREA 

Casey 


KENT 
, 37,680 
. 15,144 
. 37,962 
16 694 


UCKY. 

SQUARE MILES. 

Greenup 
Hancock 
Hardin 
Harlan 
Harrison 
Hart 
Henderson. . . . 
Henry 


15,432 
8,914 
22,037 
9,838 
18,570 
18,390 
32.907 
14,620 
11,745 
30,995 
10,561 
232,549 
11,925 
13,730 
63,591 
8,704 
17,372 
10,764 
17,592 
19,612 
7,988 
6,753 


Letcher. . . . 
Lewis 
Lincoln. . . . 
Livingston. . 
Logan 
Lyon 
McCracken.. 
McLean. . . . 
Madison. . . . 
Magoffin. . . . 
Marion 
Marshall. . . . 
Martin 
Mason 
Meade 
Menifee. . . . 
Mercer 
Metcalf 
Monroe 


Christian. . . . 
Clark 


Clay 
Clinton 
Crittenden. . . 
Cumberland. 
Daviess 


. 15,364 
. 7,871 
. 15,191 
8,962 
38 667 


Bath 
Bell 
Boone 


Bourbon 
Boyd 


Edmonson. . . 
Elliott 
Estill 
Fayette 
Fleming 
Floyd 
Franklin. . . . 
Fulton 
Gallatin 
Garrard. . . . 
Grant 
Graves 
Grayson 


. 10,080 
. 10,387 
. 11,669 
42,071 
. 17,074 
. 15,552 
. 20,852 
. 11,546 
. 5,163 
. 12,042 
. 13,239 
. 33,204 
19 878 


Hickman 
Hopkins 
Jackson 
Jefferson 
Jessamine. . . . 
Johnson 


Boyle 
Bracken 
Breathitt 
Breckinridge . . 
Bullitt 
Butler 
Caldwell 
Galloway 
Campbell 
Carlisle. ...... 
Carroll 
Carter. . . 


Kenton. ... 
Knott 
Knox 
Larue 
Laurel 
Lawrence 
Lee. 
Leslie. . . 


Montgomery 
Morgan. . . . 
Muhlenberg. 


. 12,034 
. 12,792 
. 20.741 


Green. . 


. 12.255 



146 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



KENTUCKY Continued. 



Nelson 
Nicholas 
Ohio 


16,587 
11,952 
27,287 
7,078 
17,553 
6,874 
14,947 
8,276 


Pike 


. 22,686 


Shelby. . . . 
Simpson. .. 
Spencer. . . 
Taylor. . . . 
Todd 
Trigg 
Trimble. . . 


.. 18,340 
. . 11,624 
. . 7,406 
. . 11,075 
. . 17,371 
. . 14,073 
. . 7,272 


Warren. . . . 
Washington 
Wayne 


. . 29,970 
.. 14,182 
. . 14,892 


Powell 


6,443 


Pulaski 
Robertson . . . 
Rockcastle. . . 
Rowan 
Russell 


. 31,293 
4,900 
. 12,416 

. 8,277 
9,695 


Oldham 


Webster. . . 
Whitley. . 


. . 20,097 
. . 25,015 


Owen 
Owsley 
Pendleton. . . . 
Perry 


Wolfe 


. . 8,764 
. . 13,134 

.2,147,174 


Woodford. . 


Scott 


. 18,076 


Union. .. 


. . 21,326 


Total. . 







AREA, 



Acadia 

Ascension. . . . 
Assumption. . . 

Ayoyelles 

Bienyille 

Bossier 

Caddo 

Calcasieu 

Caldwell 

Cameron 

Catahoula. . . . 

Claiborne 

Concordia. . . . 

De Soto 

East Baton 

Rouge. . . 

Total. . 



23,483 
24,142 
21,620 
29,701 
17,588 
24,153 
44,499 
30,428 



East Carroll. .. 11,373 

East Feliciana. 20,443 

Franklin 8,890 

Grant 12,902 



LOUISIANA. 

41,255 SQUARE MILES. 



Iberia. 
Iberville. .. 
Jackson. . 



29,015 
27,006 
9,119 



_, Jefferson 15,321 

6,9171 Lafayette. . . . 22,825 
3,952! Lafourche. . 



Ouachita 

Plaquemines. . 
Pointe Coupee. 

Rapides 

Red River 

Richland 

Sabine 

St. Bernard. 



16,351 
23,029 
13,559 
25,063 

31,153 



28,882 

Lincoln 15,898 

Livingston. .. . 8,100 

Madison 12,322 

16,634 
33,216 
287,104 



Morehpuse. 
Natchitoches. 
Orleans 



20,947 St. Tammany. 
13,039 Tangipahoa. . . 

25,777 Tensas 

39,578 Terrebonne. . . 

11, 548; Union 

11, 116! Vermilion. . . . 



15,421 
5,031 



Vernon. 
Washington. . . 



St. Helena. . . . 

St. James 20,197 



St. John the 
Baptist. . 



9,072 Webster 

8,479 West Baton 
Rouge. . . . 



St. Landry . . . 52,906 



St. Martin. . . 
St. Mary 



18,940 
34,145 



West Carroll. . 
12,330 West Feliciana 



Winn. 



13,335 

17,625 
19,070 
24,464 
18,521 
20,705 
10,327 
9,628 
15,125 

10,285 
3,685 

15,994 
9,648 



.1,381,625 



Androscoggin , 
Aroostook. . . . 
Cumberland. . 
Franklin. . . 



MAINE. 

AREA, 31,766 SQUARE MILES. 



54,242 

60,744 

100,689 

18,444 



Hancock 37,241 

Kennebec 59,117 

Knox 30,406 

Lincoln 19,669 



Oxford 32,238 Somerset. 



Penobscot. 
Piscataquis. . . 
Sagadahoc. . . . 



76,246 



33,849 



Waldo 24,185 

16,949 Washington.. . 45,232 
20,330|York 64,885 



Total 694,466 

MARYLAND. 

AREA, 11,124 SQUARE MILES. 



Allegany 53,694 
Anne Arundel . 40,018 
Baltimore. . . . 90,755 
Baltimore City 508,957 
Calvert 10,223 
Caroline 16,248 
Total. . 


Carroll . 


. 33 860 


Harford 
Howard 


28,269 
16,715 
18,786 
30,451 
29,898 
18,364 


St. Mary . . . 
Somerset. . . 
Talbot. . 


.. 18,136 
. . 25,923 
20 342 


Cecil 


24 662 


Charles 
Dorchester. . . 
Frederick. . . . 
Garrett 


. 18,316 
. 27,962 
. 51,920 
. 17,701 


Kent 


Montgomery. . 
Prince George . 
Queen Anne . . 


Washington 
Wicomico. . 
Worcester. . 


.. 45,133 
. . 22,852 
.. 20,865 
.1,190,050 



Barnstable. 
Berkshire . 

Bristol 

Dukes 

Total 



MASSACHUSETTS. 

AREA, 7,800 SQUARE MILES. 



95 667 


Franklin 


41 209 




3 006 


Worcester. . 


. . 346,958 


252,029 


Hampden . . 


. . 175,603 


Norfolk. . . 


. . . 151,539 






4,561 

1. . 


Hampshire . 


.. 58,820 


Plymouth. 


. . . 113,985 




.2,805,346 



Alcona. . . . 

Alger 

Allegan. . . . 
Alpena. . . . 
Antrim. . . . 
Arenac. . . . 
Baraga. . . . 
Barry 



5,691 
5,868 
38,812 
18,254 
16,568 
9,821 
4,320 
22,514 


AREA, 

Bay 


MICH] 
56,243 
62,378 
9,685 
49,165 
27,811 
49,315 
20,876 
13,956 
15,516 


GAN. 

QUARE MILES. 

Chippewa 
Clare 
Clinton 


Benzie 
Berrien. 


Branch 
Calhoun 
Cass. 


Crawford 
Delta 
Dickinson. . . . 
Eaton 
Emmet 


Charlevoix. . . . 
Cheboygan. . . 



21,338 Genesee 41,804 

8,360 Gladwin 6,564 

25,136 Gogebic 16,738 

2,943 Grand Traverse 20,479 

23,881 Gratiot 29,889 

17,890 Hillsdale 29,865 

31,668 Houghton. . . . 66,063 

15,931 Huron 34,162 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



147 




148 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Ingham. . . . . 


39,818 
34,329 
10,246 
8,990 
22,784 
48,222 
44,310 
7,133 
129,714 
3,217 
4,957 
27,641 
10,556 


Lenawee. . 


MICHIGAN Continued. 
. 48,406 Montcalm. . . . 


32,754 
3,234 
37,036 
17,673 
44,792 
16,644 
7,765 
6,197 
17,859 
1,468 
6,175 
39,667 
8,821 


Roscommon 
Saginaw. . . . 
St. Clair. . . 
St. Joseph. . 
Sanilac. . . . 


1,787 
, . 81,222 
.. 55,228 
. . 23,889 
. . 35,055 




Livingston 
Luce. . . . 


. 19,664 
. . . 2,983 
. . . . 7,703 
33 244 


Montmorency . 
Muskegon. . . . 
Newaygo 
Oakland 
Oceana 
Ogemaw 
Ontonagon . . . 
Osceola 




Irno 
Isabella 


Mackinac. 


Jackson 
Kalamazoo. . 
Kalkaska. . . . 
Kent 


Manistee. . 
Manitou. . 
Mason. . . . 


. . . 27,856 
41,239 

... 18,885 

90 fiQS 


Schoolcraft. 
Shiawassee. 
Tuscola. . . . 
Van Buren. . 
Washtenaw. 
Wayne 
Wexford. . . 


. . 7,889 
. . .33,866 
. . 35,890 
. . 33,274 
. . 47,731 
. . 348,793 
. . 16,845 


Keweenaw. . . 
Lake 


Menominee. . . 27,046 
Midland 14,439 
Missaukee. . . . 9,308 
Monroe 22.754 




Otsego 
Ottawa 
Presque Isle 






.2,420,982 


Total. . 







MINNESOTA. 

AREA, 95,274 SQUARE MILES. 





11 313 


Goodhue 


3l', 137 


Mower. . . . 


. 22,335 


Stearns. . . . 44,464 




14 375 


Grant 


8 935 




11 911 


Steele 16 524 


Beltrami 


11 030 




228 340 


Nicollet. . 


14,774 


Stevens 8,721 




9 912 


Houston 


15,400 


Nobles. . . . 


. . . 14,932 


Swift 13,503 




8 731 


Hubbard 


6 578 




15 045 


Todd 22 214 


Blue Earth 


32 263 




11*675 


Olmsted . . 


23,119 


Traverse 7,573 




19 787 




4 573 


Ottertail 


45 375 


Wabasha 18 924 


Carl ton 


10 017 




14,793 


Pine. . . 


. . 11,546 


Wadena 7,921 


Carver 


17 544 




4 614 


Pipestone 


9 264 


Waseca . . . 14,760 


Cass 
Chippewa 


7,777 
12,499 
13 248 


Kandiyohi. . . . 
Kittson 
Lac qui Parle . 


18,416 
7,889 
14,289 


Polk 
Pope 
Ramsey . . . 


. . . 35,429 
. 12,577 
. . . 170,554 


Washington... 27,808 
Watonwan 11,496 
Wilkin 8.080 


Clay. 


17,942 


Lake 


4,654 


Red Lake. . 


. . . 12,195 


Winona 35,686 


Cook 


810 




20 234 




17 261 


Wright 29,157 




12 069 




8,966 


Renville. . 


. . . 23,693 


White Earth In- 


Crow Wing . . . 
Dakota 


14,250 
21 733 


Lyon 
McLeod 


14,591 
19 595 


Rice 
Rock 


... 26.080 
9 668 


dian Reserva- 
tion 3 486 


Dodge 


13 340 


Marshall 


15 698 


Roseau. . . 


6,994 


Yellow Medicinel4,602 


Douglas 
Faribault . 


17,964 
22055 


Martin -. 
Meeker . . 


16,936 
17,753 


St. Louis. . 
Scott. . . . 


... 82,932 
. . . 15,147 




Fillmore 
Total. .... 


28,238 


Millelacs 


8,066 


Sherburne. 


. . . 7,281 


..1,751,394 



MISSISSIPPI. 

AREA, 47,156 SQUARE MILES. 



Adams 
Alcorn 


30,111 
14,987 
20,708 
26,248 
10,510 
35,427 
16,512 
22,116 
19,892 
13,036 
20,787 
17,741 
19,563 
26,293 
34,395 
13,076 
24,751 
13,678 
6,795 


Grenada. . . . 
Hancock. . . 
Harrison. . . 
Hinds. . . 


. 14,112 
. 11,886 
. 21,002 
52 577 


Lowndes 
Madison 


29,095 
32,493 
13,501 
27,674 
31,216 
16,536 
12,726 
19,708 
30,846 
20,183 
29,027 
6,697 
14,682 
27,545 
18,274 
15,788 
5,435 
20,955 
14,316 


Sharkey. . . . 
Simpson. .. . 
Smith . . 


. . 12,178 
. . 12,800 
13,055 


Attala. 
Benton. ...... 
Bolivar 
Calhoun 
Carroll 
Chickasaw. . . 
Choctaw 
Claiborne. . . 
Clarke 
Clay 
Coahoma. . . . 
Copiah 


Marshall 
Monroe 


Sunflower . . 
Tallahatchie 
Tate 


. . 16,084 
. . 19,600 
20,618 


Holmes. . . . 
Issaquena. . . 
Itawamba. . 
Jackson. . . . 
Jasper 
Jefferson. . . 
Jones 
Kemper .... 


. 36,828 
. 10,400 
. 13,544 
. 16,513 
. 15,394 
. 21,292 
. 17,846 
. 20,492 


Montgomery. . 
Neshoba 
Newton 
Noxubee 
Oktibbeha 
Panola 
Pearl River. . . 
Perry 
Pike. . 


Tippah 
Tishomingo. 
Tunica, 
Union 
Warren 
Washington. 
W ay ne 


. . 12,983 
. . 10,124 
. . 16,479 
. . 16,522 
. 40,912 
. . 49,216 
. 12,539 


Lafayette. . . 
Lauderdale. . 


. 22,110 
38,150 


Webster. . . . 


. 13,619 


Lawrence. . . 
Leake . 


. . 15,103 
. . 17,360 
. . 21,956 
. . 23,834 
. . 21,552 


Pantotoc 
Prentiss 


Wilkinson. . 
Winston. . . 


. . 21,453 
. . 14,124 


Covington. . . . 
De Soto. 


Lee 
Lflore 
Lincoln. . . . 


Yalobusha. . 
Yazoo 


.. 19,742 
. . 43,948 

.1,551,270 


Franklin 
Greene 

Total. . 


Rankin. ...... 
Scott 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



149 



Adair 


21,728 
17,332 
16,501 
21,160 
25,532 
18,253 
30,141 
16,556 
14,650 
28,642 
121,838 
16,769 
16,656 
25,984 
13,113 
24,315 
26,455 
6,706 
23,636 
16,923 
26,826 
16,939 
15,383 
18,903 
17,363 
20,578 
22,532 
12,959 
18,125 


AREA, 

Dallas 


MISS 
67,380 

13,903 
21,325 
14,418 
12,986 
16,802 
21,706 
30,581 
12,298 
20,554 
52,713 
17,832 
24,398 
28,054 
9,985 
17,083 
18,337 
21,834 
8,716 
195,193 
84,018 
25,712 
27,843 
13,479 
16,523 
31,679 
31,662 
16,724 
18,352 
25,503 


OURI. 

SQUARE MILES. 

Livingston. . . . 
McDonald. . . . 
Macon 


22,302 
13,574 
33,018 
9,975 
9,616 
26,331 
14,706 
15,187 
11,837 
15,931 
19,716 
16,571 
12,175 
11,280 
27,001 
32,938 
13,906 
14,096 
12,145 
12,115 
15,134 
32,438 
14,194 
25,744 
16,193 
23,255 
10,394 
16,688 
12,287 


Randolph . . . 
Ray 
Reynolds. . . . 


24,442 
24,805 
8,161 
13,186 
24,474 
17,907 
10,359 
24,051 
50,040 
575,238 
33,703 
10,840 
13,232 
13,092 
11,247 
16,167 
24,669 
9,892 
20,282 
10,127 
22,192 
31,619 
9,919 
14,263 
15,309 
16,640 
9,832 
17,519 

106,665 

5,080 
4,355 
6,212 

s- 
2,660 

243,339 

9,604 
19,614 
2,809 
18,252 
9,080 
22,085 
2,552 
15,690 
6,033 
6,550 
2,055 
6,959 
14,325 
628 
8,756 
7,339 
13,086 
9,862 
11,619 
1,362 
18,205 

068,539 




Daviess. . . 


Atchison 
Audrain. ... 


Dekalb 
Dent 
Douglas 
Dunklin . . 


Madison. 




Maries 
Marion 
Mercer 
Miller 


St. Charles. . . 
St. Clair 
Ste.Genevieve 
St. Francois. . . 
St. Louis 
St. Louis City . 
Saline 
Schuyler 
Scotland 


Barton 


Bates 


Franklin 
Gasconade. . . . 
Gentry. . 


Benton 
Bellinger 


Mississippi. . .. 
Moniteau. . . . 


Boone 


Greene 
Grundy 
Harrison 
Henry . 


Buchanan. . . . 
Butler 
Caldwell 
Callaway 
Camden 


Monroe 
Montgomery. . 
Morgan 
New Madrid . . 
Newton 
Nodaway 


Hickory. . 


Scott 
Shannon. . . . 


Holt 
Howard 
Howell 
Iron 
Jackson 
Jasper. . . 


Cape Girardeau 
Carroll 


Shelby 


Oregon 
Osage 
Ozark 


Stoddard 
Stone 
Sullivan 
Taney. . . 


Carter 


Cass 
Cedar 
Chariton. . 


Pemiscot 
Perry 


Jefferson. . . . 
Johnson 
Knox 
Laclede 
Lafayette. . . . 
Lawrence. . . . 
Lewis 
Lincoln . 


Texas 
Vernon 
Warren 


Christian 
Clark 
Clay 


Pettis 


Phelps 
Pike 
Platte 
Polk 


Washington. . . 
Wayne. . 


Clinton. . 


Cole 


Webster 
Worth. . 


Cooper 
Crawford 
Dade 


Pulaski 


Putnam. . 
Rails 


Wright . 


Linn 


3, 


Total 






Beaver head. . . 
Broadwater. . . 
Carbon 


5,615 
2,641 
7,533 
25,777 
10,966 
7,891 
2,443 


AREA, 

Deerlodge. . . . 
Fergus 


MON1 
143,776 

17,393 
6,937 
9,375 
9,553 
4,328 
5,330 
te!9,171 


rANA. 

SQUARE MILES. 

Madison 
Meagher 
Missoula 
Park. . 


7,695 
2,526 
13,964 
7,341 
7,822 
47,635 
3,086 


Teton. . 


Valley 


Flathead. . . . 


Yellowstone. . 
Crow Indian Re 
ervation. . . . 


Cascade 


Gallatin 


Granite 
Jefferson 
Lewis andClarl 


Ravalli 


Custer 


Silverbow 
Sweet Grass. . . 


Dawson 


Total .... 


Adams 


18,840 
11,344 
1,114 
603 
11,689 
5,572 
7,332 
3,470 
.20,254 
13,040 
15,703 
21,330 
12,467 
2,559 
6,541 
5,570 
15,735 
11,211 
14,584 
19,758 
6,286 
6,215 
12,214 


ABE A, 

Deuel 
Dixon 
Dodge 


NEBR 
75,995 
2,630 
10,535 
22,298 
140,590 
2,434 
15,087 
9,455 
8,781 
12,373 
30,051 
2,127 
5,301 
763 
5,691 
17,206 
13,330 
9,370 
2,708 
4,409 
12,224 
432 
10,343 
15,196 


ASKA. 

SQUARE MILES. 
Johnson 
Kearney. 


11,197 
9,866 
1,951 
3,076 
758 
14,343 
64,835 
11,416 
960 
1,305 
517 
16,976 
9,255 
8,222 
14,952 
12,414 
22,288 
11,770 
1,702 
10,772 
8,445 
17,747 
10,542 


Redwillow. . . . 
Richardson. . . 
Rock 


Antelope. . . . 
Banner. . 


Keith 
Keyapaha. . . . 
Kimball 


Elaine 


Douglas 
Dundy 
Fillmore 
Franklin. . 


Saline 


Boone. . -. . . 
Boxbutte. . . . 
Boyd 
Brown 
Buffalo 
Burt 


Sarpy 


Knox 
Lancaster. . . . 
Lincoln 
Logan. 


Saunders 
Scotts Bluff. . . 
Seward 
Sheridan 


Frontier 
Furnas 




Butler 
Cass 
Cedar 
Chase 
Cherry 
Cheyenne. . . . 
Clay 
Colfax 


Garfield 
Gosper 
Grant 


McPherson . . . 
Madison 
Merrick 
Nance. ...... 
Nemaha 
Nuckolls 
Otoe 


Sioux 




Thayer 
Thomas 
Thurston 
Valley . . 


Greeley 
Hall. 


Harlan 


Washington. . . 
Wayne 


Hayes 
Hitchcock. . . . 
Holt 


Pawnee 
Perkins 
Phelps 


Cuming 
Custer 


Webster 


Wheeler 


Dakota 
Dawes 


Hooker 
Howard 




York 


Platte . 


.,1, 


Dawson 
Total. . 


Jefferson 


Polk 







150 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Churchill 


830 
1,534 

5,688 
1,972 


NEVADA. 

AEEA, 122,090 SQUARE MILES. 

Eureka 1 954 T.vnn 


2,268 
1,140 
2,893 
3,673 


Washoe. . 
White Pine. 


. . 9,141 
. 1,961 

. . .42,335 


Humboldt 4,463 
Lander 1 534 


Nye 


Elko 


Ormsby . 


Esmeralda . . . 
Total 


Lincoln 3 284 


Sfnrov 




Belknap 


19,526 
16,895 
31,321 


NEW HA1 

AREA, 9,280 8 
Coos 29 468 


tfPSHIRE. 

QUARE MILES. 

Merrimack . . . 
Rockingham. . 
Strafford 


52,430 
51,118 
39,337 


Sullivan 


18 009 


Carroll 


Grafton. .. . 40,844 
Hillsboro 112640 




411 588 


Total 




Atlantic 
Bergen 
Burlington . . . 
Camden 
Cape May .... 
Cumberland . . 
Total. . . . 


46,402 
78,441 
58,241 
107,643 
13,201 
51,193 


NEW J 

AREA, 3,320 g 

Essex 359,053 


ERSEY. 

SQUARE MILES. 

Monmouth . . . 
Morris 


82,057 
65,156 
19,747 
155,202 
25,530 
32,948 


Sussex. . . 


24 134 


Gloucester . . . 31,905 
Hudson 386,048 
Hunterdon . . . 34,507 
Mercer 95,365 
Middlesex. . . . 79,762 




99 353 


Ocean 


Warren 


. . 37,781 
1,883,669 

. . 12 195 


Passaic 


Salem 




Bernalillo . . 
Chaves 
Colfax 
Donna Ana. . . 
Eddy 
Total 


28,630 
4,773 
10,150 
10,187 
3,229 


NEW N 

AREA, 121,201 

Grant 12,883 
Guadalupe . . . 5,429 
Lincoln 4,953 
Mora 10,304 
Otero. ... 4 791 


[EXICO. 

SQUARE MILES. 

Rio Arriba . . . 
San Juan 
San Miguel . . . 
Santa Fe 


13,777 

4,828 
22,053 
14,658 
3,158 


Socorro . . . . 


Taos . . 


10 889 


Union 


4,528 


Valencia . . . 


.. 13,895 
. .195 310 


Sierra . . 




Albany 
Allegany. . . . 
Broome 
Cattaraugus . 
Cayuga 
Chautauqua . 
Chemung . . . 
Chenango . . . 
Clinton 
Columbia . . . 
Cortland .... 
Delaware . . . 
Dutchess .... 
Erie 
Essex 
Franklin. . . . 
Total 


165,571 
41,501 
69,149 
65,643 
66,234 
88,314 
54,063 
36,568 
47,430 
43,211 
27,576 
46,413 
81,670 
433,686 
30,707 
42,853 


NEW 

AREA, 47,800 

Fulton 42 842 


YORK. 

3QUARE MILES. 

Onondaga. . . 
Ontario 
Orange 


168,735 
49,605 
103,859 
30,164 
70,881 
48,939 
13,787 
152,999 
121,697 
67,021 
38,298 
89,083 
61,089 
46,852 
26,854 
15,811 




28 114 


Genesee 34,561 
Greene 31 478 


Steuben . . . 
Suffolk .... 
Sullivan . . . 
Tioga 
Tompkins. . 
Ulster 
Warren. . . . 
Washington 
Wayne .... 
Westchester 
Wyoming . . 
Yates 


82,822 
. 77,582 
. 32,306 
. 27,951 
. 33,830 
. 88,422 
. 29,943 
. 45,624 
. 48,660 
. 183,375 
. 30,413 
20 318 


Hamilton . . . 4,947 
Herkimer . . . 51,049 
Jefferson. . . . 76,748 
Kings 1,166,582 
Lewis 27,427 
Livingston . . 37,059 
Madison .... 40,545 
Monroe 217 854 


Orleans 
Oswego .... 
Otsego 
Putnam .... 
Queens . 


Rensselaer . . 
Richmond . . 
Rockland . . . 
St. Lawrence 
Saratoga. . . . 
Schenectady. 
Schoharie . . . 
Schuyler. . . . 

AROLINA. 

SQUARE MILES. 

Clay. 


Montgomery 47,488 
Nassau 55,448 
New York. . . 2,050,600 
Niagara 74,961 
Oneida 132,800 




.7,268,012 

. 26,233 
. . 26,591 
. . 35,261 
.. 25,116 
27 903 


Alamance 
Alexander. . . . 
Alleghany. . . . 
Anson 
Ashe 


25,665 
10,960 
7,759 
21.870 
19,581 
26,404 
20,538 
17,677 
12,657 
44,288 


NORTH C 

AREA, 50,704 

Burke 17,699 
Cabarrus 22,456 
Caldwell 15,694 


4,532 
25,078 
21,274 
24,160 
29,249 
6,529 
4,757 
23,403 
12,115 
22,405 


Durham . . . 
Edgecombe . 
Forsyth. . . . 
Franklin . . . 
Gaston . 


Cleveland 
Columbus .... 
Craven 
Cumberland . . 
Currituck .... 
Dare . 


Camden 5,474 
Carteret 11,811 
Caswell 15,028 
Catawba 22,133 
Chatham 23,912 
Cherokee 11,860 
Chowan 10,258 


Beaufort 
Bertie 
Bladen 
Brunswick . . . 
Buncombe . . . 


Gates 


. . 10,413 


Graham .... 
Granville. . . 
Greene ..... 
Guilford . . . 


. . 4,343 
.. 23,263 
.. 12,038 
. 39,074 


Davidson .... 
Davie 


Dulpin. . 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



151 



Rio Cirande 



Orinoco 



^Mississippi 




<?,". - PC m I". Tcc 

tQ H . 

*- <Siein.em3o.ooo 



SOS M. 

^*^ Jthen.eE23f. 



Daria 



OA.**A /7*,OOQ , DM 
-<.! rf^MTl? H \ii 

Euphrates 



on. A HE* JS. ',000 



CD 




RIVERS OF THE WORLD. 



152 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Halifax 
Harriett 
Haywood . . . 
Henderson . . 
Hertford. . . . 
Hyde 
Iredell 
Jackson 
Johnston. . . . 
Jones 
Lenoir 
Lincoln 
McDowell . . . 
Macon 
Total. 


. 30,793 
. 15,988 
. 16,222 
. 14,104 
. 14,294 
. 9,278 
. 29,064 
. 11,853 
. 32,250 
. 8,226 
. 18,639 
. 15,498 
. 12,567 
. 12,104 


NORTH 

Madison 
Martin 
Mecklenburg . 
Mitchell 
Montgomery. . 
Moore 
Nash 
New Hanover . 
Northampton . 
Onslow 


CAROL 

20,644 
15,383 
55,268 
15,221 
14,197 
23,622 
25,478 
25,785 
21,150 
11,940 
14,690 
8,045 
13,660 
13,381 


INA Continued. 

Perquimans . . 10,091 
Person 16,685 
Pitt 30,889 
Polk 7,004 
Randolph 28,232 
Richmond 28,408 
Robeson 40,371 
Rockingham.. 33,163 
Rowan 31,066 
Rutherford. . . 25,101 
Sampson 26,380 
Stanly 15,220 
Stokes 19,866 
Surry 25,515 


Swain 


8,401 
6,620 
4,980 
27,156 
16,684 
54,626 
19,151 
10,608 
13,417 
31,356 
26,872 
23,596 
14,083 
11,464 
893,810 

6,491 
13,107 
20,288 
7,961 
8,310 
1,530 

2,208 
319,146 

29,246 
23,713 
32,525 
44,289 
40,940 
34,311 
40,981 
41,163 
24,625 
94,747 
71,715 
46,591 
53,751 
22,342 
30,394 
15,330 
25,584 
48,245 
87,870 
24,953 
51,555 
21,125 
157,545 

34,975 
7,469 

12,873 
389.245 


Transylvania . 
Tyrrell 
Union 
Vance 
Wake 
Warren 
Washington . . 
Watauga 
Wayne 
Wilkes 




Pamlico 
Pasquotank . . 
Fender 


Wilson 
Yadkin 
Yancey 


. 1 


Barnes 
Benson. ..... 
Billings 
Bottineau. . . 
Burleigh 
Cass 
Cavalier 
Dickey 


. 13,159 
8,320 
975 
. 7,532 
. 6,081 
. 28,625 
. 12,580 
. 6,061 
. 3,330 
. 4,349 
. 3,770 


N 

AREA, 

Grand Forks. . 
Griggs 
Kidder . 


ORTH 
72,000 t 

24,459 
4,744 
1,754 
6,048 
1,625 
5,253 
4,818 
4,791 
1,778 
8,069 
7,316 


DAKOTA. 

JQUARE MILES. 

Oliver 
Pembina 
Pierce 
Ramsey 
Ransom 
Richland 
Rolette 
Sargent 
Stark 
Steele 
Stutsman 


990 
17,869 
4,765 
9,198 
6,919 
17,387 
7,995 
6,039 
7,621 
5,888 
9,143 


Towner 
Traill 
Walsh 


Lamoure 
Logan 
McHenry. .... 
Mclntosh 
McLean 
Mercer 
Morton 
Nelson 


Ward 
Wells. 


Williams 
Standing Rock 
Indian Res- 
ervation. . .. 


Eddy 
Emmons. . . . 
Foster 
Total 




Adams 


26 328 


AREA, 

Fairfield 
Fayette 
Franklin 
Fulton. . 


OH 
39,964 

34,259 
21,725 
164,460 
22,801 
27,918 
14,744 
31,613 
34,425 
409,479 
41,993 
31,187 
20,486 
27,282 
30,982 
24,398 
19,511 
32,330 
34,248 
44,357 
27,768 
21,680 
39,534 


10. 

SQUARE MILES. 

Licking 
Logan 


47,070 
30,420 
54,857 
153,559 
20,590 
70,134 
28,678 
21,958 
28,620 
28,021 
43,105 
27,031 
130,146 
17,905 
17,879 
53,185 
19,466 
22,213 
27,528 
31,841 
27,016 
18,172 


Portage 


Allen 
Ashland 
Ashtabula. . . 
Athens 
Auglaize 
Belmont 
Brown 
Butler 
Carroll 
Champaign. . 
Clark 
Clermont .... 
Clinton 
Columbiana. . 
Coshocton. . . 
Crawford .... 
Cuyahoga. . . 
Darke 


. 47,976 
. 21,184 
. 51,448 
. 38,730 
. 31,192 
. 60,875 
. 28,237 
. 56,870 
. 16,811 
. 26,642 
. 58,939 
. 31,610 
. 24,202 
. 68,590 
. 29,337 
. 33,915 
439,120 
. 42,532 
. 26,387 
. 26,401 
. 37,650 


Preble 
Putnam 
Richland 
Ross 


Lorain 
Lucas. . . 


Gallia 
Geauga 
Greene 
Guernsey .... 
Hamilton 
Hancock 
Hardin 
Harrison 
Henry 
Highland 
Hocking 
Holmes 
Huron 
Jackson. 


Madison 
Mahoning. . . . 
Marion 
Medina 
Meigs 
Mercer 
Miami 
Monroe 
Montgomery. 
Morgan 
Morrow 
Muskingum. . . 
Noble 


Sandusky 
Scioto 


Seneca 
Shelby 
Stark. . 
Summit 
Trumbull 
Tuscarawas. . . 
Union 
Van Wert 
Vinton 
Warren 
Washington. . . 
Wayne 
Williams 
Wood 
Wyandot 
4 


Ottawa 


Jefferson 
Knox 
Lake 
Lawrence 


Paulding 
Perry. 


Defiance 
Delaware. . . . 
Erie 
Total. . . 

Beaver 
Blaine . 


Pickaway 
Pike 


. 3,051 

10 658 


AREA, 

Garfield 
Grant 
Greer 
Kay 
Kingfisher. . . . 
Lincoln 
Logan. 


OKLA 
2,950 s 

22,076 
17,273 
17,922 
22,530 
18,501 
27,007 
26,538 


HOMA. 

QUARE MILES. 

Noble 
Oklahoma. . . . 
Pawnee 
Payne 
Pottawatomie 
Roger Mills. . . 
Washita 


14,015 
25,854 
12,366 
20,909 
26,412 
6,190 
15,001 


Woods 


Woodward. . . . 
Indian Reser- 
vation 


Canadian. . . . 
Cleveland. . . . 
Custer. . . . 


. 15,981 
. 16,388 
12 264 


Day. 


. 2,173 
. 8,819 


Dewey 
Total . . 







SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



153 



Baker 


15,597i 
6,706 
19,658 
12,765 
6,237 
10,324 
3,964 
1,868 
14,565 


ORE 

AREA, 102,606 

Gilliam 3,201 
Grant 5,948 
Harney 2 5Q8 


3ON. 

SQUARE MILES. 

Linn 
Malheur 
Marion 


18,603 
4,203 
27,713 
4,151 
103,167 
9,923 
3,477 
4,471 
18,049 


Union 
Wallowa. . 


16,070 
5,538 
13,199 
14,467 
2,443 
13,420 

413 536 


Benton 
Clackamas. . . . 
Clatsop 
Columbia 
Coos 


Wasco 


Jackson. . . . 
Josephine. . . 
Klamath. . . 
Lake 


. 13,698 
. . 7,517 
. . 3,970 

2847 


Morrow 
Multomah. . . . 
Polk 
Sherman 
Tillamook. . . . 
Umatilla 


Washington. . . 
Wheeler 
Yamhill... ... 


Crook 
Curry 
Douglas 
Total . . . 

Adams 
Allegheny 
Armstrong. . . . 
Beaver 
Bedford 
Berks 
Blair 
Bradford 
Bucks 
Butler 
Cambria 


Lane 
Lincoln. . . 


. . 19,604 
3,575 






34,496 
775,058 
52,551 
56,432 
39,468 
159,615 
85,099 
59,403 
71,190 
56,962 
104,837 
7,048 
44,510 
42,894 
95,695 
34,283 
80,614 


PENNSY 

AREA, 46,000 

Clinton... . 29,197 
Columbia 39,896 
Crawford 63,343 
Cumberland . . 50,344 
Dauphin 114,443 
Delaware 94,762 
Elk 32,903 
Erie 98,473 
Fayette 110,412 
Forest 11,039 
Franklin 54,902 
Fulton 9,924 
Greene 28,281 
Huntingdon . . 34,650 
Indiana 42,556 
Jefferson 59,113 
Juniata 16,054 


LVANIA. 

SQUARE MILES. 

Lackawanna. . 
Lancaster. . . . 
Lawrence 
Lebanon 
Lehigh 
Luzerne 
Lycoming. . . . 
McKean 
Mercer 
Mifflin 
Monroe 
Montgomery. . 
Montour 
Northampton. 
Northumber- 
land 
Perry 


193,831 
159 241 
57,042 
53,827 
93,893 
257,121 
75.663 
51,343 
57,387 
23,160 
21,161 
138,995 
15,526 
99,687 

90,911 
26,263 


Philadelphia. 1, 
Pike 
Potter 
Schuylkill. . . . 
Snyder 
Somerset 
Sullivan 
Susquehanna. . 
Tioga 
Union 


293,697 
8,766 
30,621 
172,927 
17,304 
49,461 
12,134 
40,043 
49,086 
17,592 
49,648 
38,946 
92,181 
30,171 
160,175 
17,152 
116,413 
302,115 

24,154 
428,556 

23,634 
59,663 
19,375 
45,589 
18,966 
65,560 
51,237 
25,501 
31,685 
41,684 
340,316 

5,610 
2,988 
12,216 
4,644 
9,487 
1,349 
1,715 
13,175 
11,153 
3,839 
12,649 

16,043 

401,570 


Venango 
Warren 
Washington. . . 
Wayne 
Westmoreland. 
Wyoming 
York 
6 


Carbon 
Center 
Chester 
Clarion 
Clearfield 


Total 




Bristol 
Kent 
Total 


13,144 
29,976 


RHODE 

AREA, 1,306 

Newport 32,599 


ISLAND. 

QUARE MILES. 

Providence . . . 


328,683 


Washington. . . 


Abbeville. . . . 
Aiken 


33,400 
39,032 
55,728 
17,296 
35,504 
35,495 
30,454 
88,006 
21,359 
28,616 


SOUTH C 
AREA, 29,385 
Chesterfield. . . 20,401 
Clarendon. . . . 28,184 
Colleton 33,452 
Darlington. . . . 32,388 
Dorchester 16,294 
Edgefield 25,478 
Fairfield 29,425 
Florence 28,474 
Georgetown. . . 22,846 
Greenville. . . . 53,490 


A.ROLINA. 

SQUARE MILES. 

Greenwood. . . 
Hampton 
Horry 
Kershaw 
Lancaster . . . 
Laurens 
Lexington. . . 
Marion 
Marlboro. . . . 
Newberry. . . . 


28,343 
23,738 
23,364 
24,696 
24,311 
37,382 
27,264 
35,181 
27,639 
30,182 


Oconee 
Orangeburg. . . 
Pickens 
Richland 
Saluda 
Spartanburg. . 
Sumter 
(Union 
Williamsburg . 
York 


Anderson. . . . 
Bamberg. . . . 
Barnwell. . . . 
Beaufort. . . . 
Berkeley. . . . 
Charleston. . . 
Cherokee. . . . 
Chester 


Total 


1 


Aurora 
Beadle. ..... 
Bonhomme. . 
Brookings. . . 
Brown 


4,011 

8,081 
10,379 
12,561 
15,286 
5,401 
1,790 
2,907 
4,527 
. 8,498 
. 6,942 
. 9,316 
. 8,770 
. 2,728 


SOUTH 
AREA, 78,932 
Davison 7,483 
Day 12,254 
Deuel 6,656 
Douglas 5,012 
Edmunds 4,916 
Fall River. . . . 3,541 
Faulk 3,547 
Grant 9,103 
Gregory 2,211 
Hamlin 5,945 
Hand 4,525 
Hanson 4,947 
Hughes 3,684 
Hutchinson. . . 11,897 


DAKOTA. 

SQUARE MILES. 

Hyde 
Jerauld 


1,492 

2,798 
9,866 
9,137 
17,897 
12,161 
2,632 
8,689 
6,327 
5,942 
4,907 
5,864 
. 23,926 
8.32C 


Pennington. . . 
Potter 
Roberts 
Sanborn 
Spink 
Stanley 
ISully 
Turner 
Union 
Walworth. . . . 
Yankton 
Indian Reser- 
vation 


Kingsbury. . . 
Lake 
Lawrence. . . . 
Lincoln 
Lyman 
McCook 
McPherson . . 
Marshall 
Meade 


Brule 
Buffalo 
Butte 
Campbell. . . . 
Charles Mix. . 
Clark 
Clay 
Coddington . . 
Custer 


Miner 
Minnehaha . . 
Moody 


Total . . . 





154 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Anderson . . 
Bedford 
Benton 


. 17,634 
. 23,845 
11 888 


AREA, 

Fentress 
Franklin 
Gibson 
Giles 


TENN 
45,500 

6,106 
20,392 
39,408 
33,035 
15,512 
30,596 
7,802 
12,728 
61,695 
11,147 
22,976 
19,246 
24,267 
25,189 
18,117 
24,208 
16,367 
6,476 
13,398 
15,039 
5,407 
18,590 
10,589 
74,302 


ESSEE. 

SQUARE MILES. 

Lake 
Lauderdale. . . 
Lawrence 


7,368 
21,971 
15,402 
4,455 
26,304 
10,838 
19,163 
17,760 
12,881 
36,333 
17,281 
18,763 
42,703 
7,491 
18,585 
36,017 
5,706 
9,587 
28,286 
13,353 
8,800 
5,366 
11,357 
16,890 


Rhea 
Roane 
Robertson . . . 
Rutherford. . 
Scott 
Sequatchie . . 
Sevier 
Shelby. 


. 14,318 
. 22,738 
. 25,029 
. 33,543 
. 11,077 
. 3,326 
. 22.021 
153 557 


Bledsoe 
Blount 
Bradley 


. 6,626 
. 19,206 
. 15,759 


Lewis 
Lincoln 
Loudon 
McMinn 
McNairy 


Grainger 
Greene 
Grundy . 


Campbell . . . 
Cannon 
Carroll 
Carter 
Cheatham. . . 
Chester 
Claiborne . . . 
Clay 


. 17,317 
. 12,121 
. 24,250 
. 16,688 
. 10,112 
. 9,896 
. 20,696 
8 421 


Hamblen 
Hamilton 
Hancock 
Hardeman . . . 
Hardin 
Hawkins 
Hay wood 
Henderson . . . 
Henry 
Hickman 
Houston 
Humphreys . . 
Jackson 
James 
Jefferson 
Johnson 
Knox 


Macon 
Madison 
Marion 
Marshall 
Maury 
Meigs 
Monroe 
Montgomery. . 
Moore 


Smith 
Stewart 
Sullivan . . . . 
Sumner 
Tipton 
Trousdale . . . 
Unicoi 
Union 
Van Buren . . 
Warren 
Washington . 
Wayne 
W'eakley 
White 


. 19,026 
. 15,224 
. 24,935 
. 26,072 
. 29,273 
. 6,004 
. 5,851 
. 12,894 
. 3,126 
. 16,410 
. 22,604 
. 12,936 
. 32,546 
14 157 


Cocke 
Coffee 
Crockett 
Cumberland . 
Davidson . . . 
Decatur 
Dekalb 
Dickson 
Dyer 
Fayette 
Total 


. 19,153 
. 15,574 
. 15,867 
. 8,311 
. 122,815 
. 10,439 
. 16,460 
. 18,635 
. 23,776 
. 29,701 


Morgan 
Obion 
Overton 
Perry 
Pickett 
Polk 
Putnam 


Williamson. . 
Wilson 


. 26,429 
. 27,078 
2,020,616 

4,980 
2 503 


Anderson . . , 
Andrews .... 
Angelina. . . . 
Aransas 
Archer 
Armstrong . . 
Atascosa. . . . 
Austin 
Bailey 
Bandera .... 
Bastrop 
Baylor 
Bee 
Bell 
Bexar 
Blanco 
Borden 
Bosque 


. 28,015 
87 
. 13,481 
. 1,716 
2,508 
. 1,205 
. 7,143 
. 20,676 
4 
5,332 
. 26,845 
. 3,052 
. 7,720 
. 45,535 
. 69,422 
4,703 
776 
. 17,390 


AREA, 

Collingsworth . 
Colorado 
Comal 
Comanche. . . . 
Concho 
Cooke 
Coryell 
Cottle 
Crane 
Crockett 
Crosby 
Dallam . . 
Dallas 
Dawson 
Deaf Smith. . . 
Delta 
Denton 
Dewitt 


TE: 

237,504 

1,233 
22,203 
7,008 
23,009 
1,427 
27,494 
21,308 
1,002 
51 
1,591 
788 
146 
82,726 
37 
843 
15,249 
28,318 
21,311 
1,151 
1,106 
2,756 
8,483 
18,971 
381 
3,108 
50,059 
24,886 
29,966 
33,342 
51,793 
36,542 
3,708 
2,020 
1,568 
16,538 
8,674 
18,910 
4,200 
55 
44,116 
185 
8.229 


CAS. 

SQUARE MILES. 

Glasscock . . 
Goliad 
Gonzales 


286 
8,310 
28,882 
480 
63,661 
12,343 
26,106 
21,385 
1,680 
1,670 
13,520 
167 
3,634 
5,049 
63,786 
31,878 
377 
2,637 
14,142 
815 
19,970 
6,837 
41,355 
44 
9,146 
27,950 
25,452 
2,528 
47,295 
303 
848 
10,224 
6,094 
7,138 
1,150 
14,239 
33,819 
7,053 
8,681 
33,376 
4,103 
899 


Kerr 


Kimble . 


King 
Kinney 
Knox. 


490 
. 2,447 
2 322 


Gray 


Grayson 
Gregg . 


Lamar 


48 627 


Grimes 
Guadalupe . . . 
Hale 
Hall 
Hamilton .... 
Hansford .... 
Hardeman . . . 
Hardin 
Harris 
Harrison 


Lamb 
Lampasas. . . 
Lasalle 
Lavaca .... 
Lee . 


31 
. 8,625 
. 2,303 
. 28,121 
14 595 


Leon 
Liberty 


. 18,072 
8 102 


Limestone . . . 
Lipscomb . . . 
Live Oak 


. 32,573 
790 
2 ?6S 


Hartley 
Haskell 
Hays 
Hemphill .... 
Henderson . . 
Hidalgo 
Hill 
Hockley 
Hood 
Hopkins 
Houston 
Howard 


Llano 
Loving 
Lubbock. . . . 
Lynn 
McCulloch . . . 
McLennan. . . 
McMullen. . . . 
Madison . 


. 7.301 
' 33 
293 
17 
. 3,960 
. 59,772 
. 1,024 
10 432 


Bowie 
Brazoria .... 
Brazos 
Brewster. . . . 
Briscoe 
Brown 
Burleson. . . . 
Burnet 
Caldwell 
Calhoun .... 
Callahan .... 
Cameron. . . . 
Camp 
Carson 
Cass. ....... 
Castro 
Chambers . . . 
Cherokee. . . . 
Childress. . . . 
Clay 
Cochran .... 
Coke 
Coleman 
Collin . . 


. 26,676 
. 14,861 
. 18,859 
. 2,356 
. 1,253 
. 16,019 
. 18,367 
. 10,528 
. 21,765 
. 2,395 
. 8,768 
. 16,095 
. 9,146 
469 
. 22,841 
400 
. 3,046 
. 25,154 
. 2,138 
. 9,231 
25 
. 3,430 
. 10,077 
. 50,087 


Dickens 


Dimmit 
Donley 
Duval 


Eastlancl 
Ector 
Edwards 
Ellis 
El Paso 
Erath 
Falls 
Fannin 
Fayette 
Fisher 
Floyd 
Foard 
FortBend. . . . 
Franklin 
Freestone 
Frio. . 




. 10,754 
332 
. 5,573 
. 6,097 
. 4,066 
. 7,783 
. 2,011 
1,741 
. 39,666 
. 7,851 
2855 


Martin 
Mason 
Matagorda. . . 
Maverick .... 
Medina 
Menard 
Midland 
Milam 
Mills 
Mitchell 


Hunt 
Hutchinson . . 
Iron 
Jack 
Jackson 
Jasper 


Jeff Davis .... 
Jefferson 
Johnson 


Montague. . . 
Montgomery . 
Moore 


. 24,800 
. 17,067 
209 


Jones 
Karnes 
Kaufman .... 
Kendall. . 
Kent . . 


Gaines 
Galveston. . . . 
Garza 
Giliespie . . 


Morris 
Motley 
Nacogdoches. 
Navarro. . . 


. 8,220 
. 1,257 
. 24.663 
. 43,374 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



155 



dependencies 

, OOO 



now idri'l. 
Span. foSS 

f&o, oco 




POPULATION OF THE WORLD. 



156 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Newton 
Nolan 
Nueces 
Ochiltree 
Oldham 
Orange 
Palo Pinto. . . . 
Panola 
Parker 
Parmer 


7,282 
2,611 
10,439 
267 
349 
5,905 
12,291 
21,404 
25,823 
34 
2,360 
14,447 
1,820 
3,673 
6,127 
963 
29,893 
1,847 
1,641 


Tl 

Roberts 
Robertson .... 
Rockwall 


SXAS 

620 
31,480 
8,531 
5,379 
26,099 
6,394 
8,434 
10,277 
2,372 
7,569 
515 
4,151 
2,468 
20,452 
104 
37,370 
3,498 
11,469 
6,466 


Continued. 

Sterling 
Stonewall 
Sutton 


1,127 
2,183 
1,727 
1,227 
52,376 
10,499 
48 
1,750 
12,292 
6,804 
47,386 
10,976 
11,899 
16,266 
48 
4,647 
5,263 
25,481 
13,678 


Walker. . . 
Waller 
Ward. 


15,813 
14,246 
1,451 
32,931 
21,851 
16,942 
636 
5,806 
5,759 
38,072 
13,961 
60 
27,116 
21,048 
26 
6,540 
4,760 
792 

048,710 

6,458 
32,456 
4,736 
4,612 
1,907 
25,239 

276,749 

26,660 
32,225 

343,641 

11,192 
11,112 
14,609 
8,843 
7,088 
37,332 
24,187 
33,527 
18,031 
22,694 
20,253 
17,121 
22,848 
14,307 
8,097 
8,469 
12,082 
23,384 
8,837 
15,524 
33.574 
9,243 
19,653 
20,437 
7,482 
854,184 


Runnels 
Rusk 
Sabine 
San Augustine. 
San Jacinto. . . 
San Patricio. . 
San Saba 
Schleicher. . . . 
Scurry 
Shackelford. . . 
Shelby 
Sherman 
Smith 


Swisher 
Tarrant 
Taylor 
Terry 
Throckmorton 
Titus 
Tom Green . . . 
Travis 
Trinity 
Tyler 
Upshur 
Upton 


Washington.. . 
Webb 
Wharton. . 
Wheeler 
Wichita 
Wilbargei. . . . 
Williamson. . . 
Wilson 
Winkler 
Wise 
Wood 


Pecos 
Polk 


Potter 
Presidio 
Rains 
Randall 
Red River 
Reeves 
Refugio 
Total 


Yoakum 
Young 
Zapata 


Uvalde 
Valverde 
Van Zandt. . . . 
Victoria 


Somervell. . . . 
Starr 
Stephens 


Zavalla 
3 


Beaver 
Boxelder 
Cache 
Carbon 
Davis 
Emery 
Garfield 
Total 


3,613 
10,009 
18,139 
5,004 
7,996 
4,657 
3,400 


AREA, 

Grand 
Iron 


UT 

84,476 

1,149 
3,546 
10,082 
1,811 
5,678 
2,045 
1,954 


AH. 

SQUARE MILES. 

Rich. . 
Salt Lake 
San Juan 
Sanpete 
Sevier 
Summit 
Tooele 


1.946 
77,725 
1,023 
16,313 
8,451 
9,439 
7,361 


Uinta. . 
Utah 


Juab 
Kane 
Millard 
Morgan 
Piute 


Wasatch 
Washington. . . 
Wayne 


Weber 




Addison 
Bennington. . . 
Caledonia 
Chittenden . . . 
Total 


21,912 
21,705 
24,381 
39,600 


AREA, 

Essex 
Franklin 
Grand Isle. . . . 
Lamoille 


VERA 
10,212 

8,056 
30,198 
4,462 
12,289 


IONT. 

SQUARE MILES. 

Orange 
Orleans 
Rutland 
Washington. . . 


19,313 
22,024 
44,209 
36,607 

8,380 
8,949 
19,856 
21,948 
16,517 
11,705 
10,216 
8,239 
26,551 
8,220 
19,196 
23,078 
16,075 
4,865 
114,831 
13,770 
d 9,846 
12,366 
12,571 
13,794 
15,403 
63,414 
6,824 
15,045 
7,752 


Windham. . . . 
Windsor 


Princess Anne . 
Prince William 
Pulaski 


Accomac 
Albemarle. . . . 
Alexandria . . . 
Alleghany. . . . 
Amelia 


32,570 
34,920 
20,959 
16,330 
9,037 
17,864 
9,662 
39,659 
5,595 
30,356 
5,497 
17,161 
18,217 
9,692 
15,266 
42,147 
16,709 
19,303 
5,040 
15,343 
28,519 
7,927 
4,293 
14,123 
8,996 


AREA, 

Dickenson .... 
Dinwiddie. . . . 
Elizabeth City. 
Essex 
Fairfax 
Fauquier 
Floyd 
Fluvanna 
Franklin 
Frederick 
Giles 
Gloucester. . . . 
Goochland. . . . 
Grayson 
Greene 
Greenesville. . . 
Halifax 
Hanover 
Henrico 
Henry 
Highland 
Isle of Wight. . 
James City. . . 
King and Queei 
King George . . 


VIRG 
38,352 

7,747 
15,374 
19,460 
9,701 
18,580 
23,374 
15,388 
9,050 
25,953 
18,400 
10,793 
12,832 
9,519 
16,853 
6,214 
9,758 
37,197 
17,618 
115,112 
19,265 
5,647 
13,102 
5,732 
i 9,265 
6,918 


INIA. 

SQUARE MILES. 

King William 
Lancaster. . . . 
Lee 


Loudoun 
Louisa 
Lunenburg . . . 
Madison 
Mathews 
Mecklenburg. . 
Middlesex. . . . 
Montgomery. . 
Nansemond. . . 
Nelson 
New Kent. . . . 
Norfolk 
Northampton . 
Northumberlan 
Nottoway. . . . 
Orange 
Page 
Patrick 
Pittsylvania . . 
Powhatan. . . . 
Prince Edward 
Prince George . 


Rappahannock 
Richmond .... 
Roanoke 
Rockbridge. . . 
Rockingham. . 
Russell 
Scott 
Shenandoah. . . 
Smyth 
Southampton . 
Spottsylvania . 
Stafford 
Surry 
Sussex 
Tazewell 
Warren 


Amherst 
Appomattox. . 


Bath 
Bedford 
Bland 
Botetourt . . . 
Brunswick. . . . 
Buchanan. . . . 
Buckingham . . 
Campbell 
Caroline 
Carroll 
Charles City . 
Charlotte 
Chesterfield. . 
Clarke 
Craig 
Culpeper. . . . 
Cumberland . . 
Total. . 


Warwick 
Washington. . . 
Westmoreland 
Wise 
Wvthe 


York 


..1, 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



157 



WASHINGTON. 

, 69,994 SQUARE MILKS. 



Adams 
Asotin 
Chehalis 


4,840 
3,366 
15 124 


Ferry 
Franklin . . . 
Garfield. . . . 
Island 
Jefferson. . . 
King 


. . 4,562 
486 
. . 3,918 
. . 1,870 
. . 5,712 
. . 110,053 
. . 6,767 
. . 9,704 
. . 6,407 


Lewis 
Lincoln 
Mason 
Okanogan. . . 
Pacific 
Pierce 
San Juan. . . . 
Skagit 


. 15,157 
. 11,969 
. 3,810 
. 4,689 
. 5,983 
. 55,515 
. 2,928 
14 272 


Snohomish . . 
Spokane .... 
Stevens 


. 23,950 
. 57,542 
10 543 


Chelan 
Clallam . . . . 
Clarke 
Columbia . . . 
Cowlitz 
Douglas 


3,931 
5,603 
13,419 

. 7,128 
. 7,877 
4,926 


Thurston . . . 
Wahkiakum . 
Wallawalla. . 
Whatcom . . . 
Whitman . . . 
Yakima 


. 9,927 
. 2,819 
. 18,680 
. 24,110 
. 25,360 
. 13,462 
.518.103 


Kitsap 
Kittitas. . . . 
Klickitat. . . 


Skamania . . . 


. 1,688 


Total . . 





WEST VIRGINIA. 

AREA, 23,000 SQUARE MILES. 



Barbour .... 
Berkeley. . . . 
Boone 


14,198 
19,469 
8,194 
18,904 
7,219 
29,252 
10,266 
8.248 
13,689 
31,987 
11,762 
7,275 
20,683 
11,806 


Hancock . . 
Hardy. . . . 


6,693 
. . 8,449 


Mineral 
Mingo 
Monongalia. . 
Monroe 
Morgan 
Nicholas .... 
Ohio 
Pendleton . . 
Pleasants . . . 
Pocahontas. . 
Preston 
Putnam 
Raleigh 
Randolph . . . 


12,883 
11,359 
19,049 
13,130 
7,294 
11,403 
48,024 
9,167 
9,345 
8,572 
22,727 
17,330 
12,436 
17,670 


Ritchie 
Roane 
Summers. . . 
Taylor 
Tucker 
Tyler 
Upshur 
Wayne 
Webster .... 
Wetzel 
Wirt 
Wood 


Harrison. . 
Jackson. . . 


. . . 27,690 
. . 22,987 


Braxton .... 
Brooke 


Jefferson. . 
Kanawha . 
Lewis 
Lincoln . . . 
Logan .... 
McDowell . 
Marion . . . 
Marshall . . 
Mason .... 
Mercer. . . . 


. . 15,935 
. . 54,696 
. . . 16,980 
. . 15,434 
. . 6,955 
. . . 18,747 
. . . 32,430 
. . . 26,444 
. . . 24,142 
. . . 23,023 


Cabell 
Calhoun .... 
Clay 
Doddridge . . 
Fayette 
Gilmer 
Grant 
Greenbrier . . 
Hampshire . . . 
Total .. 


Wyoming . . . 



. 18,901 

. 19,852 

. 16,265 

. 14,978 

. 13,433 

. 18,252 

. 14,696 

. 23,619 

. 8,862 

. 22,880 

. 10,284 

. 34,452 

. 8,380 

.958,800 



WISCONSIN. 

AREA, 53,924 SQUARE MILES. 



Adams .... 
Ashland . . 
Barron . . . 
Bayfield . . 
Brown. . . . 
Buffalo . . . 
Burnett. . . 
Calumet . . 
Chippewa . 

Clark 

Columbia . 
Crawford . . 

Dane 

Dodge 

Door 

Douglas. . . 

Dunn 

Eau Claire . 
Total. 



9,141 
20,176 
23,677 
14,392 
46,359 
16,765 

7,478 
17,078 
33,037 
25,848 
31,121 
17,286 
69,435 
46,631 
17,583 
36,335 
25,043 
31,692 



Florence 
Fond du Lac. 

Forest 

Grant 

Green 

Green Lake. 

Iowa 

Iron 

Jackson. . . . 
Jefferson. . . 
Juneau . . . . 
Kenosha . . . 
Kewaunee. . 
La Crosse . . 
Lafayette . . 
Langlade . . . 
Lincoln .... 
Manitowoc . 



3, 197 1 Marathon 
47,589 Marinette 



1,396 
38,881 
22,719 
15,797 
23,114 

6,616 
17,466 
34,789 
20,629 
21,707 
17,212 
42,997 
20,959 
12,553 
16,269 
42,261 



Marquette. . . . 10,509 
Milwaukee . . . 330,017 



Monroe 

Oconto 

Oneida 

Outagamie 

Ozaukee 

Pepin 

Pierce 

Polk 

Portage 

Price 

Racine 

Richland 

Rock 

St. Croix 



43,2561 Sauk 

30, 822; Sawyer 



28,103 
20,874 

8,875 
46,247 
16,363 

7,905 
23,943 
17,801 
29,483 

9,106 
45,644 
19,483 
51,203 
26,830 



Shawano. . . . 
Sheboygan . . 
Taylor. 



Trempealeau 
Vernon 
Vilas . . 
Walworth. . . 
Washburn. . . 
Washington . 
Waukesha. . . 
Waupaca ... 
Waushara. . . 
Winnebago. . 
Wood 



33,006 
3,593 
27,475 
50,345 
11,262 
23,114 
28,351 
4,929 
29,259 
5,521 
23,589 
35,229 
31,615 
15,972 
58,225 
25,865 



,2,069,042 



Albany 
Bighorn. . 
Carbon . . 
Converse. 
Total 



WYOMING. 

AREA, 97,883 SQUARE MILES. 



13,084 
4,328 
9,589 
3,337 



Crook . . . 
Fremont . 
Johnson . 
Laramie . 



3,137 

5,357 

2,361 

20,181 



Natrona . . . 
Sheridan. . . 
Sweetwater . 
Uinta . 



1,785 

5,122 

8,455 

12,223 



Weston 



3,203 



Yellowstone Park . 369 



92,531 



HOW THE POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES ARE SHELTERED. 



In the Census year 1900 there were 
14,430,145 dwellings, accommodating 
16,187,715 families. Of this number 
611,435 dwellings accommodated one 



person each, 10,158,932 sheltered two 
to six persons, 2,999,687 accommo- 
dated seven to ten persons each, and 
660,091 eleven persons and over. 



158 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



AREA AND POPULATION OF STATE: 1900. 



State or 
Territory 


Land sur- 
face in 
square 
miles, 
1900. 


Rank 
in 
popu- 
la- 
tion, 
1900. 


Population 
1900. 


State or 
Territory 


Land sur- 
face in 
square 
miles, 
1900. 


Rank 
in 
popu- 
la- 
tion, 
1900. 


Population 
1900. 


United States . . 


3,567,563 




76,303,387 


Michigan 


57,430 
79 205 


9 
19 


2,420,982 
1 751 394 


Continental 

u. s 


2,970,230 




75,994,575 


Mississippi 
Missouri 


46,340 
68,735 


20 
5 


1,551,270 
3,106,665 












145 310 


44 


243 329 


N.Atlantic div 


162,103 




21,046,695 


Nebraska. . 


76,840 


27 


1,066,300 


S.Atlantic div. 
N. Central div 


268,620 
753 550 




10,443,480 
26 333 004 


Nevada 
New Hampshire 


109,740 
9,005 


52 
36 


42,335 

411,588 


S.Central div. . 
Western div.. . 

Alabama 
Arizona . 


610,215 
1,175,742 

51,540 
112 920 


18 
49 


14,080,047 
4,091,349 

1,828,697 
122 931 


New Jersey .... 
New Mexico .... 
New York 
North Carolina. 
North Dakota 


7,525 
122,460 
47,620 
48,580 
70 195 


16 
45 
1 
15 
41 


1,883,669 
195,310 
7,268,894 
1,893,810 
319,146 




53 045 


25 


1 311 564 


Ohio 


40 760 


4 


4 157 545 


California 
Colorado 


156,172 
1 03 645 


21 
31 


1,485,053 
539 700 


Oklahoma 
i Oregon 


38,830 
94 560 


38 
35 


398,331 
413 536 


Connecticut. . . . 
Delaware 
District of Co- 
lumbia 
Florida 


4,845 
1,960 

60 
54 240 


29 

46 

42 
32 


908,420 
184,735 

278,718 
528 542 


Pennsylvania. . . 
Rhode Island. .. 
South Carolina. . 
South Dakota . . 
Tennessee 


44,985 
1,053 
30,170 
76,850 
41 750 


2 
34 
24 
37 
14 


6,302,115 
428,556 
1,340,316 
401,570 
2 020 616 


Georgia 
Idaho . . 


58,980 
84 290 


11 

47 


2,216,331 

161 772 


Texas 
Utah. 


262,290 
82 190 


6 
43 


3,048,710 
276 749 


Illinois 
Indiana. . . . 


56,000 
35 910 


3 

8 


4,821,550 
2 516 462 


Vermont 
Virginia . . . 


9,135 
40,125 


40 
17 


343,641 
1,854,184 


Indian Territory 
Iowa 
Kansas : . 
Kentucky 
Louisiana 


31,000 
55,475 
81,700 
40,000 
45 420 


39 
10 
22 
12 
23 


392,060 
2,231,853 
1,470,495 
2,147,174 
1 381,625 


Washington. . . . 
West Virginia . . 
Wisconsin 
Wyoming 
Alaska . . . 


66,880 
24,645 
54,450 
97,575 
590,884 


33 
28 
13 
50 
51 


518,103 
958,800 
2,069,042 
92,531 
63,592 


Maine 


29 895 


30 


694 466 




6449 


48 


154 001 


Maryland 
Massachusetts. . 


9,860 
8,040 


26 

7 


1,188,044 
2,805,346 


Military and 
naval 






91,219 



POPULATION LIVING IN CITIES WITHIN SPECIFIED LIMITS OF 
SIZE AND IN COUNTRY DISTRICTS: 1900. 



Divisions. 


POPULATION. 


Total. 


In cities of 


In country 
districts. 


At least 
100,000. 


25,000 to 
100,000. 


8,000 to 
25,000. 


4,000 to 
8,000. 


2,500 to 
. 4,000. 


United States. . 

Continental 
U. S. . . . 

N. Atlantic div. 
S. Atlantic div. 
N. Central div. 
S. Central div. 
Western div. . . 


76,212,168 


14,208,347 


5,549,271 


5,286,375 


3,380,193 


2,214,136 


45,573,846 


75,994,575 


14,208,347 


5,509,965 


5,273,887 


3,380,193 


2,211,019 


45,411,164 


21,046,695 
10,443,480 
26,333,004 
14,080,047 
4,091,349 


7,533,280 
787,675 
4,714,117 
594,155 
579,120 


2,565.416 
514,853 
1,383,767 
591,870 
454,059 


2,226,013 
475,098 
1,957,622 
371,306 
243,848 


1,289,027 
271,894 
1,287,707 
339,324 
192,241 


738,911 
183,112 
805,714 
291,598 
191,684 


6,694,048 
8,210,848 
16,184,077 
11,891,794 
2,430,397 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



159 



POPULATION OF CITIES HAVING AT LEAST 25,000 INHABITANTS 

IN 1900. 



Cities. 


Rank 
in 
popu- 
la- 
tion. 


Popula- 
tion. 


Cities. 


Rank 
in 
Popu- 
la- 
tion. 


Popula- 
tion. 




87 


42728 


Houston, Tex 


85 


44 633 


Albany N Y 


40 


94 151 


Indianapolis, Ind 


21 


169 164 


Allegheny Pa 


27 


129 896 


Jackson, Miss. . . 


161 


25 180 




114 


35,416 


Jacksonville, Fla 


143 


28 429 




97 


38 973 


Jersey City, N. J 


17 


206 433 


Atlanta Ga 


43 


89,872 


Johnstown, Pa. . . 


112 


35 936 


Atlantic City, N. J 


149 


27,838 


Joliet, 111 


138 


29,353 


Auburn N Y 


135 


30 345 


Joplin, Mo. .'. 


155 


26 023 




94 


39 441 


Kansas City, Kans 


76 


51 418 


Baltimore Md 


6 


508,957 


Kansas City, Mo 


22 


163,752 


Bay City Mich 


151 


27 628 


Knoxville, Tenn 


126 


32 637 




125 


32 722 


LaCrosse, Wis. . 


141 


28 895 




93 


39 647 


Lancaster, Pa 


90 


41 459 




100 


38 415 


Lawrence, Mass. . . 


57 


62 559 


Boston, Mass 


5 
54 


560,892 
70 996 


Lexington, Ky 
Lincoln, Nebr 


153 
91 


26,369 
40 169 




92 


40063 


Little Rock, Ark 


101 


38,307 


Buffalo, N. Y. . 


g 


352,387 


Los Angeles, Cal 


36 


102,479 


Butte, Mont 


133 


30,470 


Louisville, Ky 


18 


204,731 


Cambridge, Mass. . 


41 


91,886 


Lowell, Mass 


39 


94,969 


Camden N J 


52 


75 935 


Lynn, Mass. . . . 


55 


68 513 


Canton, Ohio. 


132 


30,667 


McKeesport, Pa 


116 


34,227 




159 


25 656 


Maiden, Mass. . 


121 


33 664 


Charleston, S. C 


68 
136 


55,807 
30 154 


Manchester, N. H 
Memphis, Tenn. 


65 
37 


56,987 
102 320 


Chelsea, Mass 


118 


34,072 


Milwaukee, Wis 


14 


285,315 


Chester Pa 


119 


33 988 


Minneapolis, Minn 


19 


202,718 


Chicago, 111 


2 


1,698,575 


Mobile, Ala 


99 


38,469 




10 


325 902 


Montgomery, Ala 


134 


30 346 


Cleveland, Ohio 


7 
28 


381,768 
1 25 560 


Nashville, Tenn. . . 
Newark, N. J.. . . 


47 
16 


80,865 
246,070 


Council Bluffs Iowa 


158 


25*802 


New Bedford, Mass 


58 


62,442 




86 


42 938 


New Britain Conn 


157 


25998 


Dallas Tex 


88 


42 638 


Newcastle, Pa. . 


144 


28 339 


Davenport, Iowa 


115 


35,254 


New Haven, Conn 


31 


108,027 


Dayton Ohio 


45 


85 333 


New Orleans, La 


12 


287,104 


Denver Colo . 


25 


133 859 


Newport, Ky. . . 


145 


28 301 


Des Moines, Iowa 
Detroit Mich 


59 
13 


62*139 
285 704 


Newton, Mass. . . 
New York, N. Y.* 


123 
1 


33,587 
3 437 202 


Dubuque, Iowa. . . . 


108 


36 297 


Norfolk, Va 


80 


46,624 


Duluth Minn 


72 


52 969 


Oakland, Cal. . . 


56 


66960 


Easton, Pa. . . . 


160 


25 238 


Omaha, Nebr . 


35 


102 555 


East St Louis 111 


137 


29 655 


Oshkosh, Wis 


146 


28 284 


Elizabeth, N. J. . . 


74 


52,130 


Passaic, N. J. . . 


150 


27 777 


Elmira, N. Y. . 


113 


35 672 


Paterson, N J 


32 


105 171 


Erie Pa 


73 


52 733 


Pawtucket R I 


96 


39 231 


Evansville, Ind . 


64 


59007 


Peoria, 111. . 


67 


56 100 


Fall River Mas 


33 


104 863 


Philadelphia Pa 


3 


1 293 697 


Fitchburg, Mass. . . 


128 


31,531 


Pittsburg, Pa . 


11 


321 616 


Fort Wayne, Ind 
Fort Worth, Tex 


83 
152 


45,115 
26,688 


Portland, Me 
Portland, Oreg 


78 
42 


50,145 
90,426 


Galveston, Tex . . 


103 


37 789 


Providence R I 


20 


175 597 


Gloucester, Mass 


154 


26,121 


Pueblo, Col 


148 


28,157 


Grand Rapids, Mich. . . . 


44 


87 565 


Quincy, 111. 


109 


36,252 


Harrisburg Pa 


77 


50 167 


Racine Wis 


140 


29 102 


Hartford, Conn. . . 
Haverhill, Mass. . . 


49 

105 


79,850 
37 175 


Reading, Pa 
Richmond, Va. . . . . 


50 
46 


78,961 
85 050 


Hoboken, N. J 
Holyoke, Mass. . 


63 

82 


59,364 
45,712 


Rochester, N. Y. . 
Rockford, 111 


24 
130 


162,608 
31,051 


Honolulu, Hawaii 


95 


39,306 


Sacramento, Cal 


139 


29,282 



* The estimated population of the area now embraced in New York city was 2,507,414 in 
1890 and 1,911,698 in 1880. Increase 1890 to 1900, 929,788; 1880 to 1890, 595,716. Per 
cent, of increase 1890 to 1900, 37.1; 1880 to 1890, 31.2. 



160 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



POPULATION OF CITIES HAVING AT LEAST 25,000 INHABITANTS IN 1900 

Continued. 


Cities. 


Rank 
in 
Popu- 
la- 
tion. 

89 
34 
4 
23 
111 
70 
71 
9 
69 
127 
38 
48 
124 
61 
110 
156 
106 
117 
60 
102 
129 


Popula- 
tion. 

42,345 
102,979 
575,238 
163,065 
35,956 
53,531 
53,321 
342,782 
54,244 
31,682 
102,026 
80,671 
33,111 
61,643 
35,999 
26,001 
36,848 
34,159 
62,059 
38,253 
31,091 


Cities. 


Rank 
in 
Popu- 
la- 
tion. 


Popula- 
tion. 


Saginaw, Mich 
St. Joseph, Mo 
St. Louis, Mo 
St. Paul, Minn 
Salem Mass 


Syracuse, N. Y 
Tacoma, Wash . . . 
Taunton, Mass 
Terre Haute, Ind 
Toledo, Ohio 
Topeka, Kans 
Trenton, N. J 
Troy N Y 


30 
104 
131 
107 
26 
122 
53 
62 
66 
15 
81 
98 
75 
142 
51 
147 
29 
79 
120 
84 


108,374 
37,714 
31,036 
36,673 
131,822 
33,608 
73,307 
60,651 
56,383 
278,718 
45,859 
38,878 
51,721 
28,757 
76,508 
28,204 
118,421 
47,931 
33,708 
44,885 


Salt Lake City, Utah 
San Antonio, Tex 


Savannah, Ga 
Schenectady N Y 


Utica, N. Y 
Washington, D. C 
Waterbury, Conn 
Wheeling, W. Va 
Wilkesbarre, Pa 
Williamsport, Pa 
Wilmington, Del 
Woonsocket, R. I 
Worcester, Mass 
Yonkers N. Y 


Scranton, Pa 
Seattle, Wash. 


Sioux City, Iowa 
Somerville, Mass 
South Bend, Ind 
South Omaha, Nebr 
Spokane, Wash 
Springfield, 111 
Springfield, Mass 
Springfield, Ohio 
Superior, Wis 


York, Pa 
Youngstown, Ohio. ........ 



DEATH RATES FROM CERTAIN CAUSES, FOR THE REGISTRATION 

AREA, 1900. 

T\ _ 

Cause. 

Pneumonia 

Consumption* 

Heart Diseasef 

Diarrheal diseases^ 

Diseases of the kidneysll . . 

Apoplexy 

Cancer 

Old age 

Bronchitis 

Cholera infantum 

Debility and atrophy ... 
Inflammation of the brain and 

gitis 

Diphtheria 

Typhoid fever 

Premature birth 

Convulsions 

Paralysis 

Inanition 

Influenza 

Diseases of the liver^f .... 



Death rate 
per 100,000. 
191.9 
190.5 
134 


Cause. 

Diseases of the stomach** 
Diseases of the brain 
Peritonitis . 


Death rate 
per 100,000. 
20.0 
18.6 
17 5 


85.1 
. 83.7 
66.6 
60 . 
54 . 
48 3 


Unknown causes 
Measles 
Railroad accidents 
Whooping cough 
Suicide 
Scarlet fever 


16.8 
13.2 
13.2 
12.7 
11.8 
11 5 


. 47.8 
45 5 


Hydrocephalus 
Drowning 


11.0 
11 


menin- 
41.8 
35.4 


Septicemia 
Appendicitis 
Croup 


10.0 
9.9 
9.8 


33.8 
33 7 


Diabetes 
Burns and scalds 


9.4 
8 8 


33.1 
. 32.8 
27 3 


Malarial fever 
Cerebro-spinal fever 


8.8 
7.1 
6 9 


23.9 
22 . 7 


Rheumatism 
Gunshot wounds 


6.8 
3.8 



* Including general tuberculosis, 
t Including pericarditis. 

t Including cholera morbus, colitis, diarrhea, dysentery, and enteritis- 
!l Including Bright's disease. 
Including general paralysis of the insane. 

T| Including jaundice, and inflammation and abscess of the liver. 
** Including gastritis. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



161 



FOREIGN BORN POPULATION CLASSIFIED BY PRINCIPAL COUN- 
TRIES OF BIRTH: 1900. 

Country of Birth. 

Austria 

Bohemia 

Canada (English) 

Canada (French) 

China 

Denmark 

England 

France 

Germany 

Holland 

Hungary 

Ireland. . 



275,907 
156,891 
784,741 
395,066 
81,534 
153 805 


Country of Birth. 
Italy 
Mexico 
Norway 
Poland 
Russia 
Scotland 


840^513 
104,197 
2,663,418 
104,931 
145,714 
1,615,459 


Sweden 
Switzerland 
Wales 
Other countries 

Total 



484,027 

103,393 

336,388 

383,407 

423,726 

233,524 

572,014 

115,593 

93,586 

273,442 

. . 10,341,276 



POPULATION AT LEAST 10 YEARS OF AGE ENGAGED IN GAINFUL 

OCCUPATIONS, CLASSIFIED BY SEX AND SPECIFIED 

OCCUPATIONS: 1900. 



Professional service 



Occupation. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 




29 074 117 


23 754 205 


5 319 912 










Agricultural pursuits 


10,381,765 


9,404,429 


977,336 


Agricultural laborers 
Dairymen and dairy women 


4,410,877 
10,875 
5,674 875 


3,747,668 
9,983 
5 347 169 


663,209 
892 
307 706 


Gardeners, florists, nurserymen, etc 
Lumbermen and raftsmen 
Stock raisers, herders, and drovers 
Turpentine farmers and laborers . . . 
Wood choppers 
Other agricultural pursuits. . . . 


61,788 
72,020 
84,988 
24,737 
36,075 
5,530 


58,928 
71,920 
83,056 
24,456 
35,962 
5,287 


2,860 
100 
1,932 
281 
113 
243 



828,163 



430,576 



Actors, professional showmen, etc 
Architects, designers, draftsmen, etc 


34,760 
29,524 


27,903 
28,483 


6,857 
1,041 


Artists and teachers of art 


24,873 
1 1 1 638 


13,852 
108 265 


11,021 
3 373 


Dentists 
Electricians 
Engineers (civil, etc.) and surveyors 
Journalists 


29,644 
50,717 
43,239 
30,038 


28,858 
50,308 
43,155 
27,845 


786 
409 
84 
2,193 


Lawyers 
Literary and scientific persons 


1 14,460 
19,066 
92 174 


113,450 
13,082 
39 815 


1,010 
5,984 
52359 


Officials (government)* 
Physicians and surgeons 
Teachers and professors in colleges, etc 
Other professional service 


86,607 
132,002 
446,133 
13,864' 


78,488 
124,615 
118,519 
11,525 


8,119 
7,387 
327,614 
2,339 


Domestic and personal service 


5,580,657 


3,485,208 


2,095,449 


Barbers and hairdressers 
Bartenders 
Boarding and lodging house keepers 
Hotel keepers 
Housekeepers and stewards 
Janitors and sextons 
Laborers (not specified) 
Launderers and laundresses 
Nurses and midwives 
Restaurant keepers 


131,116 

88,817 
71,281 
54,797 
155,153 
56,577 
2,629,262 
385,965 
120,956 
33 844 


125,542 
88,377 
11,826 
46,264 
8,224 
48,544 
2,505,287 
50,683 
12,265 
28 999 


5,574 
440 
59,455 
8,533 
146,929 
8,033 
123,975 
335,282 
108,691 
4 845 


Saloon keepers 
Servants and waiters 
Soldiers, sailors, and marines (United States) 
Watchmen, policemen, firemen, etc 
Other domestic and personal service 


83,746 
1,560,721 
43,235 
130,590 
34,597 


81,660 
276,958 
43,235 
129,711 
27,633 


2,086 
1,283,763 

"879 
6,964 



* Includes officers of United States Army and Navy. 



162 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



POPULATION AT LEAST 10 YEARS OF AGE ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPA- 
TIONS, CLASSIFIED BY SEX AND SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS: 1900 Continued. 



Occupation. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Trade and transportation 


4,766,964 

241,162 
73,277 
78,406 
254,880 
630,127 
92,919 
538,933 
55,450 
64,929 
76,649 
33,656 
790,886 
42,293 
71,622 
74,072 
59,545 
54,191 
611,139 
582,150 
112,364 
68,919 
14,757 
75,015 
16,189 
53,434 


4,263,617 

230,606 
72,984 
78,253 
180,727 
544,881 
91,973 
538,029 
54,032 
64,850 
73,734 
33,466 
756,802 
42,032 
64,959 
72,801 
39,557 
53,625 
461,909 
580,462 
26,246 
68,873 
14,757 
52,459 
15,866 
49,734 


503,347 

10,556 
293 
153 
74,153 
85,246 
946 
904 
1,418 
79 
2,915 
190 
34,084 
261 
6,663 
1,271 
19,988 
566 
149,230 
1,688 
86,118 
46 

22,556 
323 
3,700 


Agents 


Bankers and brokers 


Bookkeepers and accountants 
Clerks and copyists 


Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 
Foremen and overseers 


Hostlers 




Livery stable keepers 
Merchants and dealers (except wholesale) 
Merchants and dealers (wholesale) 


Officials of banks and companies 


Porters and helpers (in stores, etc.) 


Steam railroad employees. 


Street railway employees 


Telegraph and telephone operators 
Undertakers 
Other persons in trade and transportation . . 


Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits 

Building trades. 
Carpenters and joiners 
Masons (brick and stone) . 
Painters glaziers, and varnishers 


7,085,992 

600,252 
160,805 
277,541 
21,990 
35,694 
97,785 
9,067 
9,392 

24,626 
14,814 

49,933 
49,998 
54,460 
16,140 

68,177 
563,866 

79,188 
113,956 
19,241 
31,194 
40,548 
28,782 

226,477 
290,611 
283,145 
33,046 
12,473 
28,122 
13,505 
18.487 


5,772,788 

599,707 
160,638 
275,782 
21,749 
35,649 
97,659 
9,065 
9,351 

24,573 
12,035 

49,455 
47,377 
54,317 
13,200 

67,715 
562,501 

74,860 
113,578 
18,593 
21,980 
40,362 
23,640 

226,284 
287,241 
282,574 
33,038 
12,430 
27,376 
13,495 
16.701 


1,313,204 

545 
167 
1,759 
241 
45 
126 
2 
41 

53 
2,779 

478 
2,621 
143 
2,940 

462 
1,365 

4,328 
378 
648 
9,214 
186 
5,142 

193 
3,370 
571 
8 
43 
746 
10 
1,786 




Plasterers 
Plumbers and gas and steam fitters 
Roofers and slaters 
Mechanics (not otherwise specified) 
Chemicals and allied products. 
Oil well and oil works employees 


Clay, glass, and stone products. 
Brick and tile makers, etc 
Glass workers 
Marble and stone cutters 
Potters 


Fishing and mining. 


Miners and quarrymen 
Food and kindred products. 
Bakers 




Confectioners 
Millers ; 


Other food preparers 
Iron and steel and their products. 
Blacksmiths 
Iron and steel workers 
Machinists 
Steam boiler makers 


Tool and cutlery makers 
Wheelwrights 
Wire workers . . 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



163 



POPULATION AT LEAST 10 YEARS OF AGE ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCCUPA- 
TIONS, CLASSIFIED BY SEX AND SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS: 1 900 Continued. 



Occupation. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits. (Continued). 
Leather and its finished products. 
Boot and shoe makers and repairers 


208 912 


169 393 


39 519 


Harness and saddle makers and repairers 
Leather curriers and tanners 


40,101 
42 671 


39,506 
40 917 


595 
1 754 


Trunk and leather-case makers, etc 
Liquors and beverages. 
Bottlers and soda water makers, etc 


7,051 

10,519 
20 962 


5,472 

9,725 
20 687 


1,579 

794 
275 


Distillers and rectifiers 
Lumber and its remanufactures. 
Cabinetmakers 


3,144 
35,619 


3,114 
35,552 


30 
67 




37 200 


37 087 


113 


Saw and planing mill employees 
Other woodworkers 
Metals and metal products other than iron and steel. 


161,624 
111,273 

26 760 


161,251 
104,468 

25 870 


373 
6,805 

890 




24 120 


19 305 


4 gi5 


Gold and silver workers 


26,112 
70 505 


19,732 
68 730 


6,380 
1 775 


Other metal workers 
Paper and printing. 
Bookbinders 


56,602 

30,278 
21 098 


54,282 

14,646 
3 796 


2,320 

15,632 
17 302 


Engravers 
Paper and pulp mill operatives 
Printers, lithographers, and pressmen 
Textiles. 
Bleachery and dye works operatives 


11,151 
36,328 
155,147 

22,278 
19 388 


10,698 
26,904 
139,166 

20,493 
10 371 


453 
9,424 
15,981 

1,785 
9 017 


Cotton mill operatives 
Hosiery and knitting mill operatives 
Silk mill operatives 
Woolen mill operatives 


246,004 
47,120 
54,460 
73 196 


125,788 
12,630 
22,023 
42 566 


120,216 
34,490 
32,437 
30 630 


Other textile mill operatives 
Dressmakers 
Hat and cap makers 
Milliners 


104,619 
346.884 
22,733 

87 859 


53,437 
2,090 
15,110 
1 739 


51,182 
344,794 
7,623 
86 120 


Seamstresses 
Shirt collar and cuff makers 


150,942 
39 432 


4,837 
8 491 


146,105 
30 941 


Tailors and tailoresses 


229,649 


160,714 


68,935 


Other textile workers 
Miscellaneous industries. 
Broom and brush makers 
Charcoal, coke, and lime burners 
Engineers and firemen (not locomotive) 


29,967 

10,220 
14,448 
223,495 
12 271 


8,925 

8,643 
14,405 
223,318 
4 503 


21,042 

1,577 
43 
177 

7 768 


Manufacturers and officials, etc 
Model and pattern makers 
Photographers 
Rubber factory operatives 


243,082 
15,073 
26,941 
21 866 


' 239,649 
14,869 
23,361 
14 492 


3,433 
204 
3,580 
7 374 


Tobacco and cigar factory operatives 
Upholsterers. . 


131,452 
30 821 


87,955 
28 663 


43,497 
2 158 


Other miscellaneous industries 


471,300 


380,490 


90,810 



From Reports of the Twelfth Census. 



The annals of the Pasteur Institute state 
that during the year 1902 the number of per- 
sons under treatment for hydrophobia in Paris 
was 1,106, of whom only three died, one cf 
whom had not completed the treatment when 
he succumbed to hydrophobia; so that in 
reality there were only two deaths. Of the 
1,106 persons under treatment, nine were 
English, two Spaniards, two Russians, and 



one each Greek, Dutch, and Swiss making 
16 foreigners to 1,089 French. The diminu- 
tion in the number of French patients, as 
compared with several preceding years, is ex- 
plained by the opening of anti-rabic institutes 
at L.lle, Marseilles, Montpellier, Lyons, and 
Bordeaux, to one or other of which persons 
residing in the neighborhood of those towns 
have been sent instead of going to Paris. 



164 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



INDIANS. 



In 11)02 the area of Indian reser- 
vations in the United States was 73,- 
148,643 acres or 117,420 square miles, 
and the population in 1900 was 270,- 
544, but in 1903 the number had 
dwindled to 263,233. Indian Territory 
is occupied by 76,886 Indian inhabi- 



tants, while 43,746 live in Arizona 
and 13,799 in Oklahoma, and 19,477 in 
South Dakota. The census gives the 
Indian population in Indian Territory 
in 1900 as 302,060, and the Indian 
population elsewhere is included in the 
census of the States. 



DIVISION OF POPULATION 
BY COLOR. 



COMPARISON OP POPULATION 
BY OCCUPATIONS. 







NATIVE 


WHITE 


FOREIGN 


WHITE 


MALES- 

C LC 


RED " MALES 




NUMBER OF PENSIONERS ON THE ROLLS, FIRST PAYMENTS, AND 

AMOUNTS OF DISBURSEMENTS FOR PENSIONS 

FROM 1861 TO 1903. 



Year 
ending 
June 30 


Number of pensioners on the rolls. 


Total 
disbursements. 


Cost, mainte- 
nance, and 
expenses. 


Invalids. 


Widows, etc. 


Total. 


1861. 
1865. ... 
1868. ... 
1870. ... 
1875. ... 
1880. ... 
1890. ... 
1900 
1903 


4,337 
35,880 
75,957 
87,521 
122,989 
145,410 
415,654 
752,510 
729,356 


4,299 
50,106 
93,686 
111,165 
111,832 
105,392 
122,290 
241,019 
267,189 


8,636 
85,986 
169,643 
198,686 
234,821 
250,802 
537,944 
993,529 
996,545 


$1,072,461.55 
8,525,153.11 
24,010,981.99 
27,780,811.81 
29,683,116.63 
57,240,540.14 
106,493,890.19 
138,462,130.65 
137,759,653.71 




$553,026 ! 34 
600,997.86 
982,695.35 
935,027.28 
3,526,382.13 
3,841,706.74 
3,993,216.79 



The following amounts have been paid to soldiers, their widows, minor children, and 
dependent relatives on account of military and naval service during the wars in which the 
United States has been engaged: 



Revolutionary war (estimated) 

War of 1812 (on account of service, without regard to disability) 

Indian wars (on account of service, without regard to disability) 

War with Mexico (on account of service, without regard to disability) . . 

War of the rebellion 

War with Spain 



Actual total disbursements in pensions 



$70,000,000 . 00 

45,186,197.22 

6,234,414.55 

33,483,309.91 

2,878,240,400.17 

5,479,268.31 

$3,038,623,590.16 



Statistical Abstract of the United States. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



165 



IMMIGRATION. 

NUMBER AND NATIONALITY OF IMMIGRANTS ARRIVED IN THE UNITED 
STATES DURING THE YEARS ENDING JUNE 30, 1889, 1899, AND 1903. 



Countries. 


1889. 


1899. 


1903. 


Countries. 


1889. 


1899. 


1903. 


Austria-Hungary : 
Bohemia 
Hungary 
Other Austria 
(except Poland) 

Total 

Belgium 
Denmark 
France 
Germany 


3,085 
10,967 

20,122 
34,174 

2,562 
8,699 
5,918 
99,538 
13 
158 
24,848 

459 


' 




Azores 


1 967 






Greenland, Iceland 
and the Faroe 
Islands 
Europe not speci- 
fied 

Total Europe. 

British North 
America 
Mexico 
Central America . . 
Bermuda 


4 
12 


6 


5 


62,491 


206,011 


62,491 

1,101 
2,690 
1,694 
17,476 


206,011 

3,450 
7,158 

5,578 
40,086 


434,790 297,349 


814,507 


t 
88 
21 

4,923 
427 

f5,459 


1,322 
161 
159 


1,058 
528 
678 


Gibraltar 
Greece 
Italy, continental . 
Sicily and Sar- 
dinia . 


2,333 

1 77,419 


14,090 
230,622 


West Indies and 
Miquelon 


2,585 
89 

4,316 


8,170 
589 

11,023 

2,209 
19,968 
7,789 


South America . . . 
Total America 

China 
Japan 
Other Asia 

Total Asia . . . 

Total Oceania. . . . 
Total Africa 
All other countries 

Total immigrants 


Malta 


Netherlands 
Norway 
Poland 
Portugal 
Roumania 
Russia (except 
Poland) 


6,460 
13,390 
4,922 
57 
893 

31,889 
2,027 
526 
35,415 
7,070 
252 

68,503 
65,557 
18,296 
1,181 


1,029 
6,705 

2,054 
1,606 

| 60,982 

385 
12,797 
1,326 
132 

10,402 
31,673 
1,724 
1,324 

45,123 


3,998 
24,461 

9,317 
9,310 

136,093 

2,080 
46,028 
3,983 
3,290 

26,219 
35,310 
6,143 
1,275 

68,947 


118 
640 
967 


1,660 

2,844 
4,468 


1,725 


8,972 


29,966 


Spain 
Sweden 


2,196 
187 
70 


" si 

1,027 


1,349 
176 
25 


Switzerland 
Turkey in Europe* 
United Kingdom : 
England 
Ireland 
Scotland 
Wales 

Total United 
Kingdom. . 


444,427 


311,715 


857,046 


* Includes Servia, Bulgaria, and Montenegro, 
t Immigrants from British North America 
! and Mexico not reported. 

Statistical Abstract of United States. 


153,537 



LABOR'S DEATH ROLL. 



No less than 4,513 lives were lost in 1902 
while in the ordinary pursuit of their calling 
in the United Kingdom. 112,133 persons 
were injured in the same period. The per- 
centage of deaths from different causes in 
coalmining was (1) On the surf ace, 11.3; (2) 
Miscellaneous underground, 28.3; (3) In the 
shafts, 9.9; (4) By falls of ground, 44.1; (5) 
By explosions, 6.4. 


Number 
Employed 
According 
to Latest 
Returns. 


Killed. 


Injured. 


1898. 


1902. 


1898. 


1902. 


Factories 
Mines 


3,929,213 
855,603 
97,108 
230,161 
575,834 

1 * 1 

\ & \ 

} I 


575 
941 
134 
1,139 
522 
2 


837 
1,053 
119 
1,397 
468 
9 
1 
129 
42 
89 
17 
62 
290 

4,513 


49,290 
4,408 
1,434 
2,354 
12,826 
135 
217 
4,070 
2,507 
616 
153 
1,491 
132 


77,118 
3,999 
1,190 
2,228 
13,735 
224 
355 
4,906 
4,235 
2,412 
123 
1,451 
157 


Quarries 
Shipping (Merchant Vessels) 
Railway service 
Workshops 
Laundries . 


Docks, wharves, and quays 
Warehouses 
Buildings 
Railway service (contractors' servants). . . . 
Under notice of Accidents Act, 1894 
Shipping (Fishing vessels, etc.) 


89 
16 
45 
20 
56 
271 

3,810 


Total. . , 


79,633 


112,133 



"Daily Mail" Year Book. 



166 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




'980' VIW3H09 




'.?<?/ V VI SV 




NWW3Q 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



167 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



L/ 






MEXICO 



T)EXAS 

ANNJEXED 1845 




ACCESSIONS OF TERRITORY AND THE 
* with date shows center of 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



169 




CENTER OF POPULATION, 1790-1900. 
x>pulation at different periods. 



170 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



TERRITORIAL EXPANSION. 



There have been sixteen additions to 
the original territory of the Union, in- 
cluding Alaska, the Hawaiian, Philip- 
pine and Samoan Islands and Guam, 
in the Pacific, and Porto Rico, in the 
West Indies ; and the Panama strip ; 
and the total area of the United States, 
including the noncontiguous territory, 



is now fully five times that of the orig- 
inal thirteen colonies. 

The additions to the territory of the 
United States subsequent to the peace 
treaty with Great Britain of 1783, are 
shown by the following table, prepared 
by the General Land Office of the In- 
terior Department : 



ADDITIONS TO THE TERRITORY OF THE UNITED STATES 
FROM 1800 TO 1904. 



Territorial Division. 


Year. 


Area added. 


Purchase 
price. 


Louisiana purchase 
Florida 
Texas 


1803 
1819 
1845 
1846 


Square miles. 
875,025 
70,107 
389,795 
288,689 


Dollars. 
15,000,000 
*6,489,768 


Mexican cession 
Purchase from Texas 
Gadsden purchase 
Alaska 


1848 
1850 
1853 
1867 
1897 


523,802 
(t) 
36,211 
599,446 
6,740 


1-18,250,000 
10,000,000 
10,000,000 
7,200,000 




1898 


3,600 




Guam 


1898 


175 




Philippine Islands 


1899 
1899 


143,000 
73 


20,000,000 


Additional Philippines 
Panama Canal 
Panama Canal strip . . . 


1901 
1903 
1904 


68 


100,000 
40,000,000 
10,000,000 


Total 




2,936,731 


137,039,768 



* Includes interest payment. 

t Of which $3,250,000 was in payment of claims of American citizens against Mexico. 

j Area purchased from Texas amounting to 123,784 square miles is not included in the column 
of area added, because it became a part of the area of the United States with the admission of 
Texas. 



AREA AND POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES. 



The following table, published by 
the United States Census Office, shows 
the gross area and population of the 



United States at each of the decennial 
censuses from 1790 to 1900, exclusive 
of all noncontiguous territory. 



Year. 


Area. 


Population. 


Year. 


Area. 


Population. 


1790 . . 
1800 
1810 
1820 
1830 
1840 


Square miles. 
827,844 
827,844 
1,999,775 
2,059,043 
2,059,043 
2,059,043 


3,929,214 
5,308,483 
7,239,881 
9,633,822 
12,866,020 
17,069,453 


1850 
1860 
1870 . . 
1880 
1890 
1900 


Square miles. 
2,980,959 
3,025,600 
3,025,600 
3,025,600 
3,025,600 
3,025,600 


23,191,876 
31,443,321 
38,558,371 
50,155,783 
62,622,250 
75,994,575 



CHAPTER VII. 



EDUCATION, LIBRARIES, PRINTING AND PUBLISHING. 



THE VALUE OF AN EDUCATION. 



In the annual report of the United 
States Commissioner of Education 
appears a sheet of statistics showing 
to what extent higher education af- 
fects success in life. Particularly it 
shows the pre-eminence of the A.B. 
degree man among the successful, and 
the inconspicuousness of the self-edu- 
cated. 

The standard of success to which 
the educational statistics are applied 
is that which constitutes eligibility to 
the ranks of the 10,000 or so persons 
included in "Who's Who in America" 
that is, according to the editors, "the 
most notable in all departments of 
usefulness and reputable endeavor." 
These men have all reported the scope 
and method of their education. 

The United States Bureau of Edu- 
cation divides the 14,794,403 males 
over 30 years old in the United States 
according to the last census into four 
educational classes, as follows: 

Class I. Without education 1,757,023 

Class II. With only com- 
mon school training or 
trained outside of organ- 
ized schools 12,054,335 

Class III. With regular 
high school training add- 
ed 657,432 

Class IV. With college or 

higher education added. . 325,613 

Omitting those few who are under 
30 years old, says this report, the 
statements from 10,704 notables show 
that they include : Without educa- 
tion, none : self-taught, 24 ; home 
taught, 278; with common school 
training only, 1,066 ; with high school 



Professor Ramsay, of University 
College, London, in a letter to the 
"Times," points out the remarkable 
part which Technical Education plays 
in German trade. 

"A German company employs no 
fewer than 70 chemists ; it is one which 
manufactures no product of which it 
sells less than one hundred tons a year. 



training, 1,627; with college training, 
7,709, of whom 6,129 were graduates. 
That is: 

From 1800 to 1870 the uneducated 
boy in the United States failed en- 
tirely to become so notable in any de- 
partment of usefulness and reputable 
endeavor as to attract the attention of 
the "Who's Who" editors, and that 
only 24 self-taught men succeeded. 

A boy with only a common school 
education had, in round numbers, one 
chance in 9,000. 

A high school training increased this 
chance nearly twenty-two times. 

College education added gave the 
young man about ten times the chance 
of a high school boy and 200 times the 
chance of the boy whose training 
stopped with the common school. 

The A.B. graduate was pre-emi- 
nently successful, and the self-educa- 
ted man was inconspicuous. 

"From the nature of the case," con- 
cludes the compiler, "it cannot be 
claimed that these classifications are 
exact, but they are based upon the 
fullest statistics ever obtained, and the 
necessary estimates have been made by 
government experts. It is also doubt- 
less true that other circumstances con- 
tributed to the success of these trained 
men, but after all reasonable allow- 
ances are made the figures force the 
conclusion that the more school train- 
ing the American boy of that period 
had, the greater were his chances of 
distinction. 

"It is unnecessary to extend this 
inquiry to woman," he says, in conclu- 
sion. "Education is practically her 
only door to eminence." 



Of the seventy chemists required, 20 
are employed in analyzing the raw ma- 
terials and intermediate and finished 
products : 25 are engaged in superin- 
tending the processes of manufacture, 
and the remaining 25 are exclusively 
employed in scientific work to improve 
the present processes of manufacture." 
Daily Mail Year Book. 



171 



172 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



NUMBER OF PUPILS AND STUDENTS OF ALL GRADES IN BOTH PUBLIC AND PRIVATE 
SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES, 1901-2. 

NOTF. The classification of States made use of in the following table is the same as that adopted by the United States census, and is as fol- 
lows: North Atlantic Division: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, and Penn- 
sylvania. South Atlantic Division' Delaware, Maryland, District of Columbia, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, 
and Florida. South Central Division: Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Indian Territory. 
North Central Division: Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska,. and 
Kansas. Western Division: Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, Idaho, Washington, Oregon, and California. 


Students Receiving Higher Instruction. 


Total Higher. 


| 


t^ 

to 

CO 

s 



, < OifcO 1C C^J 

eo <* ^e^oj. 

OO5O5<N'-^ 

U5 I^HIO 


is 

PL,~ 


<M >O O5^O 

2^S?K 


?J222 


In Normal Schools. 7 


1 


i 


2SS?^S 

"lio't^o'w 

OC <M 


# 


us 


OOOOt^lOt^ 
5OiO t^OOt^ 
<M lO(N * 
i-T^C^O 


it 

P<~ 


1 

3 


(MCO^nt^O 

M-OCCCO t-i 

<M <N 05 

r^-* icooco 


1 

p 


1 




CO 


cc<xit^tnc* 


a 


co 


o 

1O 


ceooCiMg 
I-JcOo"oOi-< 


ii 


- co 

s 




OC^tOS(M 
r^ O><M<M 'H 
M CCCOOO^O5 
^^HCO" 


In Universities and 
Colleges. 3 


1 


1 

oT 


o os 10 c<i o 

c^eocoocc^ 

O iOiOC^O5 
CC i-^ i i ^t 1 


i-S 

? 


o 

CO 


oos eo-i<o 
S^SSS 


,_ ^< ^HCCOO 

ec ^H ^c^i 


!i 


t^ 

5 
s 


ooc<i ^T*< 
t^ ^H t^oeo 
-* t^t^oo> 


ifl -*COO5iO 


Pupils Receiving 
Secondary Instruc- 
tion (High-school 
Grades).^ 


*l:M 

llll 

P-ifll ^O! 


I 


^g^2S 

<M 10 10 r-- " 

gggsgs 


is 

PH 





SS5^ 

GOO5 O <* 00 

S^*|SS 


Pupils Receiving 
Elementary In- 
struction (Prima- 
ry and Grammar 
Grades). 


S,c 

*|lJ 

'C 3 3 

PUC a 


i 



gg^^ge 

OCOt^cOO 


||||3 


5) 

3 



15,375,276 


<M (35 CO CO CO 
IO C^ CO Tf i < 

CO CO i-lO5<M 


CM ^H COO51O 
iOO 1-HO51O 
1C C^i-^if^CO 

coc^Tcoio 


5 


1 11 

1 ii|sg 

X ^3| 

H ^0202!^^ 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



173 



*i. 



! ?i I zsszz 



A 

3 
PH . 



oocco 



l-HOOl-ll-C 



lOC^l -f IC 
COCOI>. -*i 



If 

.SO; 



S >> \ " 

_3gl | g 

^ . I fl 



Per Cent, 
Grade 
Whole 
of Pupi 



C O 

OH 



82 

< 
b^ 

03 O 

! 

c c 



S 



Tfl -^ t~- 

(M T CO 



CO OOCOO 
rfO t^cc 






* t^ lO !> CO 

^S?:ss 



F-^CMOOC^ 

O^iO_cOi-HCO 

ooeo'cooooo 



! 1 l|l|i 

! i 55^1 

' 'S 
p 

a 



N. Atlanti 
S. Atlanti 
S. Central 
N. Central 
Western D 



1 1 s ^ s 
ISll &1 



tS-s- 

e > .s 5 



174 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



POPULATION, ENROLLMENT, AVERAGE DAILY ATTENDANCE, 
NUMBER, AND SEX OF TEACHERS. 



Division. 


Estimated 
Total 
Popula- 
tion in 
1902. 


Pupils En- 
rolled in 
the Ele- 
mentary 
and Sec- 
ondary 
Common 
Schools. 


Per 
Cent, 
of the 
Popu- 
lation 
En- 
rolled 


Average 
Dailv 
Attend- 
ance. 


Number of Teachers. 


Male. 

122,392 


Female. 


Total. 


The United States 

North Atlantic Division . 
South Atlantic Division. . 
South Central Division. . 
North Central Division 


78,544 816 


15,925,887 


20.28 


10,999,2.73 


317,204 


439,596 


21,802,750 
10,696,435 
14,715,700 
26,912,400 


3,733,683 
2,279,290 
3,156,590 

5,866,396 


17.12 
21.31 
21.45 
21.80 
20.15 


2,741,360 
1,445,797 
2,097,819 
4,101,022 
613,275 


18,069 
19,567 
30,652 
48,152 
5,952 


90,003 
31,818 
34,848 
139,691 
20,844 


108,072 
51,385 
65,500 

187,843 
26,796 


Western Division 


4,417,531 


889,928 



AVERAGE NUMBER OF DAYS TAUGHT, SALARIES OF TEACHERS, 

VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY, AND STATE AND 

LOCAL TAXATION. 1901-2. 



Division. 


Aver- 
age 
Num- 
ber of 
Days 
the 
Schools 
were 
Kept. 


Average 
Monthly Sal- 
aries of 
Teachers. 


Value of 
Public 
School Prop- 
erty. 


Raised 
from State 
Taxes. 


Raised 
from Local 
Taxes. 


Raised 
from Other 
Sources, 
State and 
Local, etc. 


Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


The United States. . 

North Atlantic Div . 
S. Atlantic Div 
S. Central Division. . 
N. Central Division.. 
Western Division. . . 


145 


549 . 05 


$39 . 77 


$601,571,307 j$38,330,589 


$170,779.586 


$29,742,141 


177.3 
115.8 
100.6 
156.5 
143.9 


59.01 
30.50 
44.28 
50.85 
65.90 


40.17 
28.60 
36.88 
39.60 
53.73 


243,150,033 
25,109,903 
29,875,383 
250,303,396 
53,132,592 


12,831,775 
5,148,670 
6,398,383 
8,374,009 
5,577,752 


69,984,121 
7,842,256 
6,869,991 
74,215,693 
11,867,525 


10,847,513 
1,150,494 
1,147,567 
14,781,748 
1,814,819 



STATISTICS OF CITY SCHOOL SYSTEMS, 1901-2. 

ENROLLMENT, AVERAGE ATTENDANCE, LENGTH OF SCHOOL 

TERM, NUMBER OF TEACHERS, AND EXPENDITURES 

IN CITIES OF 8,000 INHABITANTS AND OVER. 



Division. 


Num- 
ber of 
City 
School 

Sys- 
tems. 


Enroll- 
ment in 
Public 
Day 
Schools. 


Average 
Daily 
Attend- 
ance. 


Aver- 
age 
Length 
of 
School 
Term. 


Num 
Teacht 
Super 

Male. 


oerof 
:rs and 
visors. 

Fe- 
male. 


Expendi- 
ture for 
Supervi- 
sion and 
Teaching. 

$66,561,505 


Expendi- 
ture for all 
Purposes 
(Payment 
of Loans 
and Bonds 
Excepted). 


United States . . . 

N. Atlantic Div. . 
S. Atlantic Div. . 
S. Central Div. . . 
N. Central Div. . 
Western Div. . . . 


580 


4,174,812 


3,159,441 


187.3 


9,461 


86,308 


$111,159,665 


242 
44 
51 
205 
38 


2,046,001 
292,143 
223,538 
1,371,398 
241,732 


1,537,500 
205,948 
167,816 
1,066,804 
181,373 


188.4 
181.7 
181.5 
187.6 
186.5 


4,343 

809 
628 
3,135 
546 


42,626 
5,492 
4,149 
28,909 
5,132 


35,543,105 
3,436,613 
2,483,299 
20,729,416 
4,369,072 


59,950,666 
5,398,312 
3,539,463 
35,112,492 
7,158,732 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



175 



STATISTICS OF SECONDARY EDUCATION, 1901-2. 

INSTRUCTORS AND STUDENTS IN PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS AND 
IN PRIVATE HIGH SCHOOLS AND ACADEMIES. 



Division. 


Num- 
ber. 


Public High Schools. 


Num- 
ber. 


Private Secondary Schools. 


Secondary 
Teachers. 


Secondary 
Students. 


Secondary 
Teachers. 


Secondary 
Students. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


United States . . . 

N. Atlantic Div. . 
S. Atlantic Div. . 
S. Central Div. . . 
N. Central Div. . . 
Western Div. . . . 


6,292 

1,476 
436 
702 
3,333 
345 


10,958 

2,960 
691 
1,037 
5,535 
735 


11,457 


226,914 


323,697 | 1,835 


4.073 


5,830 


51,536 

20,900 
9,098 
9,805 
8,680 
3,053 


53,154 

18.893 
9,610 
9,541 
11,248 

3,862 


4,333 
568 
755 
5,084 
717 


75,888 
11,024 
16.450 
109,736 
13,816 


105,143 
16,937 
24,004 
156,714 

20,S<M) 


650 
350 
364 
343 

128 


1,885 
629 
589 
704 
266 


2,529 
852 
735 
1,295 
419 



STATISTICS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, 1901-2. 

INSTRUCTORS AND STUDENTS IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE NORMAL 
SCHOOLS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



Division. 


Num- 
ber. 


Public Normal Schools. 


Num- 
ber. 


Private Normal Schools. 


Teachers of 
Normal 
Students. 


Students in 
Normal 
Course. 


Teachers of 
Normal 
Students. 


Students in 
Normal 
Course. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 

7,484 


Fe- 
male. 

8,181 


United States 

N. Atlantic Div.. .. 
S. Atlantic Div. . . . 
S. Central Division 
N. Central Division 
Western Division . . 


173 


1,024 


1,463 


12,209 


37,194 


109 


445 


345 


62 
25 
24 
40 
22 


325 

124 
132 
315 

128 


661 
197 
110 
366 
129 


3,255 
1,013 

1,868 
5,341 
732 


13,987 
3,070 
3,393 
13,566 
3,178 


7 
28 
27 
46 
1 


60 
53 
83 
245 
4 


88 
79 
64 
107 

7 


307 
603 
1,129 
5,431 
14 


961 
955 
1,148 
5,054 
63 



INSTRUCTORS AND STUDENTS IN COEDUCATIONAL COLLEGES 

AND UNIVERSITIES AND IN COLLEGES 

FOR MEN ONLY, 1901-2. 















Professors 






Num- 


and 
Instructors. 


Preparatory. 


Collegiate. 


Resident 
Graduate. 




Division. 


ber of 
Insti- 










Total 










































tions. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 




United States. 
N. Atlan. Div. 


464 


9,329 


1,907 


32,094 


14,508 


62,430 


21,051 


3,895 


1,456 


$25,112,169 


85 


3,000 


164 


6,408 


960 


22,903 


2,629 


1,696 


444 


9,382,226 


S. Atlan. Div. 


73 


1,050 


169 


3,465 


1,532 


6,629 


1,081 


452 


36 


2,115,295 


S. Central Div 
N. Central Div 
Western Div . . 


77 
190 
39 


878 
3,583 
818 


305 
1,085 
184 


5,761 
13,871 
2,589 


3,026 
7,188 
1,802 


6,467 
21,993 
4,438 


2,472 
12,043 

2,826 


155 
1,376 
216 


69 
700 
207 


2,172,238 
8,944,906 
2,497,504 



176 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



INSTRUCTORS AND STUDENTS IN SCHOOLS OF TECHNOLOGY AND 

INSTITUTIONS CONFERRING ONLY THE 

B. S. DEGREE. 1901-2. 







Professors 


Students. 




Num- 
ber 


and 
Instructors. 


Preparatory. 


Collegiate 


Resident 
Graduate. 


Division. 


of In- 






i i 








stitu- 
















tions. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


United States. 
N. Atlan. Div. 


43 


1,292 


132 


3,058 


673 


11,667 


1,148 


141 


54 


10 


385 


13 


267 


8 


3,022 


91 


22 


5 


S. Atlan. Div. . 


8 


250 





291 





2,255 


1 


30 





S. Cent. Div . . 


5 


112 


4 


804 


129 


1,258 


57 


25 


4 


N. Cent. Div. . 


11 


362 


74 


1023 


230 


4,115 


683 


51 


37 


Western Div. . 


9 


183 


41 


673 


306 


1,017 


316 


13 


8 



Total 
Income. 



$4,796,613 



1,645,180 
796,580 
425,642 

1,275,480 
653,731 



INSTRUCTORS AND STUDENTS IN COLLEGES AND SEMINARIES 
FOR WOMEN WHICH CONFER DEGREES, 1901-2. 



Division. 


Number 
of Insti- 
tutions. 


Professor^ and 
Instructors. 


Female Students. 


Total 
Income. 


Male. 


Female. 


Prepar- 
atory. 


Collegi- 
ate. 


Gradu- 
ate. 


United States 

North Atlantic Div. . . . 
South Atlantic Div. . . . 
South Central Div. .... 
North Central Div 
Western Division 


131 


670 


1,767 


7,610 


16.534 


326 


$3,954,462 


19 
45 
46 
19 

2 


295 
203 
107 
57 
8 


459 
517 
472 
269 
50 


1,281 
2,006 
2,675 
1,423 
225 


5,376 
5,236 
4,377 
1,493 
52 


157 

77 
65 
26 
1 


1,888,799' 
906,852 
646,048 
467,763 
47,000 



SUMMARY OF STATISTICS OF PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS 
FOR 1901-2. 





Theological. 


Law. 


Medical. 


Division. 


Schools. 


In- 
struct- 


Stu- 
dents. 


Schools. 


In- 
struct- 


Stu- 
dents. 


Schools. 


In- 
struct- 


Stu- 
dents. 






















United States. 


148 


1 034 


*7 343 


102 


1 155 


f!3 912 


154 


5 029 


26 821 


N. Atlantic Division. . . 




















52 


448 


2,915 


18 


275 


4,598 


26 


1,136 


6,514 


S Atlantic Division. . . . 


19 


128 


903 


21 


159 


2,138 


23 


574 


3,609 


S. Central Division .... 


14 


75 


534 


17 


126 


796 


26 


544 


4,905 


N. Central Division . . . . 58 
Western Division 5 


357 
26 


2,910 
81 


39 

7 


537 

58 


5,851 
529 


67 
12 


2,412 
363 


10,693 
1,100 



* 108 of these were women. 



1 165 of these were women. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



177 



GENERAL SUMMARY OF STATISTICS OF PROFESSIONAL AND 
ALLIED SCHOOLS FOR 1901-2. 



Class. 


Schools. 


Instruct- 
ors. 


Students. 


Graduates. 


Theological 


148 


1,034 


7,343 


1,656 


Law 
Medical . . 


102 
154 


1,155 
5,029 


13,912 
26,821 


3,524 
5,069 


Dental 
Pharmaceutical. , 
Veterinary 


56 
59 
H 


1,197 
590 
174 


8,420 
4,427 
576 


2,288 
1,379 
141 


Nurse training 


545 




13,252 


4,015 


Total 

Medical schools included above: 
Regular 
Homeopathic 
Eclectic and physio-medical 


1,075 

123 
20 
11 


9,179 

4,084 
649 
296 


74,751 

24,447 
1,551 
823 


18,072 

4,576 
342 
151 


Total 


154 


5,029 


26,821 


5,069 



ENROLLMENT IN SPECIAL SCHOOLS IN 1901-2. 

City evening schools (estimated) 207,162 

Business schools 137,247 

Schools for defectives 28,827 

Reform schools 35,247 

Government Indian schools 24,120 

Indian schools (five civilized tribes) 13,864 

Schools in Alaska supported by the Government 1,741 

Schools in Alaska supported by incorporated municipalities (partly estimated) 1,700 

Orphan asylums and other benevolent institutions 15,000 

Private kindergartens 105,932 

Miscellaneous (including schools of music, oratory, elocution, cookery, and various 

special arts 50,000 

Total . 620,840 



SUMMARY OF STATISTICS OF PUBLIC, SOCIETY, AND SCHOOL 
LIBRARIES OF 1,000 VOLUMES AND OVER IN 1900. 

VOLUMES AND PAMPHLETS ADDED AND BOOKS ISSUED. 



Division. 


Periodicals. 


Volumes Added 
During the 
Year. 


Pamphlets 
Added During 
the Year. 


Books Issued for 
Home Use. 


Books Issued 
for Use in 
Library. 


i 




B . 




i 




i 




& . 






Libraries 
porting 


Num- 
ber. 


Libraries 
porting 


Num- 
ber. 


2 o 

a 


Num- 
ber. 


Libraries 
porting 


Num- 
ber. 

48,410,128 


Libraries 
porting 


Num- 
ber. 


United States . . 

N. Atlantic Div. 
S.Atlantic Div. . 
S. Central Div.. 
N. Central Div. . 
Western Div. . . 


3,036 


209,412 


3,684 


2,156,992 


1,455 


549,326 


2,405 


783 


9,609,632 


1,352 
245 
191 
1,010 
238 


118,731 
19,639 
6,034 
51,258 
13,750 


1,787 
265 
202 
1,161 
269 


1,128,085 
175,323 
73,320 
630,959 
194,305 


580 
122 
118 
508 
127 


269,322 
67,117 
29,914 
139,820 
43,153 


1,347 
117 
75 
711 
155 


27,105,291 
1,726,203 
420.470 
15,358,076 
3,800,088 


386 
48 
44 
243 
62 


3,979,467 
802,769 
165,555 
3,754,728 
907,113 



178 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF STATISTICS OF PUBLIC, SOCIETY, AND SCHOOL 
LIBRARIES OF 1,000 VOLUMES AND OVER IN 1900. 

SOURCES OF SUPPORT. CLASSIFICATION. 





Own or Rent 
Buildings. 


Supported by 
Taxation or by 
Corporation. 


Free or Subscrip- 
tion. 


Circulating or 
Reference. 


Division. 






$ 




o 






s> 




bi 

c 


0) 













x . 


a 

~ 


o 




.0 | 


a 










c 


c 


^ C? 


H o 


O o 


PS 


$ 


o> 2 


S c 


3 


0! 


A 







0) 


fe 


pq 


>'** 

PQ 


PQ 





1" 


3*" 
02 





P4 


& 


United States 


1,040 


592 


3,751 


2,375 


2,870 


138 


2,734 


1,735 


914 


447 


1,148 


3,788 


N. Atlan. Div. 


612 


286 


1,575 


1,029 


1,329 


115 


1,417 


701 


355 


251 


459 


1,763 


S. Atlan. Div. 


54 


23 j 344 


113 


302 


6 


88 


233 


100 


21 


128 


272 


S. Cent. Div. . 


44 


19 


311 


94 


269 


11 


85 


191 


98 


14 


124 


236 


N. Cent. Div. 


293 


203 


1,232 


931 


793 


4 


946 


486 


296 


141 


341 


1,246 


Western Div. 


37 


61 


289 


208 


177 


2 


198 


124 


65 


20 


96 


271 



SUMMARY OF STATISTICS OF PUBLIC, SOCIETY, AND SCHOOL 
LIBRARIES OF 1,000 VOLUMES AND OVER IN 1900. 

GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF LIBRARIES. 

























^ 2 




|, 








































o| 













Division. 








| 




"3 




fl 




1 


o> 




g 



' 




_. 




m 




^ 










a 




3 







S <j 


o 


* 


rX 


-- 


u 


a 


^s 






"3 


M 






_0 




H 




c 

9 


M fl 


3 


S.O 


(-1 




o 


S 







c 


J 


J2n 




fe 


S 


, 


> 


jjj 




.| 


m 


Q t4-i 


rt 


c 




H 


^ 




O 




O 

O 





3 


H 





o 
O 


SL 


5 





g 


C 





1 





O 





United States 


1,979 


1,725 


689 


53 


162 


120 


63 


35 


43 


65 


82 


19 


15 


160 


83 


63 


11 


11) 


N. Atlan. Div. 


1,172 


696 


117 


23 


74 


57 


31 


2 


6 


34 


53 


3 


2 


107 


41 


39 


5 


11 


S. Atlan. Div. 


67 


120 


112 


10 


17 


13 


8 


28 


5 


3 


8 


4 


2 


10 


8 


5 


1 




S. Cent. Div. . 


50 


137 


133 





8 


6 


3 


1 


8 


3 


4 


4 




5 


1 




1 




N. Cent. Div.. 


576 


634 


276 


12 


37 


38 


17 


3 


18 


22 


13 


4 


5 


?!8 


25 


15 


?, 


3 


West. Div. . . . 


114 


138 


51 




26 


6 


4 


1 


6 


3 


4 


4 


4 


10 


8 


4 


2 


2 



SUMMARY OF STATISTICS OF PUBLIC, SOCIETY, AND SCHOOL 
LIBRARIES OF 1,000 VOLUMES AND OVER IN 1900. 

CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO SIZE. 



Number of Volumes to a Library. 



Division. 


500,000 
and 
over. 


300,000 
to 
499,999. 


100,000 
to 
299,999. 


50,000 
to 
99,999. 


25,000 
to 
49,999. 


10,000 
to 
24,999. 


5,000 
to 
9,999. 


1,000 
to 
4,999. 


United States. . 


4 


3 


47 


90 


193 


526 


866 


3,654 


N. Atlantic Div. 
S. Atlantic Div . 
S. Central Div. 


3 
1 


2 


24 
5 
1 


53 
11 
3 


100 
23 
11 


242 
60 
26 


429 
73 
46 


1,620 

248 
287 


N. Central Div. 




1 


13 


18 


46 


162 


262 


1 226 


Western Div.... 






4 


5 


13 


36 


56 


273 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



179 




180 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF STATISTICS OF PUBLIC, SOCIETY, AND SCHOOL 
LIBRARIES OF 1,000 VOLUMES AND OVER IN 1900. 

DISTRIBUTION OF LIBRARIES AND VOLUMES. 



Division. 


Libraries. 


Volumes. 


Population, 
Census of 
1900. 


Number of 
People per 
Library. 


Books per 
100 of Pop- 
ulation. 


United States 


5,383 


44,591,851 


75,997,687 


14,118 


59 














North Atlantic Div. . . . 
South Atlantic Div. . . . 
South Central Div 
North Central Div. . . . 
Western Division. . . * . 


2,473 
421 
374 
1,728 
387 


23,410,577 
5,303,237 
1,886,731 
11,211,710 
2,779,596 


21,045,748 
10,445,486 
14,079,861 
26,335,243 
4,091,349 


8,510 
24,811 
37,647 
15,240 
10,572 - 


111 
51 
13 
43 
68 



From Reports of the Bureau of Education. 



70.000.000. 



60.000.000. 



I1.53S.979 Volumes 
*Med 1895 to 1900. 



7.074.229 Volume* 
odded 1890 to 1895. 




6.576.444 Volumes 
added '1885 to 1890 



6.689.706 Volumes 
added 1880 to 1885. 



THE RELATION OF LIBRARIES TO 
POPULATION. 



( /. ??.?, 715 Volumes added 1875 to I860. ( 



11,487.778 Volumes in 187S. 



IN 5,383 LIBRARIES THERE WERE IN 
1900, 44,591,851 VOLUMES. 



PRINTING AND PUBLISHING. 



There were 18,226 publications re- 
porter! to the census authorities, while 
3,046 publications failed to report. 
This would give a remarkable total of 
21,272 periodicals, and the aggregate 
circulation of those reporting was 114,- 
229,334 per issue, while the aggregate 
number of copies issued during the 
census year was 8,168,148,749. 



The average capital of those en- 
gaged in the printing business is $12,- 
574 ; the average value of their prod- 
ucts is $14,569. These figures compared 
with those of a previous decade show 
that in a period of ten years an in- 
creased capital is required to produce 
the same or even a smaller value of 
products ; this is largely caused by an 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



181 




L l - 



182 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



increase in wages and a decrease in 
working hours. In 1850 a compositor 
in New York received $9 per week ; 
ordinary job compositors now receive 
$19.50 per week, and operators on ma- 
chines from $24 to $27, depending on 
the time of day or night they take 
their shift. In the opinion of many 
large operators, the number of wage 
earners has actually increased rather 
than diminished. The introduction of 
machine composition has been of decid- 
ed benefit to the employee, offering a 
new field for endeavor. There are few 
unemployed men in the printing trade, 
as is shown by the fact that when in 
1900 the Typographical Union was 



Character of publication : 
News, politics, and family read- 
ing 14,867 

Religion 952 

Agriculture, horticulture, dairy- 
ing, and stock-raising 307 

Commerce, finance, insurance, 

railroads, and trade . 710 

General literature, including 

magazines 239 

Medicine arid surgery Ill 

Law 62 

Science and mechanics G6 

Fraternal organizations 200 

Education and history 259 

Society, art, music and fashion 88 

Miscellaneous 365 




DIAGRAM SHOWING CLASSIFICATION 
OF PAPERS. 



PROPORTION WHICH ADVERTISING, SUB- 
SCRIPTION AND SALES, AND BOOK 
AND JOB PRINTING FORM OF THE 
TOTAL VALUE OF ALL PRODUCTS. 



called upon to supply 150 men for a 
special job of city printing, only 100 
could be obtained, and these with diffi- 
culty. 

A classified list of periodicals is giv- 
en below, showing how the list is di- 
vided : 

Period of issue : 

Daily 2,226 

Tri-weekly 62 

Semi-weekly 637 

Weekly 12,979 

Monthly 1,817 

Quarterly 237 

All other classes 268 

Total . . 18,226 



Out of the 18,226 publications, 
2,226 are dailies, with a circulation of 
15,102,156; 62 are tri-weekly, with a 
circulation of 228,610; 637 are semi- 
weekly, with a circulation of 2,832,- 
868 ; 12,979 papers are issued weekly, 
with a circulation of 39,852,052. 
There are 1,817 monthly publications, 
whose circulation is 39,519,897. The 
quarterly publications are mostly de- 
voted to special subjects, and only 
number 237, but their circulation is 
very respectable, as they issue 11,217- 
422 per number. Semi-monthly, semi- 
annual and yearly publications num- 
ber 268, and have a circulation of 5,- 
541,329. Out of 18,226 publications, 
17,194 were printed in English. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



183 





184 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



In 1900, cities of 201,000 inhabi- 
tants and over contained 79 per cent 
of the separate job-printing establish- 
ments of the country, and 97.7 per 
cent of the total job product ema- 
nated from them. 



Ayer's Newspaper Directory for 
1904 gives later figures, viz. : Daily, 
2,457 ; tri-weekly, 56 ; semi-weekly, 
G34; weekly, 16,935; fortnightly, 65; 
semi-monthly, 285 ; monthly. 2,698 ; bi- 
monthly, 53; quarterly, 192; miscel- 
laneous, 10. Total, 23,385. 



QUANTITY AND COST OF PAPER USED. 

Kinds. Pounds Cost. 



News 

Book and periodical 

Job printing 

Total - 

Our figures show the quantity and 
cost of paper used and the average cost 
per pound in 1900. 

In this table is presented a division 
of the paper used in 1900, according 
to the several classes of products 
which, combined, produced the total 



News 

Book and periodical 
Job printing 



950,335,921 

202,196,263 

74,510,064 

1,233,142,248 



$22,197,0,,0 
9,356,490 
6,270,306 

$37,823,856 



Average 
cost pei- 
pound. 
cents. 

2.3 

4.5 

8.4 

3.1 



value of products of newspaper and 
periodical establishments. About one 
and a quarter billions of pounds was 
used during the year in which the cen- 
sus was undertaken. This large quan- 
tity was utilized in the following pro- 
portions : 

Per cent. 
77. G 

16.4 

6.0 



LIBRARIES OF THE WORLD. 
The following is a list of the principal Libraries of the world: 



Library. 

Bibliotheque nationale 

British Museum 

Imper. publicnaja biblioteka 

Konigliche bibliothek 

Library of Congress 

Kon. Hof- u. Staatsbibliothek 

K. u. k. Hofbibliothek 

Universitats- u. landesbibliothek 

Public Library 

Publicnyj i Rumjancovskij musej 

Public Library Astor, Lenox, and Tilden Foundation. 

Biblioteca nacional 

Bodleian Library 

K. k. Universitats-bibliothek 

Harvard University Library 

Cambridge University Library 

Det store kongelige bibliothek 

Universitats-bibliothek 

Universiteit bibliotheek 

Kon. bibliotheek 



City. 

Paris 

London 

St. Petersburg. . . . 

Berlin 

Washington 

Munich 

Vienna 

Strasburg 

Boston 

Moscow 

New York City. . . . 

Madrid 

Oxford 

Vienna 

Cambridge (U. S.). 
Cambridge (Eng.). 

Copenhagen 

Gottingen 

Amsterdam 

The Hague 



No. of Vols. 

. 2,602,000 
2,003,000 

. 1,329,000 

. 1,200,000 

. 1,000,000 

1,000,000 

900,000 

814,000 

812,260 

. 800,000 
787,700 

. 600,000 
600,000 

. 596,526 

. 575,889 
550,000 
550,000 

. 506,814 
500,000 
500,000 



THE RAPID EXTENSION IN THE GATHERING OF NEWS. 



In 1886 the New York World re- 
ported the battle of Majuba Hill in six 
lines, but so rapid was the extension 
of news gathering that, fourteen years 
later, events in the same quarter of 
the globe were reported to the great 
American dailies by cable as fully as 
though close at hand. The destruction 
of St. Pierre, Martinique, in 1902, by 



an eruption of Mont Pelee, may be 
mentioned as an illustration of this 
tendency. 

The cablegrams which detailed that 
great disaster reached American news- 
papers by way of Brazil, the Azores 
and Great Britain, costing the recipi- 
ents from $2 to $4 per word, with fees 
for precedence. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



TELEGRAPHS, TELEPHONES, SUBMARINE CABLES, 
WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY, AND SIGNALING. 



LAND LINES OP THE WORLD. 



graphs throughout the world, corrected up to uecemoer <u, iyu^: 


Countries. 


Length ( 
Aerial. 


>f Lines in Miles. 


Length of Conductors in 
Miles. 


Pneu- 
matic 
Tubes 
(Yds.). 


Under- 
ground. 


Total. 


Aerial. 


Under- 
ground. 


Total. 


African Transcont'ntal Tel. Co. . 


,595 


1,595 


1,595 . 1,595 




Austria 


2 ,523 104 


21,627 69,404 1,579 70,983 


"83,406 


Bahamas 


6 


6 




Belgium 


4,041 9 


4,050 


21,318 253 21,571 


3,352 


Bolivia 


,795 




1,795 








Bosnia-Herzegoviuu 


,762 




1,762 


3,807' 3,807 




Brazil. 


14,677 





14,677 


27,670 27,670 




British East Africa 


120 




120 


126 : 126 




British Guiana 


312 




312 


1,234 . ... 1,234 




British India (India Office). . . 


55,055 




55,055 


181,883 . ... 181,883 




British North Borneo 


599 




599 






British South Africa 


4,765 




4,765 


4,765 . 4,765 




Bulgaria 


3,263 


1 


3,264 


6,835 6,835 




Canada Gt. N.-West. Tel. Co. . 


18,286 




18,286 


34,794 


34,794 




Canadian Pacific Telegraphs . 


9,900 


'Y 


9,902 


44,685 


57 44,742 




Western Union Tel. Co 


2,756 


28 


2,784 


13.025 44 ! 13,069 




Government Tel. Service .... 


5,48* 




5,481 


5,481 i 5,481 




Cape Colony 


8,018 


" 1 1 ' 8,029 


28,763 


2,190 30,953 




Ceylon 


1,519 


1,519 


2./21 


2,721 




Chile 


7,473 


7,473 


13,344 13,344 




China 


14,000 


14,000 






Corea 


1,200 


1,200 


1,350 1,350 




Costa Ilica. 


835 


835 






Denmark 


3,811 


7 3,818 


12,538 


472 13,010 




Dutch Indies 


5,459 


15 5,474 


8,070 


41 8,111 i 


Ecuador. 


2,070 


2,070 




. 




Egypt 


2,538 


2,538 


16,755' 


' 10,Y55 




France, Continent and Corsica. . 


' 55,157 


3,997 


59,154 


196,657 


13,858 


210,515 


' 288,828 


Algeria 


4,445 16 


4,461 


10,417 


166 


10,583 




French Guiana (Cayenne 1 ) 


171 




171 


171 




171 




French Indo-China (Cochin- 














China, Cambodia, Annam, 














Tonkin, and Laos) 


7,587 39 


7,626 


13,422 


68 


13,490 




Germany. 


77,828 


3,953 


81,781 


276,684 


27,116 


303,800 


' 180,204 


Great Britain and Ireland 


43,023 


1,768 


44,791 


305,366 


104,012 


409,378 


114,400 


Greece 


5,717 


1 


5,718 


8,590 


1 


8,591 




Holland 


3,779 


229 


4,008 


15,397 


761 


16,158 


' '1,004 


Hungary 


23,036 


33 


23,069 


117,154 


2,498 


119,652 




Indo-European Persian Gulf 








I 






System (Mekran Coast) 


698 


698 


1,392 




1,392 




Indo-European Teheran, Bu- 












shire Line 


693 . 


693 


2,079 


2,079 




Italy 


24,370 . 


24,370 


94,225 i 


94,225 




1 Japan. . . 


16,374 7 16,381 


78,264 680 


78,944 



1 Exclusive of 20.148 nautical miles of river cables and 39.031 miles of conductors. 

185 



186 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



LAND LINES OF THE WORLD Continued. 



Countries. 


Length of Lines in Miles. 


Length of Conductors in 

Miles. 


Pneu- 
matic 
Tubes 

(Yds.). 


Aerial. 


Under- 
ground. 


Total. 


Aerial. 


Under- 
ground. 


Total. 


Luxemburg 
Malay States (Federated). .... 
Mauritius 
1 Mexico 
Natal 
Netherlands East India 
New South Wales 
New Zealand 
Nicaragua 
North American Tel. Co 


259 
969 
141 
20,258 
1,722 
12,441 
14,430 
7,749 
1,694 
1,074 
5,479 


"95" 


259 
969 
141 
20,258 
1,722 
12,441 
14,525 
7,749 
1,694 
1,074 
5,479 
2,716 
5,298 
10,269 
3,448 
76,676 
1,512 
1,689 
5,783 
2,233 
24,847 
3,052 
5,704 
3,965 
1,778 
1,403 
24,831 
246 
590 

27,497 

184,888 
4,002 
2,588 
6,066 


508 
460 
316 
31,454 

4,678 




508 
1,429 
316 
31,454 
4,678 






53,671 
22,672 
2,326 
2,306 
11,402 
2,820 
11,669 
20,806 
7,388 
177,148 
2,038 
3,863 
18,467 
4,496 
48,749 
3,451 
17,609 
12,912 
2,803 
2,537 
39,519 
246 
1,762 

192,566 
1,050,186 
9,894 
3,795 
9,118 


4,946 


58,617 
22,672 
2,326 
2,306 
11,402 
2,820 
11,669 
20,806 
7,429 
177,575 
2,049 
3,863 
18,467 
4,496 
49,072 
3,451 
17,669 
14,657 
2,809 
2,542 
39,519 
246 
1,762 

200,395 
1,065,397 
9,932 
3,795 
9,118 








44 


2 Peru 
Portugal 


2,716 
5,298 
10,269 




' ' '4l' 
427 
11 






Roumania 
Russia 
Senegal 
Servia 
South Australia 
Southern Rhodesia 
Spain 
Sudan Provinces 
Sweden 
Switzerland 
Tasmania 


3,439 
76,484 
1,501 
1,689 
5,783 
2,233 
24,481 
3,052 
5,699 
3,907 
1,778 
1,398 
24,831 
246 
950 

27,344 
184,636 
4,001 

2,588 
6,066 


9 
192 
11 

366 ' 

' 's' 

58 

5 




'323' 

' ' 'GO 

1,745 
6 
5 


Tunis 
Turkey 


4,900 
'3,697 


State Rly. Telegraphs . 
United States of America: 
Commercial Cable Co 
3 Western Union Company. . . . 
Victoria Postal Department . . 
Rly. Department. . . . 
Western Australia. . . 


153 
252 
1 


7,829 
15,211 
38 


Total 






922,342 


11,367 


933,709 


3,387,716 


184,438 


3,572,154 


679,835 



1 Inclusive of 535 miles of lines and 569 miles of conductors belonging to the Peruvian 
Corporation. 

2 Exclusive of 811 miles of miscellaneous subaqueous cables and 2,320 miles of conductors. 

3 Exclusive of 404.6 nautical miles of cable in Gulf of Mexico. 

Electrical Trades Directory. 



MILEAGE OF LINES AND WIRES, NUMBER OF OFFICES, AND 
TRAFFIC OF THE WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY. 



Year 
Ending 
June 
30 

1868. . . 
1878... 
1888... 
1898 . . . 
1903. . . 


Miles of 
Line. 

50,183 
81,002 
171,375 
189,847 
196,517 


Miles of 
Wire. 


Num- 
ber of 
Offices. 


Number of 
Messages 
Sent. 


Receipts. 


Expenses. 


Profits. 


Average per 
Message. 


Toll. 


Cost. 


97,594 
206,202 
616,248 
874,420 
1,089,212 


3,219 
8,014 
17,241 
22,210 
23,120 


6,404,595 
23,918,894 
51,463,955 
62,173,749 
*69,790,866 


Dollars. 
7,004,560 
9,861,355 
19,711,164 
23,915,733 
29,167,687 


Dollars. 
4,362,849 
6,309,813 
14,640,592 
17,825,582 
20,953,215 


Dollars. 
2,641,711 
3,551,543 
5,070,572 
6,090,151 
8,214,472 


Cents. 
104.7 
38.9 
31.2 
30.1 
31.4 


Cents. 
63.4 
25.0 
23.2 
24.7 
25.6 



* Not including messages (probably 10,000,000) sent over leased wires or under railroad 
contracts. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



187 



The greatly increased mileage since 
1880 is principally due to the fact that 
in 1881 the Western Union Telegraph 
Company absorbed by purchase all the 
lines of the American Union and the 
Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Corn- 



cable companies, operating eight At- 
lantic cables, and guarantees 5 per cent 
annual dividends on the stock of the 
American Telegraph and Cable Com- 
pany ; amount $14,000,000. 

Besides the above, there are new 



THE MORSE TELEGRAPH CODE. 
(Used in the United States.) 



A -- 8 ---- C -- - D --- E- F --- G --- H ---- / -- J ---- K 
L - H -- N -- O- - f>- ---- ---- K-.-- S --- r - u --- V 
W- -- X --- - Y -- -- Z -- - & - - - 



PERIOD ------ COMMA ----- COLON (K.O.) 



- - SEMICOLON 



PARENTHESIS 
QUOTATION 



OR A T BEGINNING (P. N.) ----- 
OK A T BEGINNING (t). N) 



-- OR AT END (P.Y.) 
- - OR AT END 



VHOFRLIHE- - _ 
HYPHEN(H.X.) 



T.OH (.X.) ---- ---- DASH (o. X.) --- ---- 

_ OR AT~S/MM/tfO. (u.X.)- - OR AT END (tl.J-) 

-- - - DOLLAR SIGN(S.X.) --- ---- DECIMAL POINT 



THE INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPH CODE. 
(The Cable Code.) 

tSldc/ated / London -f9C3 

- ---- / ---- ff --- X ---- /-- j 

n n - o- 
a ----- r - -- s -- / - 



Jhcrt Code 



sed only in repetitions 

---- -t ----- s 



t ^ri^ten entirely inf.pu 



panics, the former having previously 
in operation over 12,000 miles of line 
and the latter 8,700 miles. Capital 
stock of the Western. Union, $100,000,- 
000. 

The Western Union has exclusive 
contracts with several international 



lines of telegraph which have complied 
with the United States telegraph act 
of 1800, and are operating wires with 
or without connection with railway 
companies in many parts of the coun- 
try. Statistical Abstract of the United 
States. 



183 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



MILEAGE OF LINES AND WIRES, NUMBER OF OFFICES, AND 
MESSAGES SENT, OF THE POSTAL TELEGRAPH 
CABLE COMPANY. 





Miles of 












Poles and 


Miles of 








Year. 


Cable 
Operated 


Poles and 
Cable 


Miles of 
Wires. 


Offices. 


Messages. 




but not 


Owned. 










Owned. 










1885 . . 




2,811 


23,587 


260 


1,428,690 


1897 


16,011 


21,098 


178,438 


9,875 


13,628,064 


1903 


21,319 


27,482 


276,245 


19,977 


21,600,577 



The aggregate mileage of telegraph 
lines which carry varying numbers of 
wires, according to the business re- 
quirements of the localities through 
which they run, in the United States 



open for public business exceeds 210,- 
000 miles, besides railways, Govern- 
ment, private and telephonic lines ; 
the length of the latter not being ascer- 
tainable. 



STATISTICS OF THE AMERICAN TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH 

COMPANY AND OPERATING COMPANIES ASSOCIATED 

WITH IT ON JANUARY 1, FROM 1897 TO 1903. 



Data. 



Exchanges 

Branch offices 

Miles of wire: 

On poles 

On buildings 

Underground 

Submarine 

Total miles of exchange service wire 

Total circuits 

Total employees 

Total subscribers 

Length of wire operated miles. . 

Instruments in hands of licensees under rental at 

beginning of year No. . . 

Daily exchange connections " 

Average daily calls per subscriber " 

Received in rentals of telephones dollars . . 

Dividends paid stockholders 

Capital 

Gross earnings. . .' 

Net earnings ._ . .^_. 

1 Information not collected separately. 



1897. 


1900. 


1903. 


967 


1,239 


1,514 


832 


1,187 


1,861 


286,632 


509,036 


1 1,109,017 


12,594 


15,087 




234,801 


489,250 


1,328,685 


2,818 


3,404 


6,048 


536,845 


1,016,777 


2,443,750 


204,645 


422,620 


742,654 


14,425 


25,741 


50,350 


325,244 


632,946 


1,277,983 


805,711 


1,518,609 


3,281,662 


772,627 


1,580,101 


3,150,320 


2,630,071 


5,173,803 


9,322,951 


8.3 


8.2 


7.3 


1,597,959 


2,427,038 




3,682,949 


4,078,601 






89,100,500 




' 5 \i 30,845" ' 


9,534,499 




4,169,675 


5,486,058 





TELEGRAPHIC TIME SIGNALS SENT OUT AT NOON DAILY, 

EXCEPT SUNDAYS AND HOLIDAYS, BY THE U. S. 

NAVAL OBSERVATORY. 



The time service of the U. S. Naval 
Observatory has continued regularly to 
send out daily telegraphic time signals 
at noon, seventy-fifth meridian time, 
with an average error for the year of 
only Os 15. The widespread impor- 



tance of this service is shown by the 
fact that it furnishes absolute standard 
time not only for navigators at all the 
principal seaports, but for the entire 
country except the Pacific Coast, which 
gets a similar signal from the Naval 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



189 



Observatory at the Mare Island Yard. 


















Moreover, all of this invaluable ser- 
vice is rendered to the country at no 
expense whatever to the Government, 
inasmuch as it is merely incidental to 
the work and facilities required for 
the rating of chronometers for naval 
vessels. 
To illustrate the wide distribution 
of this time signal, it is of interest to 




, 1 

1* 1 

If ,1 

III 


? 

| 

I 

1 


1 
J 

1 
1 


1 

^ 

i 

i 

K 


11 
i 


{ 




record the fact that it goes out daily 
over the wires of the Western Union 
Telegraph Company, the Postal Tele- 
graph Company, the American Tele- 




SS 


. 


- 


. 




6 

11 


g 


phone and Telegraph Company, the 
electrical department of the District of 
Columbia, and the National Electric 
Supply Company. There are now 18 
Government time-balls and some 40,- 
000 public and private clocks corrected 
daily by naval time signals. 
The entire series of noon signals 
sent out daily over the wires is shown 




jl : 

If ; 

l\ : 

S q 












n 
If 


S. NAVAL OBSER^ 


gram. This represents the signals as 
they would be recorded on a chrono- 
graph, where a pen draws a line upon 
a sheet of paper moving along at a 
uniform rate beneath it, and is actuat- 
ed by an electro-magnet so as to make 
a jog at every tick of the transmitting 
clock. The electric connections of the 
clock are such as to omit certain sec- 




1 ' 

11 - : 


- ; 









1 


W 

K 




onds, as shown by the breaks in the 
record. These breaks enable anyone 




< 8' 










I 


EH 
H 


who is listening to a sounder in a tele- 
graph or telephone office to recognize 
the middle and end of each minute, 
especially the end of the last minute, 
when there is a longer interval that is 
followed by the noon signal. During 
this last long interval, or 10-second 
break, those who are in charge of time 




D atll;55AM:,8tandar< 
Lute, tlujlartfiye tecoc 

seak 



! 


; 






as!angtan,fJc(rthe ccn 
Ecomfiie Observator 


SIGNALS AS S 


balls and of clocks that are corrected 
electrically at noon throw their local 
lines into circuit so that the noon sig- 
nal drops the time balls and corrects 
the clocks. 
This series of noon signals is sent 
continuously over the wires all over 
the United States for an interval of 
five minutes immediately preceding 




LegranliicTime Simula betf 
e29O> second, of etuOunir 

) -2 




- 






:j 

^ 

tf 

91 

^ 


.EGRAPHIC TIME 


Rocky Mountains the signals are sent 
out by the Observatory at Washing- 
ton and end at noon of the 75th meri- 
dian, standard time, corresponding to 
11 a. m. of the 90th meridian and 10 
a. m. of the 105th meridian. For the 
country west of the Rocky Mountains 
they are sent out by the Observatory at 




USJSaval Observatory Tc 
over the wires except tb 
noon signal ia aloziger < 
1 


- 


- 






| 

K 


w 

H 


the Mare Island Navy Yard, Califor- 




c,] 














dian, the standard time meridian of the 
Pacific Coast. The transmitting clock 



















190 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



that sends out the signals is corrected 
very accurately, shortly before noon, 
from the mean of three standard clocks 
that are rated by star sights with a 
meridian transit instrument. The 
noon signal is seldom in error to an 
amount greater than one or two tenths 
of a second, although a tenth more 



may be added by the relays in use on 
long telegraph lines. Electric trans- 
mission over a continuous wire is 
practically instantaneous. For time 
signals at other times than noon, simi- 
lar signals can be sent out by telegraph 
or telephone from the same clock that 
sends out the noon signal. 



STANDARD TIME 



The desirability of using a uniform 
standard of time, independent of local 
time, was recognized at a very early 
date. The differences of local time 
arise from the use of solar motion as 
a time-measurer. We call the time noon 
when the sun is opposite the meridian 
of the place where we are living, and 
in consequence of ihe sun's motion 
from east to west, the more easterly 
of two places will have the earlier 
time, the difference in hours being ex- 
actly l-15th of the longitudinal differ- 
ence in degrees. In other words, 15 
degrees of longitude correspond to a 
time difference of one hour. Peculiar 
difficulties were encountered in this 
country on account of its vast longi- 
tudinal extent, and the inconvenience 
became very serious with the exten- 
sion of the railroad and telegraph sys- 
tems. 

The movement which resulted in the 
adoption of the present time system 
may be said to have originated in a 
report on the subject by the Ameri- 
can Meteorological Society, which was 
submitted at a meeting of the General 
Time Convention held on Oct. 13, 
1881, proposing a single standard for 
the whole country and suggesting the 
hour theory as an alternative proposi- 
tion. The matter was referred to the 
secretary, Mr. W. T. Allen, and com- 
munications were invited from parties 
interested. The proposal to fix one 
standard of time for the whole country 
was supported by many competent au- 
thorities ; but, although there was 
much to recommend it from a scien- 
tific point of view, it was found to be 
impracticable on account of the many 
discrepancies which would occur be- 
tween time by the clock and solar 
time. The system which found most 
favor, and was finally adopted, pro- 
posed the division of the country into 
four time sections, each of 15 degrees 
longitude (7% degrees or 30 minutes 
on each side of the meridian), com- 
mencing with the 75th meridian. In- 
side each of these sections time was to 



be uniform, the time of each section 
differing from that next to it by ex- 
actly one hour. A scheme was drawn 
up in accordance with these principles, 
and at a meeting of the convention 
held in April, 1883, the following reso- 
lutions were adopted : 

(1.) That all roads now using Bos- 
ton, New York, Philadelphia, Balti- 
more, Toronto, Hamilton, or Wash- 
ington time as standard, based upon 
meridians east of those points or ad- 
jacent thereto, shall be governed by the 
75th meridian or Eastern time (4 min- 
utes slower than New York time.) 

(2.) That all roads now using Co- 
lumbus, Savannah, Atlanta, Cincin- 
nati, Louisville, Indianapolis, Chicago, 
Jefferson City, St. Paul, or Kansas 
City time, or standards based upon 
meridians adjacent thereto, shall be 
run by the 90th meridian time, to be 
called Central time, one hour slower 
than Eastern time and 9 minutes slow- 
er than Chicago time. 

(3.) That west of the above-named 
sections the roads shall be run by the 
105th and the 120th meridian times 
respectively, two and three hours 
slower than Eastern time. 

(4.) That all changes from one hour 
standard to another shall be made at 
the termini of roads or at the ends of 
divisions. 

The advantages of this method of 
reckoning time are obvious. Every 
town, instead of regulating its business 
by its own local time, uses the time of 
the nearest of the standard meridians, 
and the difference in time in actual use 
in any two cities will be an exact num- 
ber of hours, instead of a number of 
hours, minutes and seconds. A trav- 
eler, therefore, wishing to reset his 
watch, need only change the hour, 
without paying any attention to the 
minutes. Having proceeded, e. g., 
from New York to any town within 
the Central time zone, he has simply 
to set his watch one hour slow of New 
York time, and need not compare it 
with any of the local clocks. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



191 



C A N 




192 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



er- 
in 

Thus 



en, G 
; and 



and, Italy, Denmark, S 
ind Paris time (see belo 



are 5 minutes 
ental Time Tabl 



TION OF TIME IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES. 
. Hours of the night, 6 p.m. to 5-59 a.m., are in dark type. 
, and Spain run on Greenwich (West Europe) time; in Switz 
ime (one hour fast of Greenwich); in France at 5 minutes b 
ast European time (two hours faster than Greenwich). 
aris time, but inside clocks by which trains are worked 
een English and French railway time. Cook's Conti 



, Jl.g 

^ g 12-w S 
M o c e c^ 

nti" 

Nl 

'53' 



how P 
erence bet 



eg 
Mi 
of 
tat 



in, B 
, on 
part 



ta 

via 
d 



Brit 
erv 
an 
Fr 



rench 

20.6 se 



in Great 
ria and 
B 



Trains 
Aust 



, 
, ulgar 
de clocks at 
ly 4 minutes 



, 
mani 
Outs 



(amp 



xaup^g a^ :::::::::: 



(N 



.^H^H^H .rHrHrH rH CM rH CM CM 



TEOOI) auioy; 



CMOCM OCMO 



. . 



'ScoJj 'jg 00 ^ ' 



(aun} 



g <> 
eq 



OSrHO . COOCOCOrH 
CMOrH OCMO 



rH 1C rH . 1/5 



rHOt. 
CO-rHin 
rH 



(M <M 'OrH -rH 



rH O O ' rH 



:S 



eOcOOCM -t^r^. -lO^ 

^IrH -J1 .COlO .-rJ-CO .-*< 
rHOCM 'CMrH O -H rH 



OO-^O^rHO CSOCtO'O 

COrHO ICrH .lO-'l'lWlO 

C<IOCM <M(M 'OrH rH 



: : : 553 : :' 



raaresnaaf 



araii, tread 



(ami; 18300 



o[03 



(auii; 
^BOOJ) auaag; 



a 

D.CM 



:r _ rHrHrHOrHrHOrHCM 



OO-^COOrnO -OSOCUSlO 

COrH U5 OrH .lO^itOlO 

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* 2 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



193 



SUBMARINE TELEGRAPHS.* 



The submarine telegraphs of the 
world number 1,815. Their aggregate 
length is nearly 221.292,441 miles; 
their total cost is estimated at $300,- 
000,000, and the number of messages 
annually transmitted over them at 
more than 6,000,000. All the grand di- 
visions of the earth are now connected 
by their wires, and from country to 
country and island to island the 
thoughts and words of mankind are 
instantaneously transmitted. Darkest 
Africa now converses daily with en- 
lightened Europe or America, and the 
great events of the morning are known 
in the evening throughout the inhabi- 
ted world. In August, 1902, authority 
was granted to the Commercial Pacific 
Cable Company of the United States 
to construct a cable line from the Pa- 
cific coast of the United States to the 
Hawaiian Islands, Guam, and th( j 
Philippine Islands, and the Asiatic 
coast, with a branch line to Japan. 
The first message was sent over it 
July 4, 1903. 

The British Pacific cable was com- 
pleted on October 31st and was opened 
for traffic on December 8th, 1902. The 
cable is "all British," and runs from 
Vancouver, on the west coast of Can- 
ada, to Fanning Island, Fiji, and Nor- 
folk Island in the Pacific, and thence 
by means of two cables to New Zea- 
land and Queensland respectively. Its 
total length is about 7,800 miles. 

The developments in the construc- 
tion, laying and operating of subma- 
rine cables and in their availability for 
general public use have quite kept pace 
with their extension throughout the 
civilized world. From a mere gutta- 
percha coated wire the submarine con- 
ductor of electricity has developed in a 
half century into a great cable having 
a central copper core surrounded by 
numerous layers of non-conducting 
material and protected by a steel wire 
wound spirally about it, and in turn 
further protected by waterproof and 
insect-proof wrappings. From a steam- 
er-towed ocean barge the facilities for 
laying have developed to a fleet of 
nearly fifty steam vessels, with every 
facility for laying, picking-up, splicing, 
and repairing the cable lines. From a 
speed rate of three words per minute, 
which was made on the first trans-At- 
lantic cables, the speed of transmission 
has been accelerated to fifty words per 
minute, and even more than that, with 



the automatic transmitters now coming 
into use with cable lines, while by the 
duplexing of the cables their carrying 
capacity is doubled. From a cost to 
the sender of $100 per message, which 
was originally charged on the first 
trans-Atlantic cables, the rate from 
New York to London and the great 
cities on the continent of Europe has 
fallen to 25 cents per word. From 
several hours required for the trans- 
mission of a message and receipt 
of a response, the time has been so re- 
duced that messages from the Execu- 
tive Mansion to the battlefield at San- 
tiago were sent and a response received 
within twelve minutes, while a message 
sent from the House of Representa- 
tives in Washington to the House of 
Parliament in London in the chess 
match of 1898 was transmitted and the 
reply received in thirteen and one-half 
seconds. 

The effect of this ready and inexpen- 
sive method of transmitting thoughts 
and words from continent to continent 
throughout the civilized world is ap- 
parent in the rapid development of in- 
ternational commerce since it began. 
The first successful cable line between 
the United States and Europe was 
put into operation in 1866. In that 
year our commerce with Europe 
amounted to $652,232,289 ; in 1876, to 
$728,959,053: in 1886, to $898,911,- 
504: in 1896, to $1,091,682,874, and 
in 1898, to $1,279,739,936, while our 
commerce with the whole world, which 
in 1866 amounted to $783,671,588, had 
by 1902 reached the enormous sum of 
$2,285,000,000. 

During the last seven years Ger- 
many has . laid 7,375 miles of ocean 
cables, at a cost of about $6.- 
000,000. In 1898 a cable, 73 miles 
long, was laid between Sassnitz and 
Trelleborg, and German Southwest 
Africa was connected with the exist- 
ing cable system by a line 154 miles 
long: and in 1900 the first German- 
American cable was laid between Em- 
den and New York, by the Azores, a 
distance of 4,813 miles. About the 
same time the first German cables 
along the Chinese coast were laid ; one 
of these was from Tsin-tau (Kiao- 
chau) to Chifu, 285 miles long, and 
the second connected the former place 
with Shanghai and is 438 miles. In 
1901 a fifth cable connecting Germany 
and England was laid, as well as a 



* From the Summary of Commerce and Finance for July, 1902, The figures are now some- 
what larger. 



194 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



telephone cable from Fehmarn to La- 
land. A second German cable to New 
York by the Azores has been com- 
menced and will be completed before 
the end of 1904, while a line to Vigo, 
1,300 miles in length, has been made. 
Germany is contemplating an extension 
of her cables by constructing lines be- 
tween Alenado and Guam, in the Car- 
oline Islands, and the Pelew Islands 
and Shanghai. 

An International Telegraph Con- 
ference opened in London, May 26th, 
1903, all the States adhering to the 
Internationa] Telegraph Convention 
being represented. The Conference re- 



vised the rules as to the use of code 
and cipher language in international 
telegraphy. The decision of the last 
Conference, that code telegraphy 
should, after a certain date, be limited 
to the words contained in the official 
vocabulary prepared by the Interna- 
tional Telegraph Bureau, has been re- 
scinded. In future, any combination 
of letters not exceeding ten in number 
will be passed as a code word, provided 
that it is pronounceable according to 
the usage of any of the languages to 
which code words have hitherto been 
limited namely, English, French, Ger- 
man, Dutch, Italian, Spanish, Portu- 



SUMMARY OF CABLES OWNED BY GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATIONS. 

Partly extracted from the Official Documents issued by the International Bureau of 
Telegraphic Administrations, Berne. With "The Electrician's" corrections to date and 
additions. 



Country. 


No. of 
Cables 
with One 
or More 
Cores. 


Length in Nautical Miles. 


Of 
Cables. 


Of 
Conductors. 


Argentine Republic. . . . 


13 

47 
1 
1 2 
23 
5 

157 
1 

26 
2 
1 
156 

156 
3 
2 
1 89 
i 177 
46 
32 
5 
36 
103 
1 
1 
147 
16 
322 
4 
19 
12 
1 

j- 

i 17 
2 
4 
21 
1 
1 


59.824 
224 . 250 
211.000 
54.514 
37.779 
84 . 000 

2,168.013 
0.538 
334.750 
66.300 
113.000 
171.100 
891.490 
4,913.824 
1,567.238 
1,697.326 
2,796.695 
2,265.830 
54.931 
241.543 
7,837.770 
1,063.088 
2,154.883 
1.930 
1.000 
51.789 
285.682 
291.489 
115.050 
52.100 
328 . 282 
70.157 
3.000 
49 . 360 
1,771.346 
208.488 
9.827 
4 . 750 
346.558 
4.500 
3.750 


138.544 
235.339 
211.000 
279.856 
66.414 
95.000 

1,711.885 
0.538 
334.750 
66 . 300 
113.000 
880.300 
891.490 
5,847.200 
1,567.238 
1,697.326 
5,654.977 
7,551.994 
54.931 
780.449 
7,837.770 
1,112.458 
2,851.173 
1 . 930 
1.000 
108.459 
290.466 
375.787 
115.050 
67.520 
408.387 
70.157 
3.000 
49 . 360 
1,771.346 
368.431 
13.400 
19.000 
368 . 734 
4 . 500 
3.750 


Austria 


Bahamas 
Belgium. . 


Brazil 
British Guiana 
British India, Indo-European Telegraph Department 
Government Administration 
Bulgaria 
Canada 
Ceylon and India (Joint) . 
China 


Denmark. 


Dutch Indies 
France and Algeria 


France (West Africa) 
French Indo-China (Cochin China, Tonquin, and Amoy) 
Germany 


Great Britain and Ireland 
Greece 


Holland 
Inter-Colonial System. . . 


Italy. . . . 


Japan. , 


Macao 


New Caledonia. . . . 


New South Wales. 
New Zealand 


Norway 


Portugal 
Queensland 


Russia in Europe, and the Caucasus . 


Russia in Asia. . . 


Senegal 
South Australia 


Spain 
Sweden 
Switzerland 


Tasmania 


Turkey in Europe and Asia 
Victoria 


Western Australia. 


Total 


1,378 


32,609.748 


44,006.813 



Including half of Cables owned jointly with other Administrations, 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



195 



guese, and Latin. Other combinations 
of letters will be counted at five let- 
ters to the word, the prohibition of let- 
ter cipher which has hitherto prevailed 
being removed. These alterations, to- 
gether with a number of other changes 



in the detailed regulations, take effect 
on July 1st, 1904. The above informa- 
tion is taken from Reports of the Bu- 
reau of Statistics, Department of 
Commerce and Labor, and Hazell's 
Annual. 



SUMMARY OF CABLES OWNED BY PRIVATE COMPANIES. 



Private Companies. 



African Direct Telegraph Company 

Amazon Telegraph Company 

Anglo-American Telegraph Company 

Black Sea Telegraph Company 

Canadian Pacific Railroad Company 

Central and South American Telegraph Company. . . . 

Commercial Cable Company 

Commercial Pacific 

Compagnie Francaise des Cables Tclegraphiques 

Cuba Submarine Telegraph Company 

Deutsch Atlantische Telegraphen-Gesellschaft. . . ... 

Deutsche See-Telegraphen-Gesellschaft 

Direct Spanish Telegraph Company 

Direct United States Cable Company 

Direct West India Cable Company 

Eastern Telegraph Company 

Eastern Extension, Australasia and China Telegraph Company. 

Europe and Azores Telegraph Company 

Eastern and South African Telegraph Company 

Great Northern Telegraph Company 

Halifax and Bermuda Cable Company 

India Rubber, Gutta Percha and Telegraph Works Company. . . 

Indo-European Telegraph Company 

Mexican Telegraph Company 

Pacific and European Telegraph Company 

River Plate Telegraph Company 

South American Cable Company 

Spanish National Submarine Telegraph Company 

United States and Hayti Telegraph and Cable Company 

West African Telegraph Company 

West Coast of America Telegraph Company 

West India and Panama Telegraph Company 

1 Western Telegraph Company , 

Western Union Telegraph Company 

Total. 



No. of 
Cables 
with One 
or More 
Cores. 

10 
15 
14 

1 

9 
15 
11 

4 

32 
10 

3 

1 

3 

2 

2 

139 
34 

2 
14 
28 

1 

2 

3 

3 



Length of 

Cables 

in Nautical 

Miles. 



3,031.000 

1,326.000 

9,507.660 

337.147 

53.940 

7,500.500 

13,212.310 

7,846.747 

12,102.423 

1,162.000 

6,057.868 

1,111.979 

723 . 460 

3,099.958 

1,265.300 

39,749.360 

24,802.240 

1,053.150 

9,068.052 

7,003.000 

849.960 

137.678 

22 . 000 

1,529.000 



437 



138.000 
2,065.224 

927.770 
1,389.000 
1,470.867 
1,975.100 
4,639.000 
17,283.000 
7,351.000 

188,682.693 



1 Including London Platino-Brazilian and Montevidean and Brazilian Companies. 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 



Ownership. 


No. of 
Cables 
with One 
or More 
Cores. 


Length of 
Cables in 
Nautical 
Miles. 


Government Administrations. . . 


1,378 


32,609 748 


Private Companies 


437 


188,682.693 


Tntol 


1 O1 K 


OO1 OOO A 41 



Electrical Trades Directory. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




"v^"'"^"^ 



SUBMARINE CABLES ANI1 

explanation of letters and number * 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



197 




TERNATIONAL DATE LINE. 
|>wn on the above map, see page 199.] 






198 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION PERTAINING TO SUBMARINE TELEGRAPH 
* LINES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION, 1902. 



Length of first successful cable, 

miles 25 

Length of first successful Atlan- 
tic cable, miles 2,134 

Length of direct United States 

cable (Ballinskelligs Bay, Ire- 
land, to Halifax, Nova Scotia), 

miles 2,564 

Length of French cable (Brest, 

France, to Cape Cod, Massa- 
chusetts), miles 3,250 

Distance from San Francisco to 

Hawaii, miles 2,089 

Distance from Hawaii to Wake 

Island, miles 2,040 

Distance from Wake Island to 

Guam, miles 1,290 

Distance from Guam to Manila* 

miles 1,520 

Distance from Manila to Asiatic 

Coast, miles 630 

Depth of water'in which first suc- 
cessful cable was laid, feet 120 

Depth of Atlantic cable lines.feet. 14,000 

Greatest depth at which cable 

has been laid between Haiti 

and Windward Islands, feet . . 18,000 

Greatest depth between San 

Francisco and Hawaii, feet. . . 18,300 

Greatest depth between Hawaii 

and Manila (estimated), feet. . 19,600 

Capital of first Atlantic cable 

company $1,750,000 

Contract price of cable for first 

Atlantic line $1,125,000 

Contract price of cable for first 

successful Atlantic cable line. . $3,000,000 
Present cost per mile of cable 

(estimate by Bright) $750 

Cost of laying per mile, average . . $375 

Number of words per minute sent 

on first line 3 

Number of words per minute on 

first successful Atlantic cable 

line at beginning 8 

Number of words per minute on 

first successful Atlantic cable 

line after experimental stage. . 15 

Present rate of speed (without 

duplex) 25 



Present rate by automatic sys- 
tem (without duplex) 50 

Increased use of wire by duplex- 
ing, per cent 90 

Number of cables laid across the 

North Atlantic 16 

Number now working 13 

Average life of cable, years 25 

Original rates for messages, first 
Atlantic lines (minimum 20 
words or less) $100 

On first reduction (minimum, 20 

words or less) $50 

Original word rate, without mini- 
mum $1 

Present word rate, without mini- 
mum $0.25 

Length of telegraph cables of the 

world, miles 193,000 

Length of land lines of the world 
(1898) (estimate by Bright), 
miles See page 185 

Cost of cable lines of the world 

(estimate by Bright) $250,000,000 

Cost of land lines of the world 

(estimate by Bright) $310,000,000 

Total length of telegraph wires, 
land and cable (estimate by 
Bright), miles 2,300,000 

Number of cable messages sent 

annually (estimate by Bright) . 6,000,000 

Per cent of world's lines built by 

governments 10 

Per cent built by private enter- 
prise 90 

Time of message and answer, 
Washington to Santiago battle- 
field and return, minutes 12 

Time of message, Washington to 
London and reply in chess 
match of 1898, seconds 13$ 

Number of cables owned by 

nations 1,380 

Length of cables owned by 

nations, miles 21,528 

Number of cables owned by pri- 
vate companies 370 

Length of cables owned by pri- 
vate companies, miles. 171,679 

Longest single line without inter- 
mediate landing, miles 3,250 



THE CABLE ALPHABET. 




The cut above shows the Morse Code as recorded by a syphon recorder. Syphon 
recorders are used for receiving cable messages. It will be observed that the spaces are 
represented by horizontal lines, dots by loops above the space lines, and dashes by loops 
below the space lines. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



199 



SUBMARINE CABLES AND INTERNATIONAL DATE LINE. 



The International Date Line is an 
imaginary line drawn through the Pa- 
cific Ocean irregularly, but trending 
generally in a north and south direc- 
tion. The islands of the Pacific Ocean 
are separated in such a way that all 
those which lie to the east of it carry 
the same date as the United States, 
while all those on the west of it use 
the same date as Japan and Australia. 
Our map on pages 19C and 197 shows 
this date line. 



The submarine cable connections 
that are marked with letters represent 
the telegraph cables that are owned 
and operated by sovereign states. 
Those that are marked with numbers 
represent telegraph cables that are 
owned and operated by private com- 
panies. The explanation of the names 
of the countries that the letters rep- 
resent and of the names of the com- 
panies that the numbers stand for is 
subjoined : 



A. Austria. 

B. Belgium. 

Br. Great Britain. 

C. China. 

C. C. Cochin China. 

D. Denmark. 
F. France. 



GOVERNMENTS. 

G. Germany. 
Gr. Greece. 
I. Italy. 

Japan. 

Mexico. 

Netherlands. 



J. 
M. 
N. 



Sw. Sweden. 

T. Turkey. 

U. S. United States. 

P. Portugal. 

R. Russia. 

S. Spain. 



PRIVATE COMPANIES. 



1. L>irect Spanish Telegraph Company. 

2. Halifax and Bermuda Cable Company. 

3. Spanish National Submarine Telegraph 

Company. 

4. West African Telegraph Company. 

5. Black Sea Telegraph Company. 

0. Great Northern Telegraph Company. 

7. Eastern Telegraph Company. 

8. Eastern and South African Telegraph 

Company. 

9. Eastern Extension, Australasia, and 

China Telegraph Company. 

10. Anglo-American Telegraph Company. 

11. Direct United States Cable Company. 

12. Compagnie Francaise des Cables Teld- 

graphiques. 

13. Western Union Telegraph Company. 

14. The Commercial Cable Company. 

15. Brazilian Submarine Telegraph Com- 

pany. 



16. African Direct Telegraph Company. 

17. Cuba Submarine Telegraph Company. 

18. West India and Panama Telegraph 

Company. 

19. Deutsche See-Telegraphen-Gesellschaft 

20. Western and Brazil Telegraph Com- 

pany. 

21. River Plate Telegraph Company. 

22. Mexican Telegraph Company. 

23. Central and South American Telegraph 

Company. 

24. West Coast of America Telegraph Com- 

pany. 

25. South American Cable Company. 

26. Europe and Azores Telegraph Company. 

27. United States and Hayti Telegraph and 

Cable Company. 

28. Direct West India Cable Company. 

29. The Pacific Commercial Cable Com- 

pany. 



WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY. 



Wireless telegraphy is, in theory, 
closely allied to heliography, or signal- 
ing with flashes of light. The light 
used, however, is produced electrically 
arid is invisible to the naked eye, owing 
to the fact that it is made up of very 
long waves, called Hertzian waves, 
which vibrate too slowly to affect the 
retina. The eye can only discern 
waves which make from 4,000 billions 
to 7,000 billions vibrations per min- 
ute. However, the Hertzian ray re- 
sembles light in that it can be reflected 
by a metallic plate and can be refract- 
ed by a prism of pitch, can be brought 
to a focus with a pitch lens, and may 
be polarized. Owing to the great 
length of the Hertzian waves, almost 
all substances are transparent to them. 
The Hertzian waves were discovered 
by Professor Heinrich Hertz, a young 



German philosopher, during his ex- 
periments with the spark discharge of 
Leyden jars and of the Ruhmkorff coil 
in 1886 and 188T. 

He found that when a spark leaped 
the gap between the terminals, electric 
oscillations took place in these termi- 
nals which set up magnetic waves in 
the surrounding space, capable in turn 
of setting up similar oscillations in 
any adjacent conductor lying at an 
angle to them. The waves were detect- 
ed by using a "resonator," which was 
merely a circle or a rectangle of cop- 
per wire formed with a gap in one side. 
\Vhen the induction coil was in opera- 
tion and the resonator was held near 
the coil, a tiny stream of sparks would 
leap across the resonator gap. To bet- 
ter understand this phenomenon take 
as a crude example two vertical rods 



200 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



in a pool of water and on each a float 
free to slide vertically on the rod. 
Now, if one of these floats be moved 
up and down upon its rod, it produces 




A TYPICAL WIRELESS TELEGRAPH 
STATION. 

waves in the water just as the electric 
oscillation produces waves in the 
ether. These spread out in all directions 
and on reaching the other float cause 



it to oscillate up and down, just as the 
magnetic waves produce electric os- 
cillations in the resonator. 

Without going into a detailed his- 
tory of the development of wireless 
telegraphy from Hertz's experiments, it 
may be stated that the essential differ- 
ence between the apparatus used by 
Hertz in his experiments and the sev- 
eral systems now commonly in use lies 
in the receiver. The transmitter is 
practically the same. A vertical wire 
called the antenna is connected to one 
terminal of the coil, and the other ter- 
minal is connected with the earth, the 
purpose being to increase the electrical 
capacity of the terminal rods and pro- 
duce larger waves. Instead of produc- 
ing the oscillations by means of an in- 
duction coil, they are now ordinarily 
produced by a dynamo and a step-up 
transformer except for telegraphing 
over short distances. But even with 
these changes we would not be able to 
telegraph over any appreciable distance 
if dependent upon the Hertz resonator 
for receiving a message, for, owing to 
the fact that the waves spread out in 
all directions from the transmitting 
antenna, the receiving antenna is acted 
upon by a very small proportion of 
the po\yer expended by the transmitter, 
and this proportion decreases very rap- 
idly as the distance between the trans- 
mitter and the receiver increases. In 
order then to detect the rays at long 
distances, a very sensitive instrument 
called the "coherer" has been invent- 
ed. The coherer in its usual form 
consists of a glass tube with two metal 
pistons fitted therein between which a 
quantity of nickel filings is placed. 
The latter forms an imperfect electri- 
cal contact between the pistons, and 
takes the place of the spark gap in 
the receiving antenna. When the os- 
cillations are set up in the antenna by 
the Hertzian waves, due to their high 
pressure or voltage, they break through 
the imperfect contact of the coherer, 
causing the filings therein to cohere or 
string together and thus produce a 
much better electric path through the 
coherer. The action is microscopic 
and cannot be detected with the naked 
eye. However, the coherer, aside from 
being a part of the antenna circuit, is 
also made a part of a local battery cir- 
cuit, which contains a telegraph re- 
ceiver, and whenever the electric os- 
cillations open a good path through 
the filings for the local circuit, the 
telegraph instrument will be energized 
by the local battery only. In order 
to break this path after the oscillations 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



201 



have ceased, or, in other words, to 
cause the filings to decohere, they are 
constantly jarred apart by means of 
the "tapper," which is in reality an 
electric bell with the gong removed 
and the clapper striking the coherer 
tube instead. Carbon granules may be 
substituted for metallic filings, and in 
this case no tapper is necessary, the 
coherer being self-restoring. 

In transmitting messages a tele- 
graph key in the primary circuit of the 
induction coil is operated according to 
the usual Morse code, and this causes 
sparks to leap the spark gap at corre- 
sponding intervals. These signals will 
then be transmitted by the Hertzian 
waves to the receiving station, where 
they will be recorded by the telegraph 




TRANSMITTING HEY 



GROUND 



TRANSMITTER. 



riodicity only. Up to the present time 
these efforts have met with only par- 
tial success. 

PRINCIPAL SYSTEMS OF WIRELESS 

TELEGRAPHY. 

The best known systems of wireless 

telegraphy in the United States are the 

Marconi, the De Forest and the Fes- 

I senden systems, and one or two sys- 



1 



receiver. The coherer is not by any 
means the only wave detector in use. 
Every wireless telegraph company has 
one or more different types of detect- 
ors, but for the most part they are all 
based on the principle of the imperfect 
contact. Marconi's "magnetic detect- 
or" is a notable exception. The pres- 
ent efforts of inventors in the field of 
wireless telegraphy are directed mainly 
to the development of a system which 
will not allow one equipment to inter- 
fere with or suffer interference from 
any other equipment. This is essential 
in order to prevent unauthorized per- 
sons from intercepting and reading the 
messages. They aim to effect this re- 
sult by synchronizing or tuning the 
transmitting and receiving stations so 
that they will give oscillations and re- 
spond to oscillations of a certain pe- 



COHERER 



LOCAL 
CIRCUIT 




BATTERY 



TELEPHONE 



, GROUND^ 

RECEIVER. 

terns used by the Government. In 
England, asid*e from the Marconi sys- 
tem, are the Lodge-Muirhead and the 
Orling-Armstrong systems. The Slaby- 
Arco and the Braun-Siemens-Halske 
systems are used in Germany. In 
France, Branley, Rochefort, Tissot 
and Captain Ferrie have made impor- 
tant developments, and in Russia Po- 
poff early invented a system very simi- 
lar to that of Marconi. 

THE MARCONI SYSTEM. 

The Marconi system, developed by 
Signor Guglielmo Marconi, a young 



202 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Italian inventor, is the pioneer sys- 
tem of Hertzian wave telegraphy. In 
1896 Marconi accepted an invitation 
from the British Telegraph Depart- 
ment to make experiments with his 
system in England. In the spring of 

1899 the first wireless message was 
transmitted across the English channel. 
On November 15, 1899, the first daily 
newspaper ever published on an At- 
lantic liner was issued on the steamer 
St. Paul, containing news transmitted 
from shore by wireless telegraphy. In 

1900 the system was adopted by the 
British Admiralty and installed on 
their battleships and cruisers. On De- 
cember 12, 1901, Marconi succeeded in 
sending the signal for the letter "S" 
across the Atlantic from Poldhu, Corn- 
wall, to St. John's, Newfoundland. 
But his experiments were interrupted 
by a cable company which owned a 
monopoly of all telegraph communica- 
tions with Newfoundland. In March, 



1902, Marconi crossed the Atlantic on 
the ''Philadelphia," which had been 
equipped with his instruments, and 
was able to receive intelligible mes- 
sages at a distance of 1,551 miles from 
the Poldhu station. In October of the 
same year Marconi sailed from Eng- 
land to Nova Scotia, and received 
messages from his Poldhu station 
throughout the voyage. On January 
18, 1903, the first wireless message 
from the United States to England 
was sent by President Roosevelt to 
King Edward. -In March, 1903, the 
Marconi Company- undertook to fur- 
nish the London "Times" with daily 
wireless despatches from the United 
States, but they were discontinued 
after a couple of despatches had been 
sent. The Italian Government, in 

1903, voted $160,000 for the erection 
of a Marconi station in Italy to com- 
municate with this country. 



STATIONS EQUIPPED WITH MARCONI APPARATUS. 



Country. 


Location. 


Operated by 




Nieuport . . 


Bel 
Ma 
Ita 

Bri 

Noi 

Ma 

Llo 
Br 

Ma 
Ita 

Mai 
Mai 
Prr 


gian Gove 
coni W. T 
ian Gover 

tish Gover 
th Germai 

coni W. T 

yds 
ish Gover 

coni W. T 
ian Gover 

-coni W. T 
-coni W. T 
^ate 


rnment 
. Co. of Canada 
nnient 

nment 
i Lloyd S. S. Co. 

.^Co., Lim ted 

nment 

Co., Limited 
nment 

Co., Limited 
Co., Limited 


Canada 
China -j 


Table Head, Cape Breton. . . 


Pekin 




Hongkong 
Borkum Isle 


r 

Great Britain and Ire- 
land (List incom- 
plete) 


Borkum Riff 
Caister . . . 


Chelmsford . 


Fraserburgh 
Frinton. . . 


Haven, Poole Harbor 
Holyhead 
Poldhu . 


Withernsea 
Fastnet Rock 
Malin Head 
Inishtrahull 
Culver Cliff 


Holland . 


Dover : 
Plymouth. ... ... 


Portland. . . 


Portsmouth 
Rane Head 
Roches Point. . 


Scilly Islands 
Sheerness 
Amsterdam. . . . 


Italy (List incomplete) 

Montenegro 
United States. . , 


Darignano 
Genoa 
Gulf of Aranci. . 


Maddalena 


Monte Mario 
Palmaria. 


Pisa 


Punta di Bela 
Rome . . . 


San Vito 


Bari 
Antivari. . .... 


Great Neck, Long Island. . 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



203 



On the preceding page is a list of 
stations equipped with Marconi ap- 
paratus and operated under arrange- 
ment with stations owned and con- 
trolled by Marconi Wireless Telegraph 
Company of America and affiliated 
Marconi companies. 

There are also wireless telegraph 
stations equipped with Marconi appa- 
ratus and operated by the British Gov- 
ernment at Bermuda, Gibraltar and 
Malta. 

The following is a list of wireless 
telegraph offices on shore owned and 
controlled by Marconi Wireless Tele- 
graph Company of America and af- 
filiated Marconi companies : 

Babylon Long Island, New York, 

U. S. A. 

Belle Isle Gulf of St. Lawrence.Canada. 

Chateau Bay . . . Canadian Labrador. 
Crookhaven . .. . County Cork, Ireland. 

Fame Point Province Quebec, Canada. 

Heath Point Province Quebec, Canada. 

Liverpool Lancashire, England. 

Lizard Point. . . .Cornwall, England. 
New York City. .Pier 14, North River, New 
York City, U. S. A. 

Niton Isle of Wight, England. 

North Foreland. Kent, England. 

Rosslare County Wexford, Ireland. 

Sagaponack Long Island, New York, 

U. S. A. 

Siasconset Nantucket Island, Massa- 
chusetts, U. S. A. 

South Wellfleet. .Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 
U. S. A. 

The following points are in course 
of construction : 

Canso Nova Scotia. 

Cape Race Newfoundland. 

Point Amour. . .Canadian Labrador. 
Sable Island. . . .Canada. 

The following is a list of Transat- 
lantic liners equipped with Marconi 
apparatus : 

ALLAN LINE. Bavarian, Parisian, Tunisian. 

AMERICAN LINE. New York, Philadel- 
phia, St. Louis, St. Paul. 

ATLANTIC TRANSPORT LINE. Minneapolis, 
Minnehaha, Minnetonka. 

COMPAGNIE GENEKALE TRANSATLANTIC^ E. 
La Bretagne, La Champagne, La Lorraine, 
La Savoie, La Touraine. 

CUNARD LINE. Aurania, Campania, Car- 
pathia, Etruria, Ivernia, Lucania, Pannonia, 
Saxonia, Umbria. 

HAMBURG-AMERICAN LINE. Auguste Vic- 
toria, Blucher, Deutschland, Fiirst Bis- 
marck, Moltke. 

HOLLAND-AMERICAN LINE.* Amsterdam, 
Maasdam, Noordam, Potsdam, Rhyndam, 
Rotterdam, Statendam. 

ITALIAN ROYAL MAIL LINE. Lombardia, 
Sardegna. 

NORTH GERMAN LLOYD LINE. Grosser 
Kurfurst, Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse, Kaiser 
Wilhelm II, Kaiserin Maria Theresia, Kron- 
prinz Wilhelm. 

RED STAR LINE. Finland, Kroonland, 
Vaderland, Zeeland. 

*In course of equipment. 



All commissioned ships of British 
and Italian Royal Navies are equipped 
with the Marconi apparatus. 



THE DE FOREST SYSTEM. 

^ The American De Forest Wireless 
Telegraph Company has developed 
from the inventions of Dr. Lee de For- 
est, a young Yale graduate. His system 
differs from that of Marconi chiefly 
in the receiver. At first an instrument 
called the "anti-coherer," or "respond- 
er," was used in place of the coherer. 
The action of this instrument was just 
the reverse of the coherer, that is, a 
good path was normally provided for 
the local circuit, but this path was 
broken by the electric oscillations in 
the antenna. The anti-coherer was 
later replaced by another instrument, 
which acts electrolytically to a large 
extent. This instrument, like the co- 
herer, normally offers a resistance to 
the current in the local circuit, but this 
resistance is broken down by the elec- 
tric oscillations in the antenna. An- 
other difference between the systems 
lies in the fact that the De Forest com- 
pany uses a telephone receiver in the 
local circuit instead of the telegraph 
receiver for receiving the signals. Sig- 
nals by the De Forest system can be 
transmitted at the rate of twenty-five 
to thirty words per minute. The De 
Forest Company has established a 
score of stations along the Atlantic 
coast, and several along the Great 
Lakes. Late in 1903 the De Forest 
Company entered into a contract with 
the London "Times" to furnish news 
of the Russo-Japanese war. The 
steamer "Haimun" was equipped with 
wireless telegraph apparatus, and ren- 
dered valuable service in reporting 
naval operations and engagements. 
These reports were sent by wireless 
telegraphy to Wei-hai-Wei and thence 
by cable to London. In July, 1904, 
the United States Government closed 
a contract with the De Forest Com- 
pany for a series of stations in the 
West Indies and Panama. These, it 
is stated, are to form links in a chain 
of De Forest stations which will con- 
nect New England with Japan, China 
and the Philippines. The chain is to 
follow the Atlantic coast to Key West, 
and thence run via Porto Rico to 
Panama. From Panama it will follow 
the Pacific coast to Seattle, thence via 
the Aleutian Islands to Japan, Wei- 
hai-Wei, China and the Philippines, re- 
turning to San Francisco through 
Guam and Hawaii. Under the terms 



204 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



of the contract, commercial messages 
are to be interchangeable between all 
stations equipped with the De Forest 
system, whether operated by the Gov- 
ernment or the De Forest Company. 



The following is a list of wireless 
telegraph stations, equipped with De 
Forest apparatus, and now complete 
and in operation for the transmission 
of wireless messages: 



Station. 


Location. 


Operated by 


Buffalo 


New York 
North Carolina 
Illinois (3 stations) 
Ohio. . . . 


De Forest Company 

Providence Journal Company 
United Fruit Company 
Signal Corps, U. S. Army 

U. S. Weather Bureau 
London Times. 


Chicago 
Cleveland 
Dallas 


Texas 
Texas 
Cuba. 


Fort Worth 
Havana 
Highlands of Navesink 
Key West 


New Jersey 
Florida 
New York City, 42 Broadway . 
Rhode Island : 
Long Island, N. Y 

St. Louis, Mo 

Illinois 
Canada 
District of Columbia 


New York . . 


Providence 
Quogue. . . . 


Louisiana Purchase Ex- ) 
position Tower (and V 
9 other stations) ) 
Springfield 
Toronto. , , 
Washington 
Block Island 
Point Judith 


Rhode Island 

Panama 
Costa Rica 
Alaska. . . 


Port Limon 
Cape Nome 
St. Michael's 
Four stations 
Farralone Islands (4 sta- ( 
tions) j 
Wei-hai-wei 


Artillery Districts 

Pacific Coast 
China 



The following steamers are equipped with De Forest apparatus: 

Steamer. 



Location. 



Operated by 



Str. Wqlvin. . . . 

' Haimun. . . 

Tug Savage. . . 



Great Lakes 

China Sea. . 

North Atlantic ports 



U. S. Steel Corporation 
London Times 
B. & O. Rv. 



The following De Forest stations have been erected or are in course of 
erection: 



Station. 


Location. 


Operated by 


Atlantic City 


New Jersey De Forest Company 


Baltimore 


Maryland ; 








Boston .- 


Massachusetts ; 








Cape Flattery 


Washington 








Cape May 


New Jersey > 








Detroit 


Michigan 








Kansas City 


Missouri 








Lewes 


Delaware. ! 








Mobile 


Alabama 










Newburgh 


New York 










New Haven 


Connecticut 










Port Huron 


Michigan 










Poughkeepsie 


New York 










Seattle 
Serlalia 


Washington 
Missouri 










Guantanamo 


Cuba 


L 


S. Government 


Panama 


Panama 






Pensaccla 


Florida 




i 1 1 


Porto Rioo 


West Coast 




i 1 1 


Azores Islands (5 stations) . 




Eastern Telegraph and Cable Co. 



Steamers. Six vessels of the United States 



FLAGS AND PENNANTS TO BE USED IN THE INTERNATIONAL CODE. 





c 





G - 











11 



u 





w 





H 
t* 



'CODE FtA<J " AND 

'ANSWERING PENNANT. 



When used as the "Code 
Flag " it is to be hoisted under 
the ensign. 



When used as the "An- 
swering Pennant" it is to be 
hoisted at the masthead or 
where best seen. 




To open communication by the old Code, 
show the ensign with the pennant under it. 



l 



In _L 
P I I x rr 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



205 



INTERNATIONAL WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY CONFERENCE. 



On account of the rival systems in use 
in this country and the different coun- 
tries of Europe, it was decided to hold 
an international conference, at which 
rules could be formulated to control 
them. The conference met at Berlin 
in August, 1903. The following rules 
were adopted, applying to the exchange 
of messages between vessels at sea and 
coast stations : 

Any fixed station whose field of ac- 
tion extends to the sea is styled a 
coast station. 

Coast stations are bound to receive 
and transmit telegrams originating 
from or intended for vessels at sea 
without any distinction of wireless 
telegraph system used by the latter. 

Contracting parties shall publish 



any technical information likely to fa- 
cilitate or expedite communication be- 
tween coast stations and ships at sea. 

The wireless station must, unless it 
should be absolutely impossible, accept 
in preference requests for help that 
may come from vessels. 

The service of wireless telegraph sta- 
tions must be organized as far as prac- 
ticable so as not to interfere with the 
service of other stations. 

The protocol was signed by the 
United States, Germany, Austria, 
Spain, France and Russia. Great 
Britain and Italy were unable to sign. 
The general feeling of the conference 
was decidedly against monopolization 
of the wireless telegraph business by 
any one companj'. 



NEW INTERNATIONAL CODE OF SIGNALS. 



The new International Code of Sig- 
nals came into use on January 1, 1901. 
and its distinguishing sign will hence- 
forward be the code pennant hoisted in 
the ordinary w r ay. 

Illustrations of the new signals are 
given in the plate, together with rules 
for signals of distress in the text. 

It is not now necessary to tie the 
fly of the Code Pennant to the hal- 
yards, as was previously required when 
beginning to signal. When hoisted 
under the ensign, it denotes a signal 
taken from the International Code. 
When hoisted by itself at the mast- 
head it is the Answering Pennant. 



Communication may then be com- 
menced, and any message following in 
this page, or found under the heading 
"Danger or Distress" in the Interna- 
tional Code Signal Book, may be ex- 
changed, strictly following the Inter- 
national Commercial Code and the in- 
structions given above. 

The International Code Signal de- 
scribed above, asking to open com- 
munication, should be shown in every 
case of distress by the shore sta- 
tion, for it may be that the vessel has 
the International Code, but. until see- 
ing this signal, will not know that she 
can use it. 



SIGNALS ADOPTED FROM AND TO 
MERCIAL CODE SIGNAL BOOK 

p j- In distress; want immediate assistance. 

i; i We are coming to your assistance. 

E I Do not attempt to land in your own 
Y f boats. 



-D ) 

j |- 



Damaged rudder; can not steer. 



T [ Engines broken down; I am disabled. 
J i 

) |- You are standing into danger. 

2 r Heavy weather coming; look sharp. 

p ) 

j, r Bar is impassable. 

I 
E 

I) 



R | 

I V Make fast to- 

F i 



BE FOUND IN INTERNATIONAL COM- 
OF 1899, REFERRED TO ABOVE. 

W | 

F V Slack away. 

rj, ^ Shift your berth. Your berth is not safe. 
p f- Hold on until high water. 



"K" ) 

j_j > Remain by the ship. 



g - 



Abandon the vessel as fast as possible. 

\ ' 

p j- Landing is impossible. 

TC ) 

p > Look out for rocket line (or, line). 

K / Endeavor to send a line by boat (cask, 

A j kite, raft, etc.). 

C I No assistance can be rendered ; do the 

X f best you can for yourselves. 

K I Lookout will be kept on the beach all 

G f night. 



206 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL CODE SIGNALS Continued. 



I Lights, or Fires will be kept at the best 
f place for coming on shore. 

f Keep a light burning. 

) Do not abandon the vessel until the tide 
j has ebbed. 

> I am on fire. 

I I am sinking (or, on fire) ; send all avail- 
f able boats to save passengers and crew. 

>Want assistance; mutiny. 

j- Want immediate medical assistance. 

I Want a boat immediately (if more than 
) one, number to follow). 
\ Want a tug (if more than one, number to 
J follow). 



Q ! I must abandon the vessel. 

P , j- Want a pilot. 

V ) What is name of ship or Signal Station 
G f in sight? 

D I Repeat ship's name; your flags were not 
U f made out. 

TTTT \ 

p (Signal not understood, though the flags 
2 f are distinguished. 

N | 

C > I can not make out the flags (or, signals). 

C Assent Yes. 
D Negative No. 



DISTRESS SIGNALS. 

(Article 31 of International Rules.) 



When a vessel is in distress and requires 
assistance from other vessels or from the 
shore the following shall be the signals to be 
used or displayed by her, either together or 
separately, namely: 

In the daytime 

(1) A gun or other explosive signal fired at 
intervals of about a minute 

(2) The International Code signal of dis- 
tress indicated by N C. 

(3) The distance signal, consisting of a 
square flag, having either above or below it a 
ball or anything resembling a ball. 

(4) The distant signal, consisting of a cone, 



point upward, haying either above it or below 
it a ball or anything resembling a ball. 

(5) A continuous sounding with any fog- 
signal apparatus. 

At night 

(1) A gun or other explosive signal fired at 
intervals of about a minute. 

(2) Flames on the vessel (as from a burn- 
ing tar barrel, oil barrel, and so forth). 

(3) Rockets or shells throwing stars of any 
color or description, fired one at a time, at 
short intervals. 

(4) A continuous sounding with any fog- 
signal apparatus. 



LIST OF WEATHER BUREAU STATIONS ON THE UNITED STATES 
SEACOAST TELEGRAPHIC LINES. 



ATLANTIC COAST. 

Nantucket, Massachusetts. 

Narragar-sett Pier, Rhode Island. 

Block Island, Rhode Island. 

Norfolk, Virginia. 

Cape Henry, Virginia. 

Currituck Inlet, North Carolina. 

Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. 

Hatteras, North Carolina. 

Sand Key, Florida. 
PACIFIC COAST. 

Tatoosh Island, Washington. 

Neah Bay, Washington. 

East Clallam, Washington. 

Twin Rivers, Washington. 

Port Crescent, Washington. 

North Head, Washington. 

Point Reyes Light, California. 

San Francisco, California. 

Southeast Farallone, California. 
LAKE HURON. 

Thunder Bay Island, Michigan. 

Middle Island, Michigan. 

Alpena, Michigan. 

Of the above stations the following, and 
also Juoiter, Florida, are supplied with Inter- 
national Code Signals, and communication 
can be had therewith for the purpose of ob- 



taining information concerning the approach 
of storms, weather conditions in gene-al, and 
for the purpose of sending telegrams to points 
on commercial lines. 

Nantucket, Massachusetts. 
Block Island, Rhode Island. 
Caoa Henry, Virginia. 
Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. 
Sand Key, Florida. 
Tatoosh Island, Washington. 
Hatteras, North Carolina. 
Nea'i Bay. Washington. 
Point Reyes Light, Califprnia. 
Southeast Farallone, California. 

Any message signaled by the International 
Code, as adopted or used by England, France, 
America, Denmark, Holland, Sweden, and 
Norway, Russia, Greece, Italy, Germany, 
Austria, Spain, Portugal, and Brazil, re- 
ceived at thesa telegraphic signal stations, 
will ba transmitted and delivered to the ad- 
dress on payment at the station of the tele- 
grapii? change. All messages received from 
or addressed to the War, Navy, Treasury, 
State, Interior, or other official department 
at Washington, are telegraphed without 
charge over the Weather Bureau lines. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



207 



SPECIAL DISTANT SIGNALS. 



Made by a single hoist followed by the STOP signal. 
numerically for reading off a signal. 



Arranged 



AAa 1 


giS 


"S 3 


^a 


|a 


o.g 


B 


og- 


*B 


>>do? 

si? 


fc 

am 


o 
u . 

3g 


.3^ . 


M~S-^ 


a-^ 


C . Oc^. 
>j 0) o> 


^| 


rr H"- 

83 s 


a --I 


oc S2 


* ft 



gS.-S^ ^i^ 

W OQ 



pea 
t i 
us 



ish your 
arer, or 
Signals. 



dis 
co 
Dis 



fe 


&t 


(_ 

c3 


" 


O 




urricane, 
expected. 


clared, 
lommence 


F 

*i 

T3 " J 

Ig 


li 

II 


1 


s 

.a> 


Cyclone, Hi 
Typhoon 


Is war de 
Has war ( 


War is clecla 
has comm 


Beware of 
channel is 


Beware o 
boats. 


Enemy is in 


CO 


<M 


t-i 


(M 


CO 


* 


*f 


T-l 


<N 


(M 


(M 


C^l 


c^ 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 




W >< QQ OQ Q 
Q S O 5Z 

<< ^s < < 

WtfQ^^ 
CQ Q ^ 

asMa 

S a M ^ s 

ss^lg 
^% 

"^ PQ " 



- 2, a 


S 


PJ 


c 


*SH 3 


* OD 
: o 


" H 




'S 


g.l 


. u 


"c S 


1 


QJ 


O V fl 


ja 


03,2 


r: & 


| 


C 03 
3 T3 


" ^ cj 


'1 


*""' "^ 


r 


-| ac 


bC 

s-g^-a 


i"i 

C * 


fel 


<D 


ess'i 

3 M E 


D. fl 

g^.S 1 

^ 00 S3 03 


P 

< 


el 

S 


3 

C 


c 3 
g^ 

>^ 






208 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



N 



332 Enemy is closing with you, 
or, You are closing with 
the enemy. 

342 Keep a good look-out, as it 
is reported that enemy's 
men-of-war are going about 
disguised as merchantmen. 



412 Proceed on your voyage. 



The information relative to the In- 
ternational Code is taken from the 
thirty-fifth annual list of the merchant 
vessels of the United States and is 
published by the Bureau of Naviga- 
tion, Department of Commerce and 
Labor. 



THE FOLLOWING DISTANT SIGNALS MADE WITH FLAG AND BALL, OR PENNANT AND 
BALL, HAVE THE SPECIAL SIGNIFICATION INDICATED BENEATH THEM. 



\r 

You are running into 
danger. 


I". 

Fire, or, Leak; want im- 
mediate assistance. 


IT 

Short of provisions. 
Starving. 


|T 

Aground; want immedi- 
ate assistance. 



SEMAPHORES. 

There are many semaphores established on 
the French, Italian, Portuguese, and some on 
the Spanish and Austrian coasts, where only 
the international Code of Signals is now used. 
Where practicable these semaphores have 
means of communicating by telegraph with 
each other and with the chief metropolitan 
lines and foreign stations. 

Passing ships are able to exchange commu- 
nication with the semaphores, and when re- 
quired their messages are forwarded to their 
destination according to the fixed tariff. On 
the coasts of Great Britain there are signal 
stations which offer the same facilities to 
passing vessels. 

BOAT SIGNALS. 

The Symbols for Boat Signals are 

1. Two square flags, or handkerchiefs, or 
pieces of cloth. 

2. Two long strips of cloth, or parts of a 
plank, or pieces of wood longer than broad. 



3. Two balls or hats, or round bundles, or 
buckets. 

With these any of the Distance Signals can 
be made holding the Symbol at arm's 
length; and the Signal is to be made from 
right to left and read from left to right, thus: 



Equivalent to 
Ball above Pen- 
nant, or, "You 
are running into 
danger." 



In making Boat Signals it is important to 
use only the proper means to attract atten- 
tion, and to avoid those that may occasion 
confusion or misinterpretation. 




CYCLONES. 

[Pilot Chart, Hydrographic Office.] 



"RULE 1. // the squalls freshen without any I 
shift of wind, you are on or near the storm 
track: heave to on the starboard tack and | 
watch for some indications of a shift, observ- 
ing the low clouds particularly; if the barom- 
eter fall decidedly (say half an inch) without ! 
any shift, and if wind and sea permit, run off 
with the wind on the starboard quarter and 
keep your compass course. 

"RULE 2. // the wind, shift to the right, you 
are to the right of the storm track, put the 
ship on the starboard tack and make as much 
headway as possible until obliged to lie-to 
(starboard tack 1 ). 



"RULE 3. // the wind shift to the left, you 
are to the left of the storm track: bring the 
wind on the starboard quarter and keep your 
compass course if obliged to lie-to, do so on 
the port tack. 

"GENERAL RULES, GOOD FOR ALL NORTH- 
ERN HEMISPHERE STORMS. In scudding 
always keep the wind well on the starboard 
quarter, in order to run out of the storm. 
Always lie-to on the coming-up tack. Use oil 
to prevent heavy seas from breaking on 
board." 



LIFE-SAVING SIGNALS. 



The following signals recommended by the 
late International Marine Conference for 
adoption by all institutions for saving life 
from wrecked vessels, have been adopted by 
the Life-saving Service of the United States . 

1. Upon the discovery of a wreck by night, 
the life-saving force will burn a red pyro- 



technic light or a red rocket to signify, "You 
are seen; assistance will be given as soon as 
possible." 

2. A red flag waved on shore by day, or a 
red light, red rocket, or red Roman candle 
displayed by night, will signify, "Haul away." 

3. A white flag waved on shore by day, or a 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



209 



white light slowly swung back and forth, or a 
white rocket or white Roman candle fired by 
night, will signify, "Slack away." 

4. Two flags, a white and a red, waved at 
the same time on shore by day, or two lights, 
a white and a red, slowly swung at the same 



time, or a blue pyrotechnic light burned by 
night, will signify, "Do not attempt to land 
in your own boats; it is impossible." 

5. A man on shore beckoning by day, or 
two torches burning near together by night, 
will signify, "This is the best place to land." 



THE WEATHER BUREAU. 



The Weather Bureau furnishes, 
when practicable, for the benefit of all 
interests dependent upon weather con- 
ditions, the "Forecasts" which are pre- 
pared daily at the Central Office in 
Washington, D. C., and certain des- 
ignated stations. These forecasts are 



telegraphed to stations of the Weather 
Bureau, railway officials, postmasters 
and many others, to be communicated 
to the public by means of flags or 
steam whistles. The flags adopted for 
this purpose are five in number, and of 
the forms and colors indicated below : 



No. 1. 
White Flag. 



EXPLANATION OF WEATHER FLAGS. 
No. 2. No. 3. No. 4. 



Blue Flag. 



White and Blue 
Flag. 



Clear or fair 
weather. 



Rain or 
Snow. 



BLUE I 



Local Rain 
orSnow. 



I Temperature. 



No. 5. 

White Flag with black 
jquare in center. 



Cold Wave. 



When number 4 is placed above 
number 1, 2 or 3 it indicates warmer ; 
when below, colder ; when not dis- 
played, the temperature is expected to 



remain about stationary. During the 
late spring and early fall the cold- 
wave flag is also used to indicate an- 
ticipated frosts. 



EXPLANATION OF WHISTLE SIGNALS. 



A warning blast of from fifteen to 
twenty seconds duration is sounded to 
attract attention. After this warning 
the longer blasts (of from four to six 
seconds duration) refer to weather, 
and shorter blasts (of from one to 
three seconds duration) refer to tem- 
perature ; those for weather are sound- 
ed first. 

Blasts. Indicate. 

One long Fair weather. 

Two long Rain or snow. 

Three long Local rain or snow. 

One short Lower temperature. 

Two short Higher temperature. 

Three short Cold wave. 

By repeating each combination a 
few times, with intervals of ten sec- 
onds, liability to error in reading the 
signals may be avoided. 

As far as practicable the forecast 
messages will be telegraphed at the ex- 
pense of the Weather Bureau ; but 
if this is impracticable, they will be 
furnished at the regular commercial 
rates and sent "collect." In no case 
will the forecasts be sent to a second 
address in any place except at the ex- 
pense of the applicant. 

Persons desiring to display the flags 
or sound the whistle signals for the 
benefit of the public should communi- 



cate with the Weather Bureau offi- 
cials in charge of the climate and crop 
service of their respective States, the 
central stations of which are as fol- 
lows : 

Montgomery. Ala. ; Phoenix, Ariz. ; 
Little Rock, Ark. ; San Francisco, 
Cal. ; Denver, Colo. ; Jacksonville, 
Fla. ; Atlanta, Ga. ; Boise, Idaho ; 
Springfield, 111. ; Indianapolis, Ind. ; 
Des Moines. Iowa ; Topeka, Kan. ; 
Louisville, Ky. ; New Orleans, La. ; 
Baltimore, Md. (for Delaware and 
Maryland) ; Boston, Mass, (for New 
England) ; Lansing, Mich.; Minneapo- 
lis, Minn. ; Vicksburg, Miss. ; Colum- 
bia, Mo. ; Helena, Mont. ; Lincoln, 
Nebr. ; Carson City, Nev. ; New 
Brunswick, N. J. : Santa Fe, N. Mex. ; 
Ithaca, N. Y. ; Raleigh, N. C. : Bis- 
marck. N. Dak. ; Columbus, Ohio ; 
Oklahoma, Okla. (for Oklahoma and 
Indian Territories) : Portland, Oreg. ; 
Philadelphia, Pa.; Columbia, S. C. ; 
Huron, S. Dak.; Nas'hville, Tenn. ; 
Galveston. Tex.; Salt Lake City, 
Utah ; Richmond. Va. ; Seattle, 
Wash.; Parkersburg, W. Va. ; Mil- 
waukee, Wis. ; Cheyenne, Wyo. 

WILLIS L. MOORE, 
Chief U. S. Weather Bureau. 



CHAPTER IX. 



PATENTS, TRADE MARKS, COPYRIGHTS. 



PATENTS IN RELATION TO MANUFACTURES. 



The value of our patent system is 
eloquently outlined by Senator Platt, 
of Connecticut. In speaking on a bill 
for the reorganization of the Patent 
Office, he said : 

"To my mind, the passage of the 
act of 183G creating the Patent Office 
marks the most important epoch in the 
history of our development I think 
the most important event in the his- 
tory of our Government from the Con- 
stitution until the Civil War. The es- 
tablishment of the Patent Office 
marked the commencement of that 
marvelous development of the re- 
sources of the country which is the ad- 
miration and wonder of the world, a 
development which challenges all his- 
tory for a parallel ; and it is not too 
much to say that this unexampled 
progress has been not only dependent 
upon, but has been coincident with, the 
growth and development of the patent 
system of this country. Words fail in 
attempt.ng to portray the advance- 
ment of this country for the last fifty 
years. We have had fifty years of 
progress, fifty years of inventions ap- 
plied to the every-day wants of life, 
fifty years of patent encouragement, 
and fifty years of a development in 
wealth, resources, grandeur, culture, 
power which is little short of miracu- 
lous. Population, production, business, 
wealth, comfort, culture, power, gran- 
deur, these have all kept step with the 
expansion of the inventive genius of 
the country ; and this progress has 
been made possible only by the inven- 
tions of its citizens. All history con- 
firms us in the conclusion that it is 
the development by the mechanical arts 
of the industries of a country which 
brings to it greatness and power and 
glory. No purely agricultural, pas- 
toral people ever achieved any high 
standing among the nations of the 
earth. It is only when the brain 
evolves and the cunning hand fashions 
labor-saving machines that a nation 
begins to throb with new energy and 



life and expands with a new growth. 
It is only when thought wrings from 
nature her untold secret treasures that 
solid wealth and strength are accumu- 
lated by a people." 

When the Japanese Government was 
considering the establishment of a pat- 
ent system, they sent a commissioner 

[ to the United States and he spent 
several months in Washington, every 

I facility be.ng given him by the Com- 
missioner of Patents. One of the ex- 
aminers said : "I would like to know 
why it is that the people of Japan 
desire to have a patent system." 

"I will tell you," said Mr. Taka- 
hashi. "You know it is only since 
Commodore Perry, in 1854, opened the 
ports of Japan to foreign commerce 

' that the Japanese have been trying to 
become a great nation, like other na- 
tions of the earth, and we have looked 
about us to see what nations are the 
greatest, so that we could be like 
them ; and we said, 'There is the 
United States, not much more than a 
hundred years old, and America was 
not discovered by Columbus yet four 
hundred years ago' ; and we said, 
'What is it that makes the United 
States such a great nation:' And we 
investigated, and we found it was pat- 
ents, and we' will have patents." 

The examiner, in reporting this in- 
terview, added : "Not in all history 
is there an instance of such unbiased 
testimony to the value and worth of 
the patent system as practiced in the 
United States." 

The demonstration thus given the 
commercial world during the last half 
century of the effect of beneficent 
patent laws has led to their modifica- 
tion in all the chief industrial coun- 
tries, and the salient feature of our 
system a preliminary examination as 
to novelty and patentability prior to 
the grant of a patent has in late 
years been incorporated into the pat- 
ent systems of many foreign countries, 
as, for instance, Austria, Canada, Den- 



211 



212 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



mark, Germany, Japan, Norway, Rus- 
sia, Sweden, and Switzerland. 

The discoverer of new products of 
value in the arts and the inventor of 
new processes, or improved machines, 
adds to public wealth, and his right to 
the product of his brain is now recog- 
nized by the laws of all civilized na- 
tions. The word "patent" had its 
origin in royal grants to favored sub- 
jects of monopolies in trade or manu- 
facture ; but now the word is used in 
a restricted sense to cover improve- 
ments in inventions. A few patents 
for inventions were granted by the 
provincial governments of the Ameri- 
can colonies and by the legislatures of 
the States, prior to the adoption of the 




PRINCIPAL FIELDS OF INVENTIVE 
ENDEAVOR. 

Federal Constitution. On the 5th of 
September, 1787, it was proposed to 
incorporate in a constitution a patent 
and copyright clause. The germinat- 
ing principle of this clause of the 
Constitution has vitalized the nation, 
expanded its powers beyond the wild- 
est dreams of its fathers, and from it 
more than from any other cause, has 
grown the magnificent manufacturing 
and industrial development which we 
to-day present to the world. 

In the early days the granting of a 
patent was quite an event in the his- 
tory of the State Department, w T here 
the clerical part of the work was then 
performed. It would be interesting to 
see Thomas Jefferson, the Secretary of 
War, and the Attorney-General, criti- 
cally examining the application and 
scrutinizing each point carefully and 
rigorously. The first year the major 



ity of the applications failed to pass 
the ordeal, and only three patents were 
granted. In those days evory step in 
the issuing of a patent was taken with 
great care and caution, Mr. Jefferson 
always seeking to impress upon tho 
minds of his officers and the public 
that the granting of a patent was a 
matter of no ordinary importance. 
Prior to 1830 there was no critical 
examination of the state of the art 
preliminary to the allowance of a 
patent application. Since the act of 
1830 there have been various enact- 
ments modifying and improving the 
law in matters of detail. In 1801 the 
term for a patent was increased from 
fourteen to seventeen years, and in 
1870 the patent law was revised, con- 
solidated and amended ; but in its sa- 
lient features the patent system of to- 
day is that of the law of 1830. The 
subject of patents is admirably treat- 
ed by Mr. Story B. Ladd, of the Cen- 
sus Office, and we are indebted to 
Bulletin No. 242 for most interesting 
matter herewith presented. 

The growth of the number of pat- 
ents granted in the United States to 
citizens of foreign countries, is a strik- 
ing feature, and shows the high es- 
teem in which this country is held by 
the world at large as a field for the 
exploitation of "invention. The per 
cent, of patents to foreign inventors 
has more than doubled during each 
period of twenty years since 1800. 

The majority of these foreign pat- 
entees are citizens of the great manu- 
facturing countries ; four-fifths of 
them are from England, France, Ger- 
many, and Canada ; the number from 
the latter country being largely aug- 
mented by reason of her proximity to 
the United States. The patents to 
foreign inventors, 1890-1900, were dis- 
tributed as follows : 



Country. 


Number 
of 
Patents. 


Per Cent. 


Canada. . . 


3,135 


14 




7,436 


32 


France 


2,163 


9.0 


Germany 


5,788 


25.0 


All other countries 


4,561 


20.0 


Total to citizens of 






foreign countries . . 


23,083 


100.0 



This marked growth in the number 
of patents to aliens is explained by the 
very liberal features of our patent 
system. Foreigners stand here on an 
equal footing with citizens of this 
country, and they are neither sub- 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



213 



jected to restrictions in the matter of 
annuities or taxes payable after the 
grant of a patent, nor required to 
work an invention in this country to 
maintain it in force, as is the case in 
most foreign countries. 

Moreover, the thorough examination 
made by our Patent Office as to the 
novelty of an invention prior to the 
allowance of an application for a pat- 
ent an examination that includes not 
only the patents and literature of our 
own country bearing on the art or in- 
dustry to which the invention relates, 
but the patents of all patent-granting 
countries and the technical literature 
of the world and the care exercised 
in criticising the framing of the claims 
have come to be recognized as of great 
value in the case of inventions of 
merit, and hence the majority of for- 
eign inventors patenting in this coun- 
try take advantage of this feature of 
our patent system, and secure the ac- 
tion of the Patent Office on an appli- 
cation for a patent before perfecting 
their paten_ts in their own and other 
foreign countries, taking due precau- 
tion to have their patents in the dif 
ferent countries so issued as to se- 
cure the maximum term in each, so far 
as possible. This practice holds now 
in the case of probably nine-tenths of 
the alien inventions patented in this 
country. 

The working of an invention has 
never been required under our patent 
laws, though in most foreign coun- 
tries, with the exception of Great Brit- 
ain, an invention must be put into 
commercial use in the country 
within a specified period or the pat- 
ent may be declared void. In the case 
of patents for fine chemicals and like 
products, which require a high order 
of technical knowledge and ability for 
their inception, and skilled workmen 
for their manufacture, the effect of this 
requirement, that the industry must be 
established within the country, has 
been most salutary in building up 
chemical industries within the home 
country, to some extent at the ex- 
pense of other countries where the 
working of a patent is not obligatory. 
This shows most strongly in the case 
of carbon dyes and in the patents for 
chemicals of the class known as car- 
bon compounds, which includes nu- 
merous pharmaceutical and medicinal 
compounds of recent origin, aldehydes, 
alcohojls, phenols, ethers, etc., and 
many 'synthetic compounds, as vanil- 
lin, artificial musk, etc. 

There are many extensive industries" 



which are entirely the creation of pat- 
ents, and can be readily differentiated 
from the great mass of manufactures ; 
for example, certain industries based 
upon chemical inventions and discov- 
eries, as oleomargarine, which now em- 
ploys $3,023,040 of capital, and sup- 
plies products to the value of $12,499,- 
812; glucose, which uses $41,011,345 
of capital, and gives products. to the 
value of $21,693,056 ; wood pulp, 
which, starting with the ground-wood 
pulp patent of Voulter, in 1858, and 
following with the soda fiber and sul- 
phite fiber processes, is now the chief 
material employed in paper manufac- 
ture, with products aggregating $18,- 
497,701 ; high explosives, which, start- 
ing with the nitroglycerin patent of 
Nobel, in 18(55, now includes dynamite, 
the pyroxylin explosives, and smoke- 
less powder, with products aggregating 
$11,233,390 ; while the electrical indus- 
tries, which now touch all fields of in- 
dustrial activity, power and transpor- 
tation, lighting and heating, electro- 
chemical processes, telegraphy and 
telephony, employ directly and indi- 
rectly capital extending into the bil- 
lions, and are the creation of patents. 
The rubber industry was insignifi- 
cant prior to the discovery by Charles 
Goodyear of the process of vulcaniza- 
tion, while now the products in the 
shape of rubber and elastic goods and 
rubber boots and shoes amount to $93, 
710,849. Bicycles and tricycles em- 
ploy $29.783.059 of capital, with prod- 
ucts valued at $31,915,908. " Manu- 
factured ice employs $38,204,054 of 
capital, with a return in products of 
$13,874,513. 

Phonographs and graphophones, 
starting in 1877, now show the use of 
$3,348,282 of capital, and products to 
the value of $2,240,274. Photography, 
including the .manufacture of materi- 
als and apparatus as well as the prac- 
tice of the art all the outcome of in- 
vention is now represented by 7,700 
establishments, with a combined capi- 
tal of $18,711339, and products to the 
value of $31,038.107. The manufac- 
ture of sewing machines employs $18.- 
739,450 of capital, and supplies prod- 
ucts to the value of $18.314.490. The 
manufacture of typewriters and sup- 
plies, within three decades, has be- 
come an industry that employs $8.- 
400.431 of capital, and gives products 
to the value of $0,932,029. These are 
but examples of what may be consid- 
ered as patent-created industries. 

If we attempt to enumerate the in- 
dustries which, existing prior to the 



214 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



period of patent growth, have been 
revolutionized by inventions, a cata- 
logue of all of the old industries is 
virtually required. The returns for 
the manufacture of agricultural im- 
plements for the present census 
show 715 establishments, with a capi- 
tal of $157.707,951, giving employ- 
ment to 46,852 wage-earners, who re- 



a patented improvement which lias 
produced a new or better article, or 
cheapened the cost of manufacture. 

The great iron and steel industry 
as it exists to-day is the product of 
countless inventions which permeate 
every branch thereof, and include 
many revolutionizing inventions, as, 
for example, the Bessemer process. 







B? 



W o 
ffl ^ 



ceive $2,450,880 in wages, and manu- 
factured products to the value of $101,- 
207,428; and, in the entire range of 
agricultural implements and machines 
now manufactured, every one, from 
hoe or spade to combined harvester 
and thrasher, has been, e'ther in the 
implement or machine itself, or in the 
process of manufacture, the subject of 



The blast furnaces, rolling mills and 
forges and bloomeries. reported at the 
present census comprise 60S establish- 
ments, with a capital of $573,391,663, 
employing 222,490 wage-earners, with 
$120,820,276 paid in wages, and sup- 
plying products to the value of $803,- 
968273. A prohibition of the use of 
the patented inventions of the last half 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



215 



century would stop every one of these 
establishments. 

The same may likewise be said of 
the textile industry, the manufactures 
of leather, of lumber, chemicals, etc., 
and the railway system in its entirety, 
from the rail to the top of the smoke- 
stack, and from the pilot to the rear 
train light or signal, is an aggregation 
of American inventions. 

Without attempting to touch upon 
the industries which have been revo- 
lutionized or expanded by patents, the 
summaries which follow aim to show 
the growth of patents which have gen- 
erally sprung from industries. 

The .closing decades of the nine- 
teenth century have witnessed the 
most extraordinary development .of 



manufactures and commerce known in 
our history. Industrial demand and 
invention go hand in hand. They act 
and react, being interdependent. Any 
change in industrial conditions creat- 
ing a new demand is at once met by 
the invention of the means for supply- 
ing it, and through new inventions new 
industrial demands' are every year be- 
ing created. Thus through the process 
of evolution the industrial field is 
steadily expanding, and a study of the 
inventions for any decade will point 
out the lines of industrial growth for 
the succeeding decade. 

The following figures give an idea 
of the development of American inven- 
tions during the past fifty-four years : 



NUMBER OF PATENTS FOR INVENTIONS ISSUED DURING EACH CALENDAR 

YEAR. AND NUMBER OF LIVE PATENTS AT THE BEGINNING 

OF EACH CALENDAR YEAR, 



Number 
of Patents 
Year. Issued Dur- 
ing the 
Year. 


Number 
of Live 
Patents. 


Year. 


Number 
of Patents 
Issued Dur- 
ing the 
Year. 


Number 
of Live 
Patents. 


1850... 884 
1851 757 
1S52 890 
1353. . . 846 
1854 1,759 
1855 1,892 
185G 2,315 
1857 2,686 
1858.., 3,467 


6,987 
7,769 
8,099 
8,474 
8.928 
10,251 
11,673 
13,518 
15,714 


1877.. 

1878. . . 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
18S5 


12,920 
12,345 
12,133 
12926 
15,548 
18,135 
21,196 
19,147 
23,331 


155,200 
168,011 
177,737 
186,408 
195,325 
206,043 
218,041 
230,360 
237,204 


1859 4,165 
1860. . . 4,303 
1861 3,010 
1862 3,221 
1863 3,781 


18,714 
22,435 
26,252 
28,795 
31,428 


1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890. . . 


21,797 
20,429 
19.585 
23,360 
25,322 


247,991 
256.S31 
265.103 
273,001 

284 161 


1864 4,638 
1865. 6,099 


34,244 
38,034 


1891 
1892. 


22,328 
22,661 


297,867 
307,965 


1866 8,874 
1867 1 12,301 
1868 12,544 
186") 12,957 
1870. . . 12,157 
1871 11,687 
1872 ; 12,200 
1873 11,616 


43,415 
51,433 
62,929 
73,824 
85,005 
94,910 
104,022 
112,937 


1833 '... 
1894 
1895. . , 
1896 
1897 
189S 
1839 
1900 


22,768 
19,875 
20,883 
21,867 
22,098 
20,404 
23,296 
24,660 


317,335 
325,931 
332,886 
341,424 
351,158 
360,330 
365,186 
370 347 


1874 12,230 
1875 13,291 
1876. . . 14,172 


120,551 
128,547 
141,157 


1901 
1902 
1903. . 


25,558 
27,136 
31,046 


373,811 
380,222 
393,276 



The theory of the patent law is sim- 
ple. The country is enriched by inven- 
tions, and offers for them a small 
premium ; this premium is a seventeen 
years' monopoly of their fruit no 
more, no less. Having purchased the 



invention for this insignificant price, 
the purchase is consummated by the 
publication in the patent records of the 
details of the invent'on. so that he who 
runs may read. The whole thing is 
a strictly business transaction, and 



216 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



this character is emphasized by the 
fact that the inventor is required to 
pay for the clerical and expert labor 
required to put his invention into 
shape for issuing. His patent fees are 
designed to cover this expense, and do 
so, with a considerable margin to 
spare. Thus the people of the United 
States are perpetually being enriched 
by the work of inventors, at absolutely 
no cost to themselves. 

The inventor does not work for love 
nor for glory alone, but in the hopes 
of a return for his labor. Glory, and 
love of his species, are elements actuat- 
ing his work, and in many cases he 
invents because he cannot help himself, 
because his genius is a hard task mas- 



ter and keeps him at work. But none 
the less, the great incitement to inven- 
tion is the hope of obtaining a valua- 
ble patent, and without this induce- 
ment inventions would be few and far 
between, and America would, without 
the patent system, be far in arrears 
of the rest of the world, instead of 
leading it, as it does to-day. The few 
pregnant sentences of the patent stat- 
utes, sentences the force of whose 
every word has been laboriously ad- 
judicated by our highest tribunal, the 
Supreme Court of the United States, 
are responsible for America's most 
characteristic element of prosperity, 
the work of her inventors, to whom be- 
longs the credit. 



DISTINGUISHED AMERICAN INVENTORS. 



Benjamin Franklin ; b. Boston, 
1706; d. 1790; at 12, printer's appren- 
tice, fond of useful reading; 27 to 40, 
teaches himself Latin, etc., makes va- 
rious useful improvements ; at 40, 
studies electricity ; 1752, brings elec- 
tricity from clouds by kite, and invents 
the lightning rod. 

Eli Whitney, inventor of the cotton- 
gin ; b. Westborough, Mass., 1765 ; d. 
1825 ; went to Georgia 1792 as teach- 
er ; 179.3, invents the cotton-gin, prior 
to which a full day's work of one per- 
son was to clean by hand one pound 
of cotton ; one machine performs the 
labor of five thousand persons; 1800, 
founds Whitneyville, makes firearms, 
by the interchangeable system for the 
parts. 

Robert Fulton: b. Little Britain, 
Pa., 1765; d. 1825; artist painter; in- 
vents steamboat 1793 ; invents subma- 
rine torpedoes 1797 to 1801 ; builds 
steamboat, in France 1803 ; launches 
passenger boat Clermont at N. Y. 
1807, and steams to Albany; 1812, 
builds steam ferryboats ; 1814, builds 
first steam war vessel. 

Jethro Wood, inventor of the mod- 
ern cast-iron plough ; b. White Creek, 
N. Y., 1774; d. 1834; patented the 
plough 1814 ; previously the plough 
was a stick of wood plated with iron ; 
lawsuits against infringers consumed 
his means ; Secretary Seward said : 
"No man has benefited the country 
pecuniarily more than Jethro Wood, 
and no man has been as inadequately 
rewarded." 

Thomas Blanchard ; b. 1788, Sutton, 
Mass. ; d. 1864 ; invented tack machine 
1806 ; builds successful steam carriage 
1825 ; builds the stern-wheel boat for 



shallow waters, now in common use on 
Western rivers ; 1843, patents the 
lathe for turning irregular forms, now 
in common use all over the world for 
turning lasts, spokes, axe-handles, 
gun-stocks, hat-blocks, tackle-blocks, 
etc. 

Ross Winans, of Baltimore ; b. 1798, 
N. J. ; author of many inventions re- 
lating to railways ; first patent, 1828 ; 
he designed and patented the pivoted, 
double truck, long passenger cars now 
in common use. His genius also as- 
sisted the development of railways in 
Russia. 

Cyrus H. McCormick. inventor of 
harvesting machines ; b. Walnut Grove, 
Va., 1809 ; in 1851 he exhibited his in- 
vention at the World's Fair, London, 
with practical success. The mowing 
of one acre was one man's day's work ; 
a boy with a mowing machine now cuts 
10 acres a day. Mr. McCormick's 
patents made him a millionaire. 

Charles Goodyear, inventor and pat- 
entee of the simple mixture of rubber 
and sulphur, the basis of the present 
great rubber industries throughout the 
world ; b. New Haven, Conn., 1800 ; in 
1839, by the accidental mixture of a 
bit of rubber and sulphur on a red-hot 
stove, he discovered the process of vul- 
canization. The Goodyear patents 
proved immensely profitable. 

Samuel F. B. Morse, inventor and 
patentee of electric telegraph ; b. 
Charlestown, Mass., 1791; d. 1872; 
artist painter ; exhibited first drawings 
of telegraph 1832; half-mile wire in 
operation 1835 ; caveat 1837 ; Congress 
appropriated $30,000 and in 1844 first 
telegraph line from Washington to 
Baltimore was opened ; after long con- 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



217 



tests the courts sustained his patents 
and he realized from them a large for- 
tune. 

Elias Howe, inventor of the modern 
sewing machine ; b. Spencer, Mass., 
1819; d. 1867; machinist; sewing ma- 
chine patented 1846 ; from that time 
to 1854 his priority was contested and 
he suffered from poverty, when a deci- 
sion of the courts in his favor brought 
him large royalties, and he realized 
several millions from his patent. 

James B. Eads ; b. 1820 ; author and 
constructor of the great steel bridge 
over the Mississippi at St. Louis, 1867, 
and the jetties below New Orleans, 
1876. His remarkable energy was 
shown in 1861 when he built and de- 
livered complete to the Government, all 
within sixty-five days, seven iron-plat- 
ed steamers, 600 tons each ; subse- 
quently other steamers. Some of the 
most brilliant successes of the Union 
arms were due to his extraordinary 
rapidity in constructing these vessels. 

Prof. Joseph Henny ; b. Albany, N. 
Y., 1799 ; d. 1878 ; in 1828 invented the 
present form of the electro-magnet 
which laid the foundation for practi- 
cally the entire electrical art and is 
probably the most important single 
contribution thereto. In 1831 he dem- 
onstrated the practicability of the elec- 
tric current to effect mechanical move- 
ments and operate signals at a distant 
point, which was the beginning of the 
electro-magnetic telegraph ; he devised 
a system of circuits and batteries, 
which contained the principle of the 
relay and local circuit, and also in- 
vented one of the earliest electro-mag- 
netic engines. He made many scien- 
tific researches in electricity and gen- 
eral physics and left many valuable 
papers thereon. In 1826 he was a 
professor in the Albany Academy ; was 
Professor of Natural Philosophy at 
the College of New Jersey in 1832, and 
in 1846 was chosen secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution at Washing- 
ton, where he remained until his death. 
Prof. Henry was probably the greatest 
of American physicists. 

Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, the in- 
ventor of the telephone ; b. 1847 at 
Edinburgh, Scotland, moved to Can- 
ada 1872 and afterward to Boston ; 
here he became widely known as an in- 
structor in phonetics and as an au- 
thority in teaching the deaf and dumb ; 
in 1873 he began the study of the 
transmission of musical tones by tele- 
graph ; in 1876 he invented and pat- 
ented the speaking telephone, which 
has become one of the marvels of the 



nineteenth century and one of the 
greatest commercial enterprises of the 
world ; in 1880 the French Govern- 
ment awarded him the Volta prize 'of 
$10,000 and he has subsequently re- 
ceived the ribbon of the Legion of 
Honor from France and many honor- 
ary degrees, both at home and abroad ; 
Dr. Bell still continues his scientific 
work at his home iy Washington and 
has made valuable contributions to the 
phonograph and aerial navigation. 

[Prof. Bell is now generally known 
as Dr. Bell, out of respect for his 
honorary degree.] 

Thomas A. Edison; b. 1847, at Mi- 
lan, Ohio ; from a poor boy in a coun- 
try village, with a limited education, 
he has become the most fertile inventor 
the world has ever known ; his most 
important inventions are the phono- 
graph in 1877, the incandescent elec- 
tric lamp, 1878 ; the quadruplex tele- 
graph, 1874-1878; the electric pen, 
1876 ; magnetic ore separator, 1880, 
and the three-wire electric circuit, 
1883; his first patent was an electric 
vote-recording machine, taken in 1869, 
since which time more than 700 pat- 
ents have been granted him ; early in 
life Edison started to run a newspaper, 
but his genius lay in the field of elec- 
tricity, where as an expert telegrapher 
he began his great reputation ; his 
numerous inventions have brought 
him great wealth ; a fine villa in Llew- 
ellyn Park, at Orange, N. J., is his 
home, and his extensive laboratory 
near by is still the scene of his con- 
stant work ; he is the world's most 
persevering inventor. 

Captain John Ericsson; b. 1803 in 
Sweden ; d. in New York, 1889 ; at 10 
years of age, designed a sawmill and 
a pumping engine ; made and patented 
many inventions in England in early 
life ; in 1829 entered a locomotive in 
competition with Stephenson's Rocket ; 
in 1836 patented in England his 
double-screw propeller and shortly 
after came to the United States and 
incorporated it in a steamer; in 1861, 
built for the United States Govern- 
ment the turret ironclad Monitor; was 
the inventor of the hot-air engine 
which bears his name ; also a torpedo 
boat which was designed to discharge 
a torpedo by means of compressed air 
beneath the water ; he was an indefati- 
gable worker and made many other in- 
ventions ; his diary, kept daily for 40 
years, comprehended 14,000 pages. 

Charles F. Brush ; b. near Cleveland, 
Ohio, 1849 ; prominently identified 
with the development of the dynamo, 



218 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



the arc light and the storage battery, 
in which fields he made many impor- 
tant inventions; in 1880 the Brush 
Company put its electric lights into 
New York City and has since extended 
its installations into most of the cities 
and towns of the United States ; in 
1881, at the Paris Electrical Exposi- 
tion, he received the ribbon of the Le- 
gion of Honor. 

George Westinghouse, Jr. ; b. at 
Central Bridge, N. Y., 1846; while 
still a boy he modeled and built a 
steam engine ; his first profitable inven- 
tion was a railroad frog ; his most no- 
table inventions, however, were in 
railroad airbrakes, the first patents 
for which were taken out in 1872 ; the 
system now known by his name has 
grown to almost universal adoption 
and constitutes a great labor saving 
and life saving adjunct to railroad 
transportation ; Mr. Westinghouse, 
whose home is at Pittsburg. was one 
of the earliest to develop and use nat- 
ural gas from deep wells ; in late years 
he has made and patented many in- 
ventions in electrical machinery for 
the development of power and light, 
and has commercially developed the 
same on a large scale. 

Ottmar Mergenthaler ; b. 1854, at 
Wurteinberg, Germany; d. 1899; in- 



ventor of the linotype machine ; his 
early training as a watch and clock 
maker well fitted him for the painstak- 
ing and complicated work of his life, 
which was to make a machine which 
would mold the type and set it up in 
one operation ; in 1872 Mergenthaler 
came to Baltimore and entered a ma- 
chine shop, in which he subsequently 
became a partner ; the first linotype 
machine was built in 1886 and put to 
use in the composing room of the New 
York Tribune ; to-day all large news- 
paper and publishing houses are 
equipped with great batteries of these 
machines, costing over $3,000 each, 
and each performing the work of five 
compositors. 

The first recorded patent granted by 
the United States Government bears 
date July 31, 1790, issued to Samuel 
Hopkins, for making pot and pearl 
ashes. Two other patents were grant- 
ed in that year. In the following year, 
1791, thirty-three patents were grant- 
ed. Among them were six patents to 
James Rumsay and one to John Fitch 
for inventions relating to steam en- 
gines and steam vessels. For the sin- 
gle year of 1876 the number of pat- 
ents and caveats applied for was al- 
most 20.000. 



PROGRESS OF INVENTIONS. 



Below is given in chronological or- 
der a list of important inventions be- 
ginning with the 16th century, with 



the title of the invention, the year it 
was made, the name of the inventor 
and his nativity : 



Inventions. 


Date. 


Inventor. 


Nativity. 


Discoveries of electrical phenomena 
Won the title of "founder of the science of 
electricity." 
Screw printing-press 
Spirally grooved rifle barrel 
Iron furnaces 
The u?e of steam 


J 1560 
1 1603 

1620 
1620 
1621 
1630 


William Gilbert 

Blaew 
Roster 
Lord Dudley 


England 

Germany 
England 
England 


The first authentic reference in English liter- 
ature to the use of steam in the arts. 
Bay Psalm Book, first book published in the 
Colonies 
Barometer 
Steam engine, atmospheric pressure 
Machine for generating electricity 


1640 
1643 
1G63 
1681-6 
1690 


David Ramseye 

Torricelli 
Thomas Newcomen 
Otto von Guericke 
William Rittenhouse 


England 

Mass. 
Italy 
England 
Germany 
Penna. 


First steam engine with a piston 
The manufacture of nlate glass established . . 
First to discover difference between electric 
conductors and insulators. ... ... 


1690 
1695 
(1696 
1 1736 


Denys Papin 
Stephen Gray 


France 
France 

England 


The first practical application of the steam 
engine. . . 


1702 


Thomas Savery 


England 


First newspaper in America, "Boston News 
Letter" 
First to produce electric spark 


1704 
j 1708 
1 1716 


John Camobell 
Dr, J. Wall 


Mass. 
England 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



219 



PROGRESS OF INVENTIONS Continued. 



Inventions 


Date. 


Inventor. 


Nativity. 


Thermometer 


1709 


Fahrenheit 


Danzig 


Electrometer, the well-known pith ball 

The "Franklin" printing-press 
Electrical glass plate machine. . . . 


j 1718 
{ 1772 
1725 
j 1727 


John Cantor 

Benjamin Franklin 
Martin de Planta 


England 

Utd. States 
France 


Stereotyping. 


1 1772 
1731 


William Ged 


Scotland 


First to discover that electricity is of two kinds. 
Flying shuttle in weaving 


1733-9 
1733 


Cisternay du Fay 
John Kay 


France 
England 


Rotary 3-color printing-press (multi-color). . . 
Electric or Leyden Jar 
Substitution of coke for coal in melting iron . . 
Lightning conductor 


1743 
1745 
1750 
1752 


Platt & Keen 
Kleist 

Abraham Darby 
Benjamin Franklin 


England 
Germany 
England 
Utd States 


Spinning jenny. . . 


1763 


James Hargreave^ 




Pianoforte, played in public in England in ... 
Drawing rolls in a spinning machine. . . 


1767 
1769 


Richard Arkwright 


England 
England 


The introduction of the "Hollander" or beat- 
ing engine for pulping rags in the manufac- 
ture of paper. . . . 


1773 






The mule spinner 
Cut nails. 


1774 
1775 


Samuel Crampton 


England 
Utd States 


Circular wood saw 
Embryo bicycle 


1777 
1779 


Miller 
Branchard & Magurier 


England 


Steam engine, the basis of the modern engine . . 
Gas balloon 


1782 
1783 


James Watt 
J E & J M Montgolfier 


Scotland 


Puddling iron . 


1783-4 






Plow, with cast-iron mold board, and wrought- 
anci cast-iron shares. . . . 


1784 




Scotland 


Power loom 
First steamboat in the United States .... 


1785 
1786 


James Cartwright 


England 
Utd States 


Steam road wagon (first automobile) 
Grain threshing machine 
Hobby horse, forerunner of bicycle 
Rotary steam power printing-press, the first 
idea of 


1787 
1788 
1790 

1790 


Oliver Evans 
Andrew Meikle 


Utd. States 
England 
England 


Wood planing machine 
Gas first used as an illuminant 
Cotton gin 


1791 
1792 
1794 


Samuel Bentham 
Wm. Murdoch 
Eli Whitney 


England 
England 
Utd States 


Art of lithography 
Machine for making continuous webs of paper. 
Electric battery discovered 
Steam coach. . . . 


1796 
1800 
1800 
1801 


Alois Senefelder 
Louis Robert 
Volta 


Germany 
France 
Italy 


Wood mortising machine 
Pattern loom 
First fire-proof safe 
Steamboat on the Clyde, "Charlotte Dundas". 
First photograohic experiments 


1801 
1801 
1801 
1802 
1802 


M. J. Brunei 
M. J. Jacquard 
Richard Scott 
William Symington 


England 
France 
England 
England 


Planing machine 
The application of steam to the loom. . . 


1802 
1803 


J. Bramah 


England 


Steel pen 


1803 


Wise 


F 1 1 


Steam locomotive on rails 
Application of twin-screw propellers in steam 
navigation. 
Process of making malleable-iron castings 


1804 

1804 . 
1804 


Richard Trevithick 
John Stevens 


England 
Utd. States 


First life preserver 
Electro-plating 
Knitting machine, the latch needle in the .... 
Steamboat navigation on the Hudson River. . . 
Percussion or detonating compound 
First street gas lighting in England 
Band wood saw 
Voltaic arc. . . 


1805 
1805 
1803 
1E07 
1S07 
1807 
1303 
1808 


John Edwards 
Luigi Brugnatelli 
Jeandeau 
Robert Fulton 
A. J. Forsvth 
F. A. Winsor 
Newberry 


England 
Italy 
France 
Utd. States 
Scotland 
England 
England 


First steamboat to make & trip to sea, the 
"Phoenix". . . . . . 


1808 




Utd States 


Multi-wire telegraphy 


1800 


Sommering 




Revolving cylinder printing-press 
Breech-loading shotgun. . . . 


1810 
1811 


Frederick Koenig 
Thornton & Hall 


Germany 
Utd States 


Storage battery 


1812 


j B Ritter 




Dry pile (prototype of dry battery) 
First practical steam rotary printing-press, 
paper printed on both sides 


1812 

1814 


Zamboni 
Frederick Koenig 


Italy 
Germany 



220 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



PROGRESS OF INVENTIONS Continued. 



Inventions. 


Date. 


Inventor. 


Nativity. 


First locomotive in United States 
First circular wood saw made in this country . . 
Heliography 
Kaleidoscope 
Miners' safety lamp 
Dry gas meter 
Knitting machine. . . . 


1814 
1814 
1814 
1814 
1815 
1815 
1816 


George Stephenson 
Benjamin Cummings 
Jos. N. Niepce 
Sir David Brewster 
Sir Humphry Davy 
S. Clegg 
Brunei 


England 
Utd. States 
France 
England 
England 
England 


' ' Draisine " bicycle 
' 'Columbian " press, elbowed pulling bar, num- 
ber of impressions per hour, 50 
Stethoscope 
Electro-magnetism discovered . 


1816 

1817 
1819 
1819 


Baron von Drais 

George Clymer 
Laennec 
H C Oersted 


Germany 

Utd. States 
France 


Lathe for turning irregular wood forms 
The theory of electro-dynamics first propounded 


1819 
1820 
1820 


Thomas Blanchard 
Andre Ampere 


Utd. States 
France 


The conversion of the electric current into me- 
chanical motion 
Galvanometer 
Multi-color printing. . 


1821 
1822 
1822 


Michael Faraday 
Schweigger 
P Force 


England 
Germany 
Utd States 


Calculating machine 
Discovery of thermo-electricity 
Liquefaction and solidification of gas 


1822 
1823 
1823 


Charles Babbage. 
Prof. Seebeck 


England 
England 


Water gas, discovery of 
Portland cement 
Electro-magnet 
First passenger railway, opened between Stock- 


1823 
1825 
1825 

1825 


Ibbetson 
Joseph Aspdin 
Sturgeon 


England 
England 
England 


Electrical spur wheel 
First railroad in United States, near Quincy, 
Mass 
The law of galvanic circuits formulated 


1826 

1826 

1827 
1827 


Barlow 

George S. Ohm 
John Walker 


England 

Germany 
Utd States 


The reduction of aluminum 
Law of electrical resistance 
Improved rotary printing-press, London Times, 
5,000 impressions per hour 
Hot air blast for iron furnaces 


1827 
1827 

1827 
1828 


Friedrich Wohler 
George S. Ohm 

Cowper & Applegarth 
J B NeiNon 


Germany . 
Germany 

England 


Wood planing machine 
Spool electro-magnet 
Tubular locomotive boiler 
Spinning ring frame 
The "Washington" printing-press, lever mo- 
tion and knuckle joint for a screw, number 
of impressions per hour, 200 
First steam locomotive in United States, 
"Stourbridge Lion " 
Double fluid galvanic battery 
First portable steam fire engine 
Magneto-electric induction 
Chloroform 
First conception of electric telegraph 
First magneto-electric machines 


1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 

1829 

1829 
1829 
1830 
1831 
1831 
1832 
1832 


William Woodworth 
Joseph Henry 
S('quin 
John Thorp 

Samuel Rust 

A. C. Becquerel 
Brathwaite <Sr Ericsson 
Michael Faraday 
G. J. Guthrie 
Prof. S. F. B. Morse 


Utd. States 
Utd. States 
France 
England 

Utd. States 

France 
England 
England 
Scotland 
Utd. States 
Utd States 


Rotary electric motor 
Chloral-hydrate 
Locomotive ''Old Ironsides," built 


1832 
1832 
1832 


Wm. Sturgeon 
Justus von Liebig 
M W Baldwin 


England 
Germany 
Utd. States 


Link-motion for locomotives 
Adoption of steam whistle for locomotives. . . . 
Reciprocating saw-tooth cutter within double 
guard fingers for reapers 
''McCormick" reaper 


1832 
1833 

1833 
1834 


Sir Henry James 
George Stephenson 

Obed Hussey 
Cyrus H McCormick 


England 
England 

Utd. States 
Utd States 


Rotary electric motor. . , 
Carbolic acid discovered 


1834 
1834 


M. H. Jacobi 
Runge 


Russia 
Germany 


Horseshoe machine 


1835 


H. Burden 


Utd. States 


Constant electric battery 
Acetylene gas discovered 
The revolver; a device ' 'for combining a num- 
ber of long barrels so as to rotate upon a spin- 
dle by the act of cocking the hammer" 
The screw applied to steam navigation 

The galvanizing of iron 


1836 
1836 

1836 
j 1836 
1 1841 
1837 


J. P. Daniell 
Edmund Davy 

Samuel Colt 
John Ericsson 

Henry Craufurd 


England 
England 

Utd. States 
Utd. States 

England 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



221 



PROGRESS OF INVENTIONS Continued. 



Inventions. 


Date. 


Inventor. 


Nativity. 


Indicator-telegraph 


1837 


Cooke & Wheatstone 


England 


Photographic carbon printing 


1838 


Mungo Ponton 


France 


Babbitt metal 


1839 


Isaac Babbitt 


Utd States 


Vulcanization of rubber 
The first boat electrically propelled 
Daguerreotype 
(First to produce a direct photographic posi- 
tive in the camera by means of highly polished 
silver surfaced plate exposed to the vapors of 
iodine and subsequent development with mer- 
cury vapor.) 
Making photo-prints from paper negatives 
(First production of positive proofs from 
negatives.) 
Photographic portraits (Daguerreotype 
process.) . 


1839 
1839 
1839 

1839 
1839 


Charles Goodyear 
Jacobi 
Louis Daguerre 

Fox Talbot 
Profs Draper & Morse 


Utd. States 
Germany 
France 

England 
Utd. States 


"First incandescent electric lamp 
Celestial photography 
Artesian well . . . 


1840 
1840 
1840 


Grove 
Draper 


England 
Utd. States 
Paris 


Pneumatic caissons ; 
Pianoforte automatically played 
Water gas, utilization of 
Steam hammer 
Typewriting machine 


1841 
1842 
1842 
1842 
1843 


M Triger 
M. Seytre 
Selligne 
James Nasmyth 
Charle 5 * Thurber 


France 
France 
France 
Scotland 
Utd States 


First telegram sent 
The use of nitrous oxide gas as an anaesthetic . . 
The electric arc light (gas retort carbon in a 
vacuum) 
First telegraphic message, Washington, Balti- 
more 
Automatic adjustment of electric arc light car- 
bons 


1844 
1844 

1844 
1844 
1845 


Prof. S. F B. Morse 
Dr. Horace Wells 

Lfon Foucault 
Prof. S. F. B. Morse 
Thomas Wright 


Utd. States 
Utd. States 

France 
Utd. States 
England 


Double cylinder printing-press. 
Pneumatic tire. 
Sewing machine 
Printing telegraph 


1845 
1845 
1846 
1846 


R. Hoe & Co. 
R. W. Thompson 
Elias Howe 


Utd. States 
England 
Utd. States 
Utd States 


Suez canal started 
Ether as an anaesthetic. . . 


1846 
1846 


De Lesseps 


France 
Utd States 


Electric cautery 
Artificial limbs. . . 
Gun cotton 
First pianoforte keyboard player. . 


1846 
1846 
1846 
1846 


Crusell 
Schi'mbein 


Russia 

Germany 
France 


Chloroform in surgery 
Nitro-glycerine 
Time-lock 
Hoe's lightning press, capable of printing 20,000 
impressions per hour 
Match-making machinery 
Breech gun-lock, interrupted thread 
Magazine gun 
Steam pressure gauge 
Lenticular stereoscope 
Latch needle for knitting machine 
' 'Corliss" engine 
Printing-press, curved plates secured to a ro- 
tating cylinder 
Mercerized cotton. . . 


1847 
1847 
1847 

1847 
1848 
1849 
1849 
1849 
1849 
1849 
1849 

1849 
1850 


Dr. Simpson 
Sobrero 
Savage 

Richard M. Hoe 
A. L. Dennison 
Chambers 
Walter Hunt, 
Bourdon ' 
Sir David Brewster 
J. T. Hibbert 
G. H. Corliss 

Jacob Worms 


Scotland 
Utd. States 

Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
France 
England 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 

France 
England 


Collodion process in photography 
American machine-made watches 
Electric locomotive 
Self-raker for harvesters 


1850 
1850 
1851 
1851 


Scott Archer 

Dr Page 
W H. Seymour 


England 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 


Breech-loading rifle 
Icemaking machine. . . 


1851 
1851 


Maynard 
J Gorrie 


Utd. States 
Utd States 


Ophthalmoscope 
The Ruhmkorff coil 
Fire-alarm telegraph 
Reticulated screen for half-tone photographic 
printing 
Soda process of making pulp from wood 
Laws of magneto-electric induction 
Laws of electro-statics 


1851 
1851 
1852 

1852 
1853 
1853 
1853 


Helmholtz 
Ruhmkorff 
Channing & Farmer 

Fox Talbot 
Watt & Burgess 
Michael Faraday 
Michael Faraday 


Germany 
Germany 
Utd. States 

England 
Utd. States 
England 
England 



222 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



PROGRESS OF INVENTIONS Continued. 



Inventions. 


Date. 


Inventor. 


Nativity. 


Electrolysis 
Duplex telegraph 
Photographic roll films 


1853 
1853 
1854 


Michael Faraday 
Gintl 
Melhuish 


England 
Austria 
England 


Diamond rock drill. . 


1854 


Herman 


Utd States 


Four-motion feed for sewirg machines 
Magazine firearm 
Fat decomposed by water or steam at high tem- 
perature, since largely used in soap making. . 
Safety matches. 


1854 
1854 

1854 
1855 


A. B. Wilson 
Smith & Wesson 

R. A. Tilghman 
Lundstrom 


Utd. States 
Utd. States 

Utd. States 
Sweden 


Iron-clad floating batteries first used in Cri- 
mean war 
Cocaine - 


1855 
1855 


Gaedeke 




Process of making steel, blowing air through 
molten pig iron . . . 


1855 


Sir Henry Bessemer 






1855 


Dr J M Taupenot 




Bicycle. . . 


1855 


Ernst Michaux 


France 


Sleeping car 


1856 


Woodruff 


Utd. States 


Aniline dyes 
Printing machine for the blind (contains ele- 
ments of the present typewriting machine). . 
Regenerative furnace 
Refining engine in paper pulp making . . 


1856 

1856 
1856 
1856 


Perkins 

Alfred E. Beach 
Win. Siemens 
T. Kingsland 


England 

Utd. States 
England . 
Utd States 


Coal-oil first sold in the United States 
First sea-going iron-clad war vessel, the 
"Glorie" 


1857 
1857 


Messrs. Stout & Hand 


Utd. States 


Ground wood pulp 
Inclined elevator and platform in the reaper. . . 
Cable car 
Breech-loading ordnance 


1858 
1858 
1858 
1858 
1858 


Henry Voelter 
J. S Marsh 
E. A. Gardner 
Wright & Gould 
Giffard 


Germany 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 


First Atlantic cable 
Great Eastern launched 


1858 
1859 


Cyrus Field 


Utd. States 




1860 


Gaston Plante" 




Singing telephone 


1860 
1860 


Philip Reis 
F P E Cam' 


Germany 


Improved stereotyping process 
Shoe-sewing machine 
Driven well, a tube with a pointed perforated 
end driven into the ground 
Passenger elevator 


1861 
1861 

1861 
1861 


Charles Craske 
George McKay 

Col. N. W. Green 
E. G. Otis 


Utd. States 
Utd. States 

Utd. States 
Utd. States 


Barbed-wire fence introduced 
Calcium carbide produced 
Revolving turret for floating battery 
First iron-clad steam battery, "Monitor" 
Gatling gun 


1861 
1862 
1862 
1862 
1862 


Frederich Woehler 
Theodore Timby 
John Ericsson 
Dr. R. J. Gatling 


Utd. States 
Germany 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 


Smokeless gunpowder 
Pneumatic pianoforte player (regarded as first 
to strike keys by pneumatic pockets) 
Explosive gelatine. ... 


1863 

1863 
1864 


J. F. E. Schultze 

M. Fourneaux 
A. Nobel 


Prussia 

France 
France 


Rubber dental plate 


1864 


J A Cummings 


Utd States 


Automatic grain-binding device 


1864 


Jacob Behel 


Utd. States 


Process of making fine steel 


1865 
1865 


Martin 
Sir Joseph Lister 


Utd. States 


Web-feeding printing-press 
Automatic shell ejector for revolver. . . . 


1865 
1865 


William Bullock 
W. C. Dodge 


Utd. States 
Utd States 


Open-hearth steel process 


1866 


Siemens-Martin 


England 


Compressed air rock drill 
Torpedo. . 


1866 
1866 


C. Burleigh. 
Whitehead 


Utd. States 
Utd. States 


Dynamo electric machine 
Sulphite process for making paper pulp from 
wood. . . 


1866 
1867 


Wilde 
Tilghman 


England 

Utd. States 


Dynamo electric machine 
Disappearing gun carriage 
First practical typewriting machine . 


1866 
1868 
1868 


Siemens 
Moncrief 
C. L. Sholes 


Germany 
England 
Utd. States 


Dynamite 
Oleomargarine 
Water heater for steam fire engine . . 


1868 
1868 
1868 


A. Nobel 
H. Mege 
W. A. Brickell 


France 
France 
Utd. States 


Sulky plow 
Railway air-brake 
Tunnel shield (operated by hydraulic power). . 
A curved spring tooth harrow. . . 


1868 
1869 
1869 
1869 


B. Slusser 
George Westinghouse 
Alfred E. Beach 
David L. Garver 


Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



223 



PROGRESS OF INVENTIONS Continued. 


Inventions. 


Date. 


Inventor. 


Nativity. 


Dynamo-electric machine 
Celluloid. . . 


1870 
1870 
1870 
1871 

1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 

1872 
1872 
1872 
1873 
1873 

1873 
1873 

1873 
1873 
1874 
1874 
1875 
1875 
1875 
1875 
1875 
1876 
1876 

1876 
1876 
1876 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1878 

1878 

1878 
1879 
1879 
1879 
1879 
1879 
1880 
1880 
1880 
1880 
1880 
1881 

1882 
1881 
1882 
1882 
1884 
1884 
1884 
1884 
1884 
1884 
1884 
1885 
1885 


Gramme 
J. W. & Isaac Hyatt 
L. Hailer 
Goodyear 

R. L. Maddox 
Hoe & Tucker 
S. D. Locke 
S. Ingersoll 
J. Lyall 
Clerk Maxwell 
George Westinghouse 
E. H. Janney 
Willis 

T. A. Edison 
M. L. Gorham 

Charles Bennett 
Locke & Wood 
Glidden & Vaughan 
Sir William Thompson 
D. Brown 
T. S. C. Lowe 
F. Wegmann 
Geo. T. Smith 
R. P. Pictet 
Alex. G. Bell 
Paul Jablochkoff 

Russell 
D. C. Prescott 

T. A. Edison 
N. A. Otto 
T. A. Edison 
Emil Berliner 
T. A. Edison 

Mallon 

Gaily 
J. F. Appleby 
Sir Wm. Crookes 
Siemens 
W. Foy , 
Lee 
Blake 
Greener 
Camille A. Faure 
Eberth & Koch 
Sternberg 
Reece 

Schmaele 
Wm. Schmid 
Robert Koch 
Louis Pasteur 
Robert Koch 
Loeffler 
Nicolaier 
Kuno 
Ottmar Mergenthaler 
George W. Marble 
Schultz 
Cowles 
Carl Welsbach 


France 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 

England 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
England 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
England 

Utd. States 
Utd. States 

England 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
England 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Switzerland 
Utd. States 
Russia 

Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Coplay, Pa. 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 

Utd. States 

Utd. States 
Utd. States 
England 
Germany 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
France 
Germany 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 

Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Germany 
France 
Germany 
Germany 
France 
Utd. States 
Germany 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
England 
Germanv 


Rebounding gun-lock 
The Goodyear welt shoe-sewing machine 
Photographic gelatino-bromide emulsion (basis 
of present rapid photography) 
Continuous web printing-press 
Grain binder 
Compressed air rock drill 


Theory that light is an electric phenomenon. . . 
Automatic air brake 


Automatic car coupler 
The photographic platinotype process. . 


(Prints by this process are permanent.) 
Quadruplex telegraph 
Twine binder for harvesters 
Gelatino-bromide photographic emulsion (sen- 
sitiveness to light greatly increased by the 
application of heat) 
Self-binding reaper. 


Barbed-wire machine 
Siphon recorder for submarine telegraphs 


Illuminating water gas. 
Roller flour mills 


Middlings purifier for flour 
Ice-making machine. 


Speaking telephone 
Electric candle. . . . 


(The first step towards the division of the 
electric current for lighting.) 
Continuous machine for making tobacco cigar- 
Steam fsed saw mills 
The first Portland cement plant in U. S 
Phonograph 
Gas engine 
Carbon microphone. . . . 


Telephone transmitter of variable resistance. . 
Carbon filament for electric lamp 
(Beginning of the incandescent vacuum elec- 
tric light.) 
Ro + ary disk cultivator 


Decided advance in the "expression" of self- 
playing pianofortes 
Automatic grain binder 
Cathode rays discovered 
Electric railway 
Steam plow 
Magazine rifle. . . 


"Blake" telephone transmitter. . 
Hammerless gun 
Storage battery or accumulator 
Typhoid bacillus isolated 
Pneumonia bacillus isolated 
Button-hole machine 


Improvement in "expression" of self-playing 
pianofortes 


Hand photographic camera for plates 
Tuberculosis bacillus isolated 
Hydrophobia bacillus isolated 
Cholera bacillus isolated 
Diphtheria bacillus isolated 
Lockjaw bacillus isolated 
Antipyrene. 


Linotype machine 
The rear-driven chain safety bicycle 
Chrome tanning of leather. . . . 


Process of reducing aluminum. 


Gas burner. , 



224 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



PROGRESS OF INVENTIONS Continued. 



Inventions. 


Date. 


Inventor. 


Nativity. 


Hydraulic dredge 
First electric railway in United States, Hamp- 
den and Baltimore, Md 
Contact device for overhead electric trolley. . . 
Graphophone 
Electric welding 
Combined harvester and thresher 
Band wood saw 
Cyanide process of obtaining gold and silver. . 
System of polyphase electric currents 
Incandescent gas light 
(The formation of a cone-shaped interwoven 
mantle of thread coated with a refractory rare 
earth and rendering the same incandescent by 
the heat rays of a Bunsen gas burner regardless 
of how the gas is produced.) 
Process of annealing armor plate . 


1885 

1885 
1885 
1886 
1886 
1886 
1887 
1887 
1887 
1887 

1888 
1888 

1888 
1888 
1889 
1889 
1889 
1890 
1890 
1890 
1890 
1891 
1891 
1891 
1891 
1891 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1893 
1893 
1893 
1895 
1895 
1895 
1895 
1896 

1896 
1896 
1897 

1900 

1901 
1901 

1901 

1902 
1902 
1903 
1903 


Bowers 

C. J. Van Depoele 
Bell & Tainter 
Elihu Thompson 
Matteson 
D. C. Prescott 
McArthur & Forrest 
Nicola Tesla 
Carl A. Von Welsbach 

Harvey 
Eastman & Walker 

H. BeChardonnet 
Heinrich Hertz 

Schneider 
Chas. M. Hall 
W. Stephens 
Ottmar Mergenthaler 

Krag-Jorgensen 
Edouard Branly 
C. A. Parsons 
G. F. Russell 
Brown 
Emile Berliner 
Northrup 
J. J. A. Trillat 
Kimball 
T. A. Edison 
E. G. Acheson 
Thos. L. Willson 
Carl Linde 

Prof. W. C. Roentgen 
Thomas L. Willson 
G. Marconi 

Henri Becquerel 
Niels R. Finsen 
Walter Nernst 

Peter Cooper Hewitt 

M. Santos-Dumont 
Deering Harvester Co 

Denny & Brothers 
Encyclopedia At 


Utd. States 

Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Austria 

Utd. States 
Utd. States 

France 
Germany 
Coplay, Pa. 
Utd. States 
Utd. States, 
Utd. States 
Germany 

Utd. States 
England 
England 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
France 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Germany 
Utd. States 
Germany 
Utd. States 
Italy 

France 
Denmark 
Germany 

Utd. States 

France 
Utd. States 

England 

Utd. States 
Germany 
nericana. 


' 'Kodak" snap-shot camera 
(Constructed to use a continuous sensitized 
ribbon film.) 
Process of making artificial silk 
Hertzian waves or electric-wave radiation .... 
First rotary cement kilns in U. S w . 
Nickel steel .7 . 
Process for making aluminum 
Electric plow 
Improved linotype machine 


Bicycles equipped with pneumatic tires 
Krag-Jorgensen magazine rifle 
"Coherer" for receiving electric waves 
Rotary steam turbine 
Cement-lined paper-pulp digester 
Round bale cotton press 
Microphone. . . 


Power loom 
Commercial application of formic-aldehyde. . . 
Shoe-last lathe, for different lengths? . . . 


Kinetoscope 
Process for making carborundum. . . . 


Calcium carbide produced in electric furnace. . 
Process for liquefying air 
Electric locomotive, B. & O. Bell Tunnel 
X-rays 
Acetylene gas from calcium carbide 


System of wireless telegraphy 
Foundation laid of science of radio-activity, 
i.e., emanation of penetrating rays from lumi- 
nescent bodies 
Use of ultra-violet rays in treating diseases. . . 
Nernst electric light 


(Method of rendering a clay compound ca- 
pable of conducting electricity and thence be- 
coming brilliantly incandescent without a 
vacuum.) 
Mercury vapor electric light 
(An artificial light composed strictly of the 
ultra-blue violet rays of the spectrum obtained 
by passing an electric current through a partial 
vacuum tube filled with mercury vapor, the 
latter acting as a conductor. Possesses re- 
markable actinic power for photographic pur- 
poses.) 
Air-ship . . . 


Automobile mower 
The first passenger steam turbine ship, "Ed- 
ward VII." 
The first oil-burning steamship built in the 
United States, "Nevada" 
English Pacific cable, Canada- Australia 
American Pacific cable 
Berlin-Zossen Road, 130^ miles an hour 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



225 



GENERAL INFORMATION REGARDING PATENTS. 



WHAT is A PATENT? The term 
patent or letters patent is derived from 
litterae patentes, signifying that which 
is open or disclosed in contradistinc- 
tion to lettre de cache, that which 
is sealed or secret. This term is the 
keynote of the whole principle upon 
which the patent system is built up, 
namely, disclosure. The disclosure 
must be honest, absolute and unre- 
served. The penalty for mental crook- 
edness or for ignorance in giving out 
fully and freely the nature of the in- 
vention is severe and direct and is 
nothing less than forfeiture of the pat- 
ent itself. The reason for this is per- 
fectly logical and arises from the very 
meaning, spirit and nature of the re- 
lationship existing between the pat- 
entee and the government. The term 
of a patent is 17 years. During this 
term of 17 years the patentee obtains 
a monopoly under which he secures ex- 
clusive right of manufacture, use and 
sale. The patent itself, however, is in 
the nature of a contract between the 
patentee and the government, presu- 
mably for their mutual benefit. The 
government grants to the inventor the 
exclusive right of manufacture and 
sale for 17 years on condition that the 
inventor shall disclose fully the nature 
of his invention or discovery, and shall 
allow the public the unrestricted use 
of the invention after this term has 
expired. If he fail in making full dis- 
closure, he has not lived up to the 
terms of the implied contract and the 
patent thereby becomes null and void. 
It sometimes happens that an inventor 
discloses freely part of the invention, 
but cunningly conceals some essential 
step in the process, but if the case is 
tested within the courts and the real 
facts are brought to light, the patent 
will be declared invalid. At the end 
of the term of 17 years the patent be- 
comes public property, and the article 
may be freely manufactured by any 
one. It can never thereafter, as in so 
many cases in the Middle Ages, be- 
come a lost art. 

WHO MAY OBTAIN A PATENT? In 
order to secure a valid patent, the ap- 
plicant must declare upon oath that he 
believes himself to be the true, original 
and first inventor or discoverer of the 
art, machine, manufacture, composi- 
tion or improvement for which he so- 
licits a patent; that he does not know 
and does not believe that the same was 
ever before known or used ; and that 
the invention has not been in public 



use or on sale in the United States for 
more than two years before the appli- 
cation was filed, and that the inven- 
tion has not been described in any 
printed publication for more than two 
years prior to the filing of the appli- 
cation. Any one who can subscribe to 
the above conditions may apply for a 
patent, irrespective of race, color, age, 
or nationality. Minors and women 
and even convicts may apply for pat- 
ents under our law. The rights even 
of a dead man in an invention are not 
lost, for an application may be filed in 
his name by his executor or adminis- 
trator, and the rights of his heirs 
thereby safeguarded. The patent in 
this case would issue to the executor 
or administrator and would become 
subject to the administration of the 
estate like any other property left by 
the deceased. Even the rights of an 
insane person may not be lost, as the 
application may be filed by his legal 
guardian. If foreign patents for the 
same invention have been previously 
issued, having been filed more than 12 
months before the filing of the United 
States application, the patent would 
be refused. The applicant must state 
his nationality. It often happens that 
two or more individuals have jointly 
worked upon the invention, and in this 
case the several inventors should joint- 
ly apply for the patent. Should they 
not so apply, the patent when issued 
would be invalid. If they are merely 
partners, however, and not co-invent- 
ors, they should not apply jointly for 
a patent, as the inventor alone is en- 
: titled to file the application. He may. 
however, assign a share in the patent 
to his partner, coupled with the re- 
quest that the patent should issue to 
them jointly. . It is of the greatest im- 
portance that these distinctions should 
be. clearly understood ; otherwise, the 
patent may be rendered invalid. 

WHAT MAY BE PATENTED? Any 
new and useful art, machine, manufac- 
ture or compos 1 ' tion of matter, or any 
new and useful improvements thereon. 
The thing invented must be new and 
useful. These are conditions precedent 
to the granting of a patent. Of these 
two conditions by far the more import- 
ant is the former, and it is concerning 
the interpretation of this word "new" 
and its bearing upon the invention 
that the principal work and labor in- 
volved in passing an application safely 
through the Patent Office is involved. 
When the invention has been worked 



226 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



out by the inventor and he is pre- 
pared to file his application, his attor- 
ney prepares the necessary papers, as 
provided for by law, namely : An 
Oath, a Petition, a Specification con- 
s'sting of a description of the inven- 
tion and concluding w.th claims which 
specifically set forth what the inventor 
claims to be the novel features of the 
invention, and drawings which are pre- 
pared and filed with the case, and in 
due course the application is ready 
for examination in the Patent Office. 
The question of whether the invention 
is new is then considered, and the bur- 
den of proof that the invention is not 
new rests upon the Patent Office. The 
examination consists in searching 
through the files of the Patent Office 
among the patents that have been al- 
ready issued, and through such litera- 
ture as may bear upon the subject. 
If any reference is discovered that an- 
ticipates the invention, as defined by 
the claims of the specification, the ap- 
plicant is informed of the fact, and he 
is allowed to amend his papers and 
narrow the claims so as to avoid the 
prior patents, if possible. If his at- 
torney considers the position of the 
Patent Office untenable, he may pre- 
sent arguments to show wherein he be- 
lieves that the inventor is entitled to a 
patent. It is thus seen that the ques- 
tion of whether an invention is new is 
one of fact, and one of the greatest 
importance, and upon the showing that 
the inventor is able to make during 
the prosecution of the case, depends 
largely the future success of the pat- 
ent. The evidence adduced in proving 
that the invention is not new must be 
tangible and accessible. A patent 
would not be refused or overturned on 
a mere mental concept. There must 
be some evidence of a substantial char- 
acter that serves to show that the 
earlier idea was reduced to practice 
or at least that there was such a de- 
scription or drawing made, as would 
be sufficient for one skilled in the art to 
reduce the invention to practice. If it 
has not been actually reduced to prac- 
tice, it must be a concrete not an ab- 
stract idea. 

It is essential that the application 
for a patent should be filed before the 
invention has been in public use or on 
sale for a period of two years. If the 
inventor has publicly used or sold his 
invention for a period of two years, it 
becomes public property and he can- 
not regain the right to obtain a pat- 
ent. He may. however, make models 
and experiment with his invention for 



a much longer period, provided he does 
not disclose his invention to the pub- 
lic or put it into actual use or on sale 
for a period of two years. The word 
"useful" is not one which usually 
gives either the Patent Office or the 
inventor a great deal of trouble, as 
any degree of utility, however insignifi- 
cant, will serve to entitle the invent- 
or to a patent. It has often hap- 
pened that an invention which ap- 
pears, at the time the patent is ap- 
plied for, to have no special utility, in 
later years, owing to new discoveries 
or improvements in the arts, is found 
to possess the greatest merit and 
value. Unless an invention is posi- 
tively meretricious, therefore, it is 
difficult to assume that it either has no 
utility or never will have any. Pat- 
ents are granted for "any new and 
useful art, machine, manufacture or 
composition of matter, or any improve- 
ment thereon." It is seen from the 
terms of the statute that almost any 
creature of the inventive faculty of 
man becomes a proper subject for a 
patent. The exceptions are very few. 
Patents will not be granted, for ex- 
ample, for any invention that offends 
the law of nature. Under this cate- 
gory may be mentioned perpetual mo- 
tion machines. In case an application 
of this character is presented, the 
Commissioner politely informs * the 
applicant that the matter cannot be 
considered until a working model 
demonstrating the principle of the in- 
vention has been deposited in the Pat- 
ent Office. Inventions of an immoral 
nature will not be considered. Medi- 
cines and specifics are not now proper 
subjects for letters patent, unless some 
important new discovery is involved. 

PATENTED ARTICLES MUST BE 
MARKED. Articles manufactured and 
sold under a patent must be so marked 
that the public shall have notice that 
the article is a patented one. This 
notice consists of the word "Patented," 
together with the date when the patent 
was issued or the Serial Number of the 
patent. Damages in an infringement 
suit cannot be recovered unless the 
defendant has received such notice 
that the article is patented. The term 
of a United States patent is 17 years. 
This term cannot be extended except 
by special Act of Congress. It is 
many years since a bill seeking an ex- 
tension of the term of a patent has 
been passed by Congress. 

APPEALS. If an application for a 
patent has been rejected, the applicant 
may appeal from the Primary Examin- 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



227 



er to the Board of Examiners-in-Chief. 
He may further carry the appeal to 
the Commissioner of Patents, and in 
case he is not satisfied with the lat- 
ter decision, he may carry the appeal 
finally to the Court of Appeals of the 
District of Columbia. 

INTERFERENCE. If two or more in- 
dividuals shall have invented the same 
thing at or about the same time, inter- 
ference proceedings may be instituted 
to determine which applicant is the 
original or first inventor. Interference 
proceedings are instituted between ap- 
plicants whose applications are pend- 
ing or between a pending application 
and a patent already issued, provided 
the latter patent has not been issued 
for more than two years prior to the 
filing of the conflicting application. 
The proceedings are conducted before 
the Examiner of Interferences. Ap- 
peal may be taken from the Examiner 
of Interferences to the Board of Ex- 
aminers-in-Chief, and from the Board 
of Examiners-in-Chief to the Commis- 
sioner, and thence to the Court of Ap- 
peals of the District of Columbia. Not 
all the claims for a patent are neces- 
sarily involved, only such as cover the 
particular feature of the invention 
which is declared to be in interference. 
The unsuccessful applicant by elimi- 
nating the claims or claim in contro- 
versy may procure allowance of the 
other claims not objected to, and have 
the patent issued. In determining the 
question of priority of invention, wit- 
nesses are examined and the proceed- 
ings are conducted much in the same 
manner as in a suit at law. The first 
step in the proceeding cons'sts in filing 
with the Commissioner a Preliminary 
Statement made under oath, giving the 
date at which the invention was first 
conceived and reduced to some tangi- 
ble form, such as the making of draw- 
ings, the construction of a model, or 
the disclosing of the invention to an- 
other. The object of the subsequent 
examination and cross-examination is 
to substantiate the date of invention 
as claimed by the applicants respec- 
tively, and to establish the priority of 
invention. 

INFRINGEMENT. In case of an ac- 
tion for the infringement of a patent, 
the importance of the question of nov- 
elty appears from the special pleadings 
which the defendant may enter, which 
are as follows : 

1. That for the purpose of deceiving 
the public the description and specifi- 
cation filed by the patentee in the Pat- 
ent Office was made to contain less 



than the whole truth relative to his 
invention or discovery, or more than is 
necessary to produce the desired effect ; 
or, 

2. That he had surreptitiously or 
I unjustly obtained the patent for that 
] which was in fact invented by another, 
j who was using reasonable diligence in 
j adapting and perfecting the same ; or, 

3. That it had been patented or de- 
scribed in some printed publication 
prior to his supposed invention or dis- 
covery thereof ; or, 

4. That he was not the original and 
first inventor or discoverer of any 

. material and substantial part of the 
thing patented ; or, 

5. That it has been in public use 
or on sale in this country for more 
than two years before his application 
for a patent, or had been abandoned 
to the public. 

Damages for infringement of a pat- 
ent may be recovered by action on the 
case in the name of the patentee or 
his assignee. The courts having juris- 
diction over such cases have the 
power (1) to grant injunctions against 
the violation of any right secured by 
the patent; (2) to allow the recovery 
of damages sustained by the complain- 
ant through such infringement. In 
such a case the defendant is compelled 
to furnish an accounting showing the 
amount of the articles manufactured 
and sold and the profits derived from 
such sale. 

DESIGN PATENTS. Design patents 
are issued for any new or original de- 
sign, whether it be a work of art, 
statue, bas-relief, design for prints or 
fabrics, or for any new design or 
shape or ornament in any article of 
manufacture. The scope of the de- 
sign patent was formerly very broad, 
but recent decisions and enactments 
have greatly restricted its availability 
and a design patent cannot now be ob- 
tained unless it possesses some inher- 
ent artistic quality. Mere utility is 
not sufficient to entitle a new design 
to letters patent. The terms of design 
patents are 3 1-2, 7 or 14 years. 

CAVEATS. Any one who has made 
a new invention or discovery, which is 
not yet completed or perfected, may 
file in the Patent Office a caveat, de- 
scribing his invention, said caveat 
serving as notice to the Patent Office 
that the caveator is in possession of a 
certain invention partly developed, for 
which later he proposes to file an ap- 
plication for a patent. The caveat is 
filed by the Commission in the secret 
archives of the Patent Office, and is 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



operative for a term of one year. The 
term may be prolonged from year to 
year by the payment of a small fee. 
The caveat should not be confounded 
with a patent, for it gives the inventor 
no real protection or monopoly. It 
simply entitles him to notice in case 
another inventor files an application 
for the same invention. In this event 
the caveator is entitled to three 
months' grace within which to file his 
patent application, whereupon an in- 
terference will be declared between the 
two inventions. 

ASSIGNMENTS. A patent or any in- 
terest therein may be sold or assigned 



like any other piece of property. An 
inventor may sell or assign his in- 
terest or a part interest in his inven- 
tion, either before the application is 
filed or while the application is still 
pending. Under these circumstances 
the patent may be issued to the as- 
signee or to the inventor and assignee 
jointly. The patent, if already issued, 
may be assigned by the owner whether 
he be the inventor or assignee. The 
conveyance is effected by an instru- 
ment in writing stating the conditions 
under which the patent is assigned, 
and the assignment should be recorded 
in the Patent Office. Enc. Americana. 



ABSTRACTS OF DECISIONS. 



Where an inventor has completed 
his invention, if he neither applies for 
a patent nor puts it to practical use. 
a subsequent inventor who promptly 
applies is entitled to the patent, and 
the first one is deemed to have aban- 
doned his rights. Pattee v. Russell, 
3 O. G., 181 ; Ex parte Carre, 5 O. G., 
30; Johnson v. Root, 1 Fisher, 351. 

As between t\yo rival inventors, the 
test of priority is the diligence of the 
one first to conceive it. If he has been 
diligent in perfecting it, he is entitled 
to receive the patent. If he has been 
negligent, the patent is awarded to 
his opponent. Robinson on Patents. 
Sec. 375. 

The construction and use in public 
of a working machine, whether the in- 
ventor has or has not abandoned it. 
excludes the grant of a patent to a 
subsequent inventor. An abandon- 
ment in such case inures to the bene- 
fit of the public and not to the bene- 
fit of a subsequent inventor. Young v. 
Van Duser, 1(5 O. G., 95. 

A mere aggregation or combination 
of old devices is not patentable when 
the elements are unchanged in func- 
tion and effect. They are patentable 
when, "by the action of the elements 
upon each other, or by their joint ac- 
tion on their common object, they per- 
form additional functions and accom- 
plish additional effects." Robinson on 
Patents, Sec. 154. 

A change of shape enabling an in- 
strument to perform new functions is 
invention. Wilson v. Coon, 18 Blatch. 
532; Collar Co. v. White, 7 O. G., 
690, 877. 

A patent which is simply for a meth- 
od of transacting business or keeping 
accounts is not valid. U. S. Credit 
System Co. v. American Indemnity 
Co., G3 O. G., 318. 



The law requires that manufactur- 
ers of patented articles give notice to 
the public that the goods are patented 
by marking thereon the date of the 
patent or giving equivalent notice. 
When this law is not complied with, 
only nominal damages can be recov- 
ered. Wilson v. Singer Mfg. Co., 4 
Bann. & A. 637; McCourt v. Brodie, 
5 Fisher, 384. 

To prevent fraudulent impositions 
on the public it is forbidden that un- 
patented articles be stamped "Pat- 
ented." and where this is done with 
intention to deceive, a penalty of one 
hundred dollars and costs for each 
article so stamped is provided. Any 
person may bring action against such 
offenders. Walker v. Hawxhurst, 5 
Blatch. 494; Tompkins v. Butterfield, 
25 Fed. Rep. 556. 

A patentee is bound by the limita- 
tions imposed on his patent, whether 
they are voluntary or enforced by the 
Patent Office, and if he accepts claims 
not covering his entire invention he 
abandons the remainder. Toepfer v. 
Goetz, 41 O. G., 933. 

Claims should be construed, if pos- 
sible, to sustain the patentee's right to 
all he has invented. Ransom v. Mayor 
of N. Y. (1856), Fisher, 252. 

The assignor of a patented invention 
is estopped from denying the validity 
of his own patent or his own title to 
the interest transferred. He cannot 
become the owner of an older patent 
and hold it against his assignee. Rob- 
inson on Patents, Sec. 787, and notes. 

Any assignment which does not con- 
vey to the assignee the entire and un- 
qualified monopoly which the patentee 
holds in the territory specified, or an 
undivided interest in the entire mo- 
nopoly, is a mere license. Sanford v. 
Messer, 2 O. G., 470. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



229 



FOREIGN 

CANADA, DOMINION OF. The laws 
of Canada follow somewhat closely the 
practice in the United States. The 
term of a patent is 18 years. The gen- 
eral practice, however, is to divide the 
fees, making payment only for a term 
of six years at one time. Applications 
are subjected to examination as to 
novelty and usefulness, as in the 
United States. The application must 
be filed in Canada not later than dur- 
ing the year following the issue of the 
United States or other foreign patent. 
If the inventor neglects to file his ap- 
plication within the 12 months, the 
invention becomes public property. It 
is not permissible to import the pat- 
ented article into the Dominion after 
12 months from the date of the Cana-. 
dian patent. Within two years from 
said date the manufacture and sale of 
the article under the patent must have 
been l>egun. These exactions may be 
relaxed under certain conditions. 

GREAT BRITAIN. The term of the 
patent is 14 years. After January, 
1905, an examination will be made in 
Great Britain to ascertain whether 
the invention has been disclosed in the 
specifications of British patents grant- 
ed within fifty years of the filing of the 
British application. While this will be 
the extent of the examination by the 
Patent Office, it will be sufficient to 
invalidate a British patent to show in 
court that the invention was published, 
or was in public use, in Great Brit- 
ain before the priority of the British 
application. In Great Britain the true 
inventor should apply for the patent in 
his own name ; but if the invention has 
been conceived in a foreign country, 
the first introducer may obtain the pat- 
ent whether he be the true inventor or 
not. Under these circumstances, there- 
fore, a foreign assignee may apply for 
the patent in his own name without 
the true inventor being known. After 
the fourth year there are annual taxes, 
gradually increasing in amount. The 
patent becomes void if the tax is not 
paid. No time is set within which the 
manufacture of the invention must be 
commenced, but after three years if the 
manufacture has not been begun, the 
patentee may be compelled to grant li- 
censes, or the patent may be declared 
invalid. 

FRANCE. The term of a patent is 
15 years. There is no examination as 
to novelty, and the patent is granted 
to the first applicant, whether or not 
he be the true inventor. The life of 



PATENTS. 

the patent depends upon the payment 
of annual taxes. The patent must be 
worked in France within three years 
of the filing of the application. If these 
conditions are not complied with, the 
patent becomes public property. 

GERMANY. The term of a patent is 
15 years. The patent is issued to the 
first applicant, but if he is not the true 
inventor he should, before filing the 
application, obtain the written consent 
of the inventor. The application is 
subjected to a rigid examination. The 
patent is subject to an annual progres- 
sive tax, and must be worked within 
a period of three years. 

AUSTRIA. The term of a patent is 
15 years. The practice is somewhat 
similar to the practice in Germany, 
although the examination is generally 
not so exacting. The patent is subject 
to an annual tax and it must be 
worked within a period of three years. 

HUNGARY. The term of a patent is 
15 years. The laws are similar to 
those of Germany. There is a progres- 
sive annual tax and the patent must be 
worked within a period of three 
years. 

BELGIUM. The term of a patent is 
20 years. The first applicant obtains 
the patent whether or not he is the 
true inventor. There is a small an- 
nual tax, and the patent should be 
worked within three years or within 
one year of the working elsewhere. 

ITALY. The term of a patent is 15 
years. The patent is granted to the first 
applicant. The patent is subject to an 
annual tax, and the working must take 
place within three years. 

RUSSIA. The term of the patent is 
15 years. The patent is subject to the 
payment of annual taxes and must be 
| worked within five years. 

SPAIN. The term of the patent is 
20 years, subject to the payment of an- 
nual taxes. It must be worked within 
three years. The patent is issued to 
the first applicant, whether or not he 
be the true inventor. 

SWITZERLAND. The term of the 
patent is 15 years, subject to an an- 
nual tax. Working must take place 
within three years. Only the true in- 
ventor or his assignee can obtain a 
patent. 

NORWAY. Term of patent is 15 
years, subject to a small annual tax. 
The patent must be worked within 
three years. The application must be 
filed in the name of the true inventor 
or his legal representative. Applica- 



230 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



tion must be filed within six mouths of 
the publication of any prior patent. 

SWEDEN. Term of patent is 15 
years, subject to payment of an an- 
nual tax. The conditions are very 
similar to the laws of Norway, but the 
application should be filed before the | 
issuing of a prior foreign patent. 

DENMARK. The laws are similar to 
those of Sweden. 

PORTUGAL. The term varies from 
1 to 15 years, the fees payable depend- 
ing upon the term of the patent. 

HOLLAND has no patent laws. 

AUSTRALASIA. The Australasia 
patent protects an invention in Vic- 
toria, New South Wales, Queensland, j 
South Australia, Tasmania and West- 
ern Australia, but not in New Zealand, ; 
which has its own patent laws. The 
term of the Australia patent is 14 
years, a tax being due before the ex- 
piration of the seventh year. When 
the patent is not worked the patentee 
may be required to give license for a 
reasonable consideration. 

NEW ZEALAND. The term of the | 
patent is 14 years, taxes being due be- ; 
fore the end of the fourth and sev- 
enth years. There are no require- 
ments as to working. 

BRITISH INDIA. The patent is 
granted for 14 years, and closely fol- 
lows the British practice. The appli- 
cation should be filed within one year 
of the issue of the patent in any other 
country. 

PORTO Rico. It is possible to pro- 
cure protection for industrial property 
by registering a certified copy of the 
United States patent with the Civil 
Governor and complying with the other 
legal formalities. 

PHILIPPINES. The modus operand! 
is the same as that just described as 
applying to Porto Rico. 

CUBA. Since Cuba has become an 
independent republic it has established 
a patent system. The term of the pat- 



ent is 17 years. Working should be 
established within one year. No taxes 
after the issue of the patent. 

MEXICO. The term is 20 years. 
There are no taxes after the issue of 
the patent. 

SOUTH AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 
Patents are issued by all the South 
American republics. The principal 
countries in which patent protection 
is sought are Brazil, in which the laws 
are quite favorable to foreigners, Chile 
and Argentina. Patents are also fre- 
quently secured in Venezuela, Peru, 
Ecuador, Colombia and Paraguay, but 
only for certain classes of invention, 
owing to the expense involved in pro- 
curing the patents. 

SOUTH AFRICA. Patents are obtain- 
able in four important states, Cape 
.Colony, Transvaal, Congo Free State 
and Orange Free State. 

JAPAN has recently enacted a sys- 
tem of patent laws on a liberal basis. 

CHINA has no patent laws nor pat- 
ent office. 

The conditions under which foreign- 
ers may file applications in the coun- 
tries having patent laws vary great- 
ly, and no attempt has been made 
to specify under what conditions ap- 
plications may be filed. In most coun- 
tries, however, the issuance of a prior 
foreign patent will either defeat the is- 
suance of the patent subsequently ap- 
plied for in another country, or will 
render the patent invalid even if it is 
issued. Great care should be taken, 
therefore, to avoid having a foreign 
patent issue at such a time as to en- 
danger the life of the patent at home. 
The many dangers and difficulties 
which have arisen from the differing 
laws and the varying practice in dif- 
ferent countries have led to the es- 
tablishment of rectifying provisions 
which lessen these various disparities 
and rendering them innocuous. 

Encyclopedia Americana. 



PATENT LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



[The Constitutional Provision. 
The Congress shall have power * * * 
to promote the progress of Science 
and Useful Arts, by securing for limit- 
ed Times to Authors and Inventors 
the exclusive Right to their respective 
Writings and Discoveries.] 

STATUTES. 
ORGANIZATION OF THE PATENT OFFICE. 

TITLE XI, Rev. Stat., p. 80: 
Sec. 475. There shall be in the De- 
partment of the Interior an office 



known as the Patent Office, where all 
records, books, models, drawings, speci- 
fications, and other papers and things 
pertaining to patents shall be safely 
kept and preserved. 

Sec. 470. There shall be in the 
Patent Office a Commissioner of Pat- 
ents, one Assistant Commissioner, and 
three examiners-in-chief. who shall be 
appointed by the President, by and 
with the advice and consent of the 
Senate. All other officers, clerks, and 
employees authorized by law for the 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



231 



Office shall be appointed by the Sec- 
retary of the Interior, upon the nomi- 
nation of the Commissioner of Pat- 
ents. 

COURTS. 

Sec. 629. The circuit courts shall 
have original jurisdiction * * * 
of all suits at law or in equity 
arising under the patent copyright 
laws of the United States. 

TITLE XIII, Rev. Stat.. p. 169: 

Sec. 893. Copies of the specifica- 
tions and drawings of foreign letters 
patent certified as provided in the pre- 
ceding section, shall be prima facie 
evidence of the fact of the granting 
of such letters patent, and of the date 
and contents thereof. 

Sec. 894. The printed copies of 
specifications and drawings of patents, 
which the Commissioner of Patents is 
authorized to print for gratuitous dis- 
tribution, and to deposit in the capi- 
tols of the States and Territories, and 
in the clerks' offices of the district 
courts, shall, when certified by him 
and authenticated by the seal of his 
office, be received in all courts as evi- 
dence of all matters therein contained. 

Sec. 1537. No patented article 
connected with marine engines shall 
hereafter be purchased or used in con- 
nection with any steam vessels of war 
until the same shall have been sub- 
mitted to a competent board of naval 
engineers, and recommended by such 
board, in writing, for purchase and 
use. 

TITLE XVII. Rev. Stat., p. 292: 

Sec. 1673. Xo royalty shall be paid 
by the United States to any one of its 
officers or employees for the use of any 
patent for the system, or any part 
theeof, mentioned in the preceding 
section, nor for any such patent in 
which said officers or employees may be 
directly or indirectly interested. 

PATENTS. 

TITLE LX, Rev. Stat., 1878, chap. 
1, p. 945: 

Sec. 4883. All patents shall be is- 
sued in the name of the United States 
of America, under the seal of the Pat- 
ent Office, and shall be signed by the 
Commissioner of Patents, and they 
shall be recorded, together with the 
specifications, in the Patent Office in 
books to be kept for that purpose. 

Sec. 4884. Every patent shall con- 
tain a short title or description of 
the invention or discovery, correctly 
indicating its nature and design, and a 



grant to the patentee, .his heirs or as- 
signs, for the term of seventeen years, 
of the exclusive right to make, use, and 
vend the invention or discovery 
throughout the United States and the 
Territories thereof, referring to the 
specification for the particulars there- 
of. A copy of the specification and 
drawings shall be annexed to the pat- 
ent and be a part thereof. 

Sec. 4885. Every patent shall bear 
I date as of a day not later than six 
: months from the time at which it was 
j passed and allowed and notice thereof 
was sent to the applicant or his agent ; 
and if the final fee is not paid within 
that period the patent shall be with- 
held. 

Sec. 4886. Any person who has in- 
vented or discovered any new and use- 
ful art, machine, manufacture, or com- 
position of matter, or any new and 
useful improvements thereof, not 
known or used by others in this coun- 
try, before his invention or discovery 
thereof, and not patented or described 
I in any printed publication in this or 
' any foreign country, before his in- 
vention or discovery thereof, or more 
j than two years prior to his* applica- 
i tion, and not in public use or on sale 
in this country for more than two 
years prior to his application, unless 
the same is proved to have been aban- 
doned, may, upon payment of the fees 
required by law, and other due pro- 
ceeding had, obtain a patent therefor. 
The Secretary of the Interior and 
the Commissioner of Patents are au- 
thorized to grant any officer of the 
Government, except officers and em- 
ployees of the Patent Office, a patent 
for any invention of the classes men- 
tioned in section 4886 of the Revised 
\ Statutes when such invention is used 
or to be used in the public service, 
without the, payment of any fee: 
Provided, That the applicant in his 
application shall state that the in- 
vention described therein, if patented, 
may be used by the Government, or any 
of its officers or employees in prose- 
cution of work for the Government, or 
by any other person in the United 
States, without the payment to him 
of any royalty thereon, which stipula- 
tion shall be included in the patent. 

Sec. 4887. Xo person otherwise en- 
titled thereto shall be debarred from 
receiving a patent for his invention or 
discovery, nor shall any patent be de- 
clared invalid by reason of its having 
been first patented or caused to be 
patented by the inventor or his legal 
representatives or assigns in a foreign 



232 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



country, unless the application for said 
foreign patent was tiled more than 
twelve months, in cases within the pro- 
visions of section 488(5 of the Revised 
Statutes, and four months in cases 
of designs, prior to the filing of the 
application in this country, in which 
case no patent shall be granted in 
this country. 

An application for patent for an in- 
vention or discovery or for a design 
filed in this country by any person 
who has previously regularly filed an 
application for a patent for the same 
invention, discovery, or design in a 
foreign country which, by treaty, con- 
vention, or law, affords similar privi- 
leges to citizens of the United States 
shall have the same force and effect 
as the same application would have 
if filed in this country on the date on 
which the application for patent for 
the same invention, discovery, or de- 
sign was first filed in such foreign 
country, provided the application in 
this country is filed within twelve 
months in cases within the provisions 
of section 488(3 of the Revised Stat- 
utes, and within four months in cases 
of designs, from the earliest date on 
which any such foreign application 
was filed. Hut no patent shall be 
granted on an application for patent 
for an invention or discovery or a de- 
sign which had been patented or de- 
scribed in a printed publication in 
this or any foreign country more than j 
two years before the date of the ac- 
tual filing of the application in this 
country, or which had been in public 
use or on sale in this country for 
more than two years prior to such 
filing. 

Sec. 4888. Before any inventor or 
discoverer shall receive a patent for 
his invention or discovery, he shall 
make application therefor, in writing, 
to the Commissioner of Patents, and 
shall file in the Patent Office a writ- 
ten description of the same, and of 
the manner and process of making, 
constructing, compounding, and using 
it, in such full, clear, concise, and ex- 
act terms as to enable any person 
skilled in the art or science to which 
it appertains, or with which it is most 
nearly connected, to make, construct, 
compound, and use the same ; and in 
case of a machine, he shall explain 
the principle thereof, and the best 
mode in which he has contemplated 
applying that principle, so as to dis- 
tinguish it from other inventions; and 
he shall particularly point out and 
distinctly claim the part, improvement, 



or combination which he claims as his 
invention or discovery. The specifica- 
tion and claim shall be signed by the 
inventor and attested by two wit- 
nesses. 

Sec. 4889. When the nature of the 
case admits of drawings, the applicant 
shall furnish one copy signed by the 
inventor or his attorney in fact, and 
attested by two witnesses, which shall 
be filed in the Patent Office ; and at 
copy of the drawing, to be furnished 
by the Patent Office, shall be attached 
to the patent as a part of the specifi- 
cation. 

Sec. 4800. When the invention or 
discovery is of a composition of mat- 
ter, the applicant, if required by the 
Commissioner, shall furnish specimens 
of ingredients and of the composition, 
sufficient in quantity for the purpose 
of experiment. 

Sec. 4891. In all cases which ad- 
mit of representation by model, the 
applicant, if required by the Commis- 
sioner, shall furnish a 'model of con- 
venient size to exhibit advantageously 
the several parts of his invention or 
discovery. 

Sec. 4892. The applicant shall 
make oath that he does verily believe 
himself to be the original and first in- 
ventor or discoverer of the art, ma- 
chine, manufacture, composition, or 
improvement for which he solicits a 
patent ; that he does not know and 
does not believe that the same was 
ever before known or used ; and shall 
state of what country he is a citizen. 
Such oath may be made before any 
person within the United States au- 
thorized by law to administer oaths, 
or, when the applicant resides in a 
forengn country, before any minister, 
charge d'affaires, consul, or commer- 
cial agent holding commission under 
the Government of the United States, 
or before any notary public, judge, or 
magistrate having an official seal and 
authorized to administer oaths in the 
foreign country in which the applicant 
may be, whose authority shall be 
proved by certificate of a diplomatic 
or consular officer of the United 
States. 

Sec. 4893. On the filing of any 
such application and the payment of 
the fees required by law, the Commis- 
sioner of Patents shall cause an exam- 
ination to be made of the alleged new 
invention or discovery ; and if on such 
examination it shall appear that the 
claimant is justly entitled to a patent 
under the law, and that the same is 
sufficiently useful and important, the 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



233 



Commissioner shall issue a patent 
therefor. 

Sec. 4894. All applications for pat- 
ents shall be completed and prepared 
for examination within one year after 
the filing of the application, and in de- 
fault thereof, or upon failure of the 
applicant to prosecute the same with- 
in one year after any action therein, 
of which notice shall have been given 
to the applicant, they shall be regarded 
as abandoned by the parties thereto, 
unless it be shown to the satisfaction 
of the Commissioner of Patents that 
such delay was unavoidable. 

Sec. 4895. Patents may be granted 
and issued or reissued to the assignee 
of the inventor or discoverer ; but the 
assignment must first be entered of 
record in the Patent Office. And in 
all cases of an application by an as- 
signee for the issue of a patent, the 
application shall be made and the 
specification sworn to by the inventor 
or discoverer; and in all cases of 
an application for a reissue of any 
patent, the application must be made 
and the corrected specification signed 
by the inventor or discoverer, if he 
is living, unless the patent was is- 
sued and the assignment made before 
the eighth day of July, 1870. 

Sec. 489(3. When any person, hav- 
ing made any new invention or dis- 
covery for which a patent might have 
been granted, dies before a patent is 
granted, the right of applying for and 
obtaining the patent shall devolve on 
his executor or administrator, in trust 
for the heirs at law of the deceased, 
in case he shall have died intestate ; 
or if he shall have left a will disposing 
of the same, then in trust for his de- 
visees, in as full manner and on the 
same terms and conditions as the same 
might have been claimed or enjoyed 
by him in his lifetime; and when the 
application is made by such legal rep- 
resentatives, the oath or affirmation 
required to be made shall be so varied 
in form that it can be made by them. 
The executor or administrator duly au- 
thorized under the law of any foreign 
country to administer upon the estate 
of the deceased inventor shall, in case 
the said inventor was not domiciled in 
the United States at the time of his 
death, have the right to apply for and 
obtain the patent. The authority of 
such foreign executor or administrator 
shall be proved by certificate of a 
diplomatic or consular officer of the 
United States. 

Sec. 4897. Any person who has an 
interest in an invention or discovery, 



vvhether as inventor, discoverer, or as- 
signee, for which a patent was order- 
ed to issue upon the payment of the 
final fee, but who fails to make pay- 
ment thereof within six months from 
the time at which it was passed and 
allowed, and notice thereof was sent 
to the applicant or his agent, shall 
have a right to make an application 
for a patent for such invention or dis- 
covery the same as in the case of an 
original application. But such second 
application must be made within two 
years after the allowance of the ori- 
ginal application. But no person 
shall be held responsible in damages 
for the manufacture or use of any 
article or thing for which a patent 
was ordered to issue under such re- 
newed application prior to the issue 
of the patent. And upon the hear- 
ing of renewed applications pre- 
ferred under this section, abandon- 
ment shall be considered as a question 
of fact. 

Sec. 4898. Every patent or any in- 
terest therein shall be assignable in 
law by an instrument in writing, and 
the patentee or his assigns or legal 
representatives may in like manner 
grant and convey an exclusive right 
under his patent to the whole or any 
specified part of the United States. 
An assignment, grant, or conveyance 
shall be void as against any subse- 
quent purchaser for mortgagee or a 
valuable consideration, without notice, 
unless it is recorded in the Patent 
Office within three months from the 
date thereof. 

If any such assignment, grant, or 
conveyance of any patent shall be ac- 
knowledged before any notary public 
of the several States or Territories or 
the District of Columbia, or any com- 
missioner of the United States Circuit 
Court, or before any secretary of le- 
gation or consular officer authorized 
to administer oaths or perform nota- 
rial acts under section 1750 of the 
Revised Statutes, the certificate of 
such acknowledgment, under the hand 
and official seal of such notary or oth- 
er officer, shall be prima facie evidence 
of the execution of such assignment, 
grant or conveyance. 

Sec. 4899. Every person who pur- 
chases of the inventor or discoverer, 
or, with his knowledge and consent, 
constructs any newly invented or dis- 
covered machine, or other patentable 
article, prior to the application by the 
inventor or discoverer for a patent, 
or who sells or uses one so constructed, 
shall have the right to use, and vend 



234 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 














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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



235 



to others to be used, the specific thing 
so made or purchased, without liability 
therefor. 

Sec. 4900. It shall be the duty of 
all patentees, and their assigns and 
legal representatives, and of all per- 
sons making or vending any patented 
article for or under them, to give suffi- 
cient notice to the public that the same 
is patented either by fixing thereon 
the word "patented," together with the 
day and year the patent was granted ; 
or when, from the character of the ar- 
ticle, this cannot be done, by fixing to 
it, or to the package wherein one or 
more of them is inclosed, a label con- 
taining the like notice; and in any 
suit for infringement, by the party 
failing so to mark, no damages shall 
be recovered by the plaintiff, except on 
proof that the, defendant was duly 
notified of the infringement, and con- 
tinued, after such notice, to make, 
use, or vend the article so patented. 

Sec. 4901. Every person who, in 
any manner, marks upon anything 
made, used, or sold by him for which 
he has not obtained a patent, the 
name or any imitation of the name of 
any persons who has obtained a pat- 
ent therefor, without the consent of 
such patentee, or his assigns or legal 
representatives ; or 

Who, in any manner, marks upon or 
affixes to any such patented article 
the word "patent" or "patentee," or 
the words "letters patent," or any 
word of like import, with intent to imi- 
tate or counterfeit the mark or device 
of the patentee, without having the 
license or consent of such patentee or 
his assigns or legal representatives ; 
or 

Who, in any manner, marks upon or 
affixes to any unpatented article the 
word "patent" or any word importing 
that the same is patented, for the pur- 
pose of deceiving the public, shall be 
liable, for every such offense, to a 
penalty of not less than one hundred 
dollars, with costs ; one-half of said 
penalty to the person who shall sue 
for the same, and the other to the use 
of the United States, to be recovered 
by suit in any district court of the 
United States within whose jurisdic- 
tion such offense may have been com- 
mitted. 

Sec. 4902. Any person who makes 
any new invention or discovery and 
desires further time to mature the 
same may. on payment of the fees re- 
quired by law, file in the Patent Office 
a caveat setting forth the design there- 
of and of its distinguishing charac- 



teristics and praying protection of his 
right until he shall have matured his 
invention. Such caveat shall be filed 
in the confidential archives of the office 
and preserved in secrecy, and shall be 
operative for the term of one year 
from the filing thereof ; and if appli- 
cation is made within the year by any 
other persons for a patent with which 
such caveat would in any manner in- 
terfere the Commissioner shall deposit 
the description, specification, drawings, 
and model of such application in like 
manner 'in the confidential archives of 
the office, and give notice thereof by 
mail to the person by whom the ca- 
veat was filed. If such person desires 
to avail himself of his caveat he shall 
file his description, specifications, 
drawings, and model within three 
months from the time of placing the 
notice in the post-office in Washington, 
with the usual time required for trans- 
mitting it to the caveator added there- 
to, which time shall be indorsed on the 
notice. 

Sec. 4903. Whenever, on examina- 
tion, any claim for a patent is re- 
jected, the Commissioner shall notify 
the applicant thereof, giving him brief- 
ly the reasons for such rejection, to- 
gether with such information and ref- 
erences as may be useful in judging of 
the propriety of renewing his applica- 
tion or of altering his specification ; 
and if, after receiving such notice, 
the applicant persists in his claim 
for a patent, with or without alter- 
ing his specifications, the Commission- 
er shall order a re-examination of the 
case. 

Sec. 4904. Whenever an applica- 
tion is made for a patent which, in 
the opinion of the Commissioner, 
would interfere w r ith any pending ap- 
plication, or with any unexpired pat- 
ent, he shall give notice thereof to the 
applicants, or applicant and patentee, 
as the case may be, and shall direct the 
primary examiner to proceed to deter- 
mine the question of priority of inven- 
tion. And the Commissioner may is- 
sue a patent to the party who is ad- 
judged the prior inventor, unless the 
adverse party appeals from the deci- 
sion of the primary examiner, or of the 
board of examiners-in-chief, as the case 
may be, within such time, not less than 
twenty days, as the Commissioner 
shall prescribe. 

Sec. 4905. The Commissioner of 
Patents may establish rules for taking 
affidavits and depositions required in 
cases pending in the Patent Office, and 
such affidavits and depositions may be 



236 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



taken before any officer authorized by 
law to take depositions to be used in 
the courts of the United States or of 
the State where the officer resides. 

Sec. 4900. The clerk of any court 
of the United States, for any district 
or Territory wherein testimony is to 
be taken for use in any contested case 
pending in the Patent Office, shall, 
upon the application of any party 
thereto, or of his agent or attorney, 
issue a subpoena for any witness re- 
siding or being within such district or 
Territory, commanding him to appear 
and testify before any officer in such 
district or Territory authorized to take 
depositions and affidavits, at any time 
and place in the subpoena stated. But 
no witness shall be required to attend 
at any place more than forty miles 
from the place where the subpoena is 
served upon him. 

Sec. 4907. Every witness duly sub- 
poenaed and in attendance shall be al- 
lowed the same fees as are allowed to 
witnesses attending the courts of the 
United States. 

Sec. 4908. Whenever any witness, 
after being duly served with such sub- 
poena, neglects or refuses to appear, 
or after appearing refuses to testify, 
the judge of the court whose clerk is- 
sued the subpoena may, on proof of 
such neglect or refusal, enforce obedi- 
ence to the process, or punish the dis- 
obedience, as in other like cases. But 
no witness shall be deemed guilty of 
contempt for disobeying such subpoena, 
unless his fees and traveling expenses 
in going to, returning from, and one 
day's attendance at the place of exam- 
ination, are paid or tendered him at 
the time of the service of the subpoena ; 
nor for refusing to disclose any secret 
invention or discovery made or owned 
by himself. 

Sec. 4909. Every applicant for a 
patent or for the reissue of a patent, 
any of the claims of which have been 
twice rejected, and every party to an 
interference, may appeal from the de- 
cision of the primary examiner, or of 
the examiner in charge of interferences 
in such case, to the board of examin- 
ers-in-chief ; having once paid the fee 
for such appeal. 

Sec. 4910. If such party is dissat- 
isfied with the decision of the examin- 
ers-in-chief, he may, on payment of 
the fee prescribed, appeal to the Com- 
missioner in person. 

Sec. 4911. If such party, except^ a 
party to an interference, is dissatis- 
fied with the decision of the Commis- 
sioner, he may appeal to the Supreme 



Court of the District of Columbia, 
sitting in bane. 

Sec. 4912. When an appeal is 
taken to the Supreme Court of the 
District of Columbia, the appellant 
shall give not.ce thereof to the Com- 
missioner, and file in the Patent Office 
within such time as the Commissioner 
shall appoint, his reasons of appeal, 
specifically set forth in writing. 

Sec. 4913. The court shall, before 
hearing such appeal, give notice to the 
Commissioner of the time and place of 
the hearing, and on receiving such no- 
tice the Commissioner shall give no- 
tice of such time and place in such 
manner as the court may prescribe, to 
all parties who appear to be interested 
therein. The party appealing shall 
lay before the court certified copies of 
all the original papers and evidence in 
the case, and the Commissioner shall 
furnish the court with the grounds of 
his decision, fully set forth in writing, 
touching all the points involved by the 
reasons of appeal. And at the request 
of any party interested, or of the 
court, the Commissioner and the exam- 
iners may be examined under oath, in 
explanation of the principles of the 
thing for which a patent is demanded. 

Sec. 4914. The court, on petition, 
shall hear and determine such appeal, 
and revise the decision appealed from 
in a summary way, on the evidence 
produced before the Commissioner, at 
such early and convenient time as the 
court may appoint ; and the revision 
shall be confined to the points set 
forth in the reasons of appeal. After 
hearing the case the court shall return 
to the Commissioner a certificate of its 
proceedings and decision, which shall 
be entered of record in the Patent 
Office, and shall govern the further 
proceedings in the case. But no opin- 
ion or decision of the court in any 
such case shall preclude any person 
interested from the right to contest the 
validity of such patent in any court 
wherein the same may be called in 
question. 

Sec. 4915. Whenever a patent on 
application is refused, either by the 
Commissioner of Patents or by the 
Supreme Court of the District of Co- 
lumbia upon appeal from the Com- 
missioner, the applicant may have 
remedy by bill in equity ; and the 
court having cognizance thereof, on 
notice to adverse parties and other due 
proceedings had. may adjudge that 
such applicant is entitled, according to 
law, to receive a patent for his inven- 
tion, as specified in his claim, or for 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



237 



any part thereof, as the facts in the 
case may appear. And such adjudica- 
tion, if it be in favor of the right of the 
applicant, shall authorize the Commis- 
sioner to issue such patent on the ap- 
plicant filing in the Patent Office a 
copy of the adjudication, and other- 
wise complying with the requirements 
of law. In all cases where there is 
no opposing party, a copy of the bill 
shall be served on the Commissioner ; 
and all the expenses of the proceeding 
shall be paid by the applicant, whether 
the final decision is in his favor or 
not. 

It. S., IT. S.. Sup., Vol. 2, c. 74, 
Feb. 9, 1893. Be it enacted, etc., That 
there shall be, and there is hereby, 
established in the District of Colum- 
bia a court, to be known as the court 
of appeals of the District of Colum- 
bia. 

Sec. G. That the said court of ap- 
peals shall establish a term of the 
court during each and every month in 
each year excepting the months of 
July and August. 

Sec. 8. That any final judgment or 
decree of the said court of appeals 
may be re-examined and affirmed, re- 
versed, or modified by the Supreme j 
Court of the United States, upon writ 
of error or appeal, in all causes in j 
which the matter in dispute, exclusive j 
of costs, shall exceed the sum of five : 
thousand dollars, in the same manner i 
and under the same regulations as j 
heretofore provided for in cases of j 
writs of error on judgment or appeals 
from decrees rendered in the supreme 
court of the District of Columbia ; 

And also in cases, without regard to 
the sum or value of the matter in dis- 
pute, wherein is involved the validity 
of any patent or copyright, or in which 
is drawn in question the validity of a 
treaty or statute of or an authority 
exercised under the United States. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and 
House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress 
assembled. That in any case heretofore 
made final in the court of appeals of 
the District of Columbia it shall be 
competent for the Supreme Court to 
require, by certiorari or otherwise, 
any such case to be certified to the 
Supreme Court for its review and de- 
termination, with the same power and 
authority in the case as if it had been 
carried by appeal or writ of error to 
the Supreme Court. 

Sec. 9. That the determination of 
appeals from the decision of the Com- 
missioner of Patents, now vested in 



the general term of the supreme court 
of the District of Columbia, in pur- 
suance of the provisions of section 780 
of the Revised Statutes of the United 
States, relating to the District of Co- 
lumbia, shall hereafter be and the same 
is hereby vested in the court of ap- 
peals created by this act ; 

And in addition, any party ag- 
grieved by a decision of the Commis- 
sioner of Patents in any interference 
case may appeal therefrom to said 
court of appeals. 

TITLE LX, Rev. Stat., 1878, p. 950 : 
Sec. 4910. Whenever any patent is 
inoperative or invalid, by reason of a 
defective or insufficient specification, 
or by reason of the patentee claiming 
as his own invention or discovery 
more than he had a right to claim as 
new, if the error has arisen by inad- 
vertence, accident, or mistake, and 
without any fraudulent or deceptive 
intention, the Commissioner shall, on 
the surrender of such patent and the 
payment of the duty required by law, 
cause a new patent for the" same inven- 
tion, and in accordance with the cor- 
rected specification, to be issued to the 
patentee, or. in case of his death or 
of an assignment of the whole or any 
undivided part of the original patent, 
then to his executors, administrators, 
or assigns, for the unexpired part of 
the term of the original patent. Such 
surrender shall take effect upon the is- 
sue of the amended patent. The Com- 
missioner may, in his discretion, cause 
several patents to be issued for dis- 
tinct and separate parts of the thing 
patented, upon demand of the appli- 
cant, and upon payment of the re- 
quired fee for a reissue for each of 
such reissued letters patent. The 
specifications and claim in every such 
case shall be subject to revision and 
restriction in the same manner as ori- 
ginal applications are. Every patent 
so reissued, together with the cor- 
rected specifications, shall have the 
same effect and operation in law, on 
the trial of all actions for causes 
thereafter arising, as if the same had 
been originally filed in such correct- 
ed form : but no new matter shall be 
introduced into the specification, nor 
in case of a machine patent shall the 
model or drawings be amended, except 
each by the other ; but when there is 
neither model nor drawing, amend- 
ments may be made upon proof satis- 
factory to the Commissioner that such 
new matter or amendment was a part 
of the original invention, and was 
omitted from the specification by inad- 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



vertence, accident, or mistake, as 
aforesaid. 

Sec. 4917. Whenever, through in- 
advertence, accident, or mistake, and 
without any fraudulent or deceptive 
intention, a patentee has claimed more 
than that of which he was the original 
or first inventor or discoverer, his pat- 
ent shall be valid for all that part 
which is truly and justly his own, pro- 
vided the same is a material or sub- 
stantial part of the thing patented ; 
and any such patentee, his heirs or as- 
signs, whether of the whole or any 
sectional interest therein, may, on pay- 
ment of the fee required by law, make 
disclaimer of such parts of the thing 
patented as he shall not choose to 
claim or to hold by virtue of the pat- 
ent or assignment, stating therein the 
extent of his interest in such patent. 
Such disclaimer shall be in writing, 
attested by one or more witnesses, and 
recorded in the patent office ; and it 
shall thereafter be considered as part 
of the original specification to the ex- 
tent of the .interest possessed by the 
claimant and by those claiming under 
him after the record thereof. But no 
such disclaimer shall affect any action 
pending at the time of its being filed, 
except so far as may relate to the 
question of unreasonable neglect or 
delay in filing it. 

Sec. 4918. Whenever there are in- 
terfering patents, any person interest- 
ed in any one of them, or in the work- 
ing of the invention claimed under 
either of them, may have relief against 
the interfering patentee, and all par- 
ties interested under him, by suit in 
equity against the owners of the in- 
terfering patent ; and the court, on 
notice to adverse parties, and other 
due proceedings had according to the 
course of equity, may adjudge and de- 
clare either of the patents void in 
whole or in part, or inoperative, or in- 
valid in any particular part of the 
United States, according to the inter- 
est of the parties in the patent or the 
invention patented. But no such 
judgment or adjudication shall affect 
the right of any person except the par- 
ties to the suit and those deriving title 
under them subsequent to the rendition 
of such judgment. 

Sec. 4919. Damages for the in- 
fringement of any patent may be re- 
covered by action on the case, in the 
name of the party interested either as 
patentee, assignee, or grantee. And 
whenever in any such action a verdict 
is rendered for the plaintiff, the court 
may enter judgment thereon for any 



sum above the amount found by the 
verdict as the actual damages sustain- 
ed, according to the circumstances of 
the case, not exceeding three times the 
amount of such verdict, together with 
the costs. 

Sec. 4920. In any action for in- 
fringement the defendant may plead 
the general issue, and, having given 
notice in writing to the plaintiff or his 
attorney thirty days before, may prove 
on trial any one or more of the fol- 
lowing special matters : 

First. That for the purpose of de- 
ceiving the public the description and 
specification filed by the patentee in 
the Patent Office was made to contain 
less than the whole truth relative to 
his invention or discovery, or more 
than is necessary to produce the de- 
sired effect ; or, 

Second. That he had surrepti- 
tiously or unjustly obtained the patent 
for that which w r as in fact invented by 
another, who was using reasonable 
diligence in adapting and perfecting 
the same ; or, 

Third. That it has been patented 
or described in some printed publica- 
tion prior to his supposed invention or 
discovery thereof, or more than two 
years prior to his application for a 
patent therefor ; or, 

Fourth. That he was not the ori- 
ginal and first inventor or discoverer 
of any material and substantial part 
of the thing patented ; or, 

Fifth. That it had been in public 
use or on sale in this country for more 
than two years before his application 
for a patent, or had been abandoned 
to the public. 

And in notices as to proof of previ- 
ous invention, knowledge, or use of the 
thing patented, the defendant shall 
state the names of the patentees and 
the dates of their patents, and when 
granted, and the names and residences 
of the persons alleged to have invented 
or to have ha,d the prior knowledge of 
the thing patented, and where and by 
whom it had been used ; and if any one 
or more of the special matters alleged 
shall be found for the defendant, judg- 
ment shall be rendered for him with 
costs. And the like defenses may be 
pleaded in any suit in equity for re- 
lief against an alleged infringement ; 
and proofs of the same may be given 
upon like notice in the answer of the 
defendant, and with the like effect. 

Sec. 4921 . The several courts vest- 
ed with jurisdiction of cases arising 
nnder the patent laws shall have pow- 
er to grant injunctions according to 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



239 



the course and principles of courts of 
equity, to prevent the violation of any 
right secured by patent, on such terms 
as the court may deem reasonable ; and 
upon a decree being rendered in any 
such case for an infringement the com- 
plainant shall be entitled to recover, in 
addition to the profits to be accounted 
for by the defendant, the damages the 
complainant has sustained thereby ; 
and the court shall assess the same or 
cause the same to be assessed under its 
direction. And the court shall have 
the same power to increase such dam- 
ages, in its discretion, as is given to 
increase the damages found by ver- 
dicts in actions in the nature of ac- 
tions of trespass upon the case. 

But in any suit or action brought 
for the infringement of any patent 
there shall be no recovery of profits or 
damages for any infringement com- 
mitted more than six years before the 
filing of the bill of complaint or the 
issuing of the writ in such suit or 
action, and this provision shall apply 
to existing causes of action. 

Sec. 4922. Whenever, through in- 
advertence, accident, or mistake, and 
without any wilful default or intent to 
defraud or mislead the public, a pat- 
entee has. in his specification, claimed 
to be the original and first inventor or 
discoverer of any material or substan- 
tial part of the thing patented, of 
which he was not the original and first 
inventor or discoverer, every such pat- 
entee, his executors, administrators, 
and assigns, whether of the whole or 
any sectional interest in the patent, 
may maintain a suit at law or in 
equity, for the infringement of any 
part thereof, which was bona fide his 
own, if it is a material and substan- 
tial part of the thing patented, and 
definitely distinguishable from the 
parts claimed without right, notwith- 
standing the specifications may em- 
brace more than that of which the 
patentee was the first inventor or dis- 
coverer. But in every such case in 
which a judgment or decree shall be 
rendered for the plaintiff, no costs 
shall be recovered unless the proper 
disclaimer has been entered at the 
Patent Office before the commence- 
ment of the suit. But no patentee 
shall be entitled to the benefits of this 
section if he has unreasonably neg- 
lected or delayed to enter a dis- 
claimer. 

Sec. 4923. Whenever it appears 
that a patentee, at the time of making 
his application for the patent, believed 
himself to be the original and first in- 



ventor or discoverer of the thing pat- 
ented, the same shall not be held to 
be void on account of the invention or 
discovery, or any part thereof, having 
been known or used in a foreign coun- 
try, before his invention or discovery 
thereof, if it had not been patented or 
described in a printed publication. 

DESIGNS. 

Sec. 4929. Any person who has in- 
vented any new, original, and orna- 
mental design for an article of manu- 
facture, not known or used by others 
in this country before his invention 
thereof, and not patented or described 
in any printed publication in this or 
any foreign country before his inven- 
tion thereof, or more than two years 
prior to his application, and not in 
public use or on sale in this country 
for more than two years prior to his 
application, unless the same is proved 
to have been abandoned, may, upon 
payment of the fees required by law 
and other due proceedings had. the 
same as in cases of inveixtion or dis- 
coveries covered by section 4886, ob- 
tain a patent therefor. 

Sec. 4930. The Commissioner may 
dispense with models of designs when 
the design can be sufficiently repre- 
sented by drawings or photographs. 

Sec. 4931. Patents for designs may 
be granted for the term of three years 
and six months, or for seven years, or 
for fourteen years, as the applicant 
may, in his application, elect. 

Sec. 4932. Patentees of designs is- 
sued prior to the second day of March. 
1861, shall be entitled to extension of 
i their respective patents for the term 
j of seven years, in the same manner 
I and under the same restrictions as are 
provided for the extension of patents 
for inventions or discoveries issued 
prior to the second day of March, 
1861. 

Sec. 4933. All the regulations and 
provisions which apply to obtaining 
or protecting patents for inventions or 
discoveries not inconsistent with the 
provisions of this Title, shall apply to 
patents for designs. 



CHAPTER 105. AN ACT TO AMEND 
THE LAW RELATING TO PATENTS, 
TRADE-MARKS, AND COPYRIGHTS. 

Be it enacted, etc., That hereafter, 
during the term of letters patent for 
a design, it shall be unlawful for any 
person other than the owner of said 
letters patent, without the license of 
such owner, to apply the design se- 



240 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



cured by such letters patent, or any 
colorable imitation thereof, to any 
article of manufacture for the pur- 
pose of sale, or to sell or expose for 
sale any article of manufacture to 
which such design or colorable imita- 
tion shall, without the license of the 
owner, have been applied, knowing 
that the same has been so applied. 
Any person violating the provisions, or 
either of them, of this section, shall be 
liable in the amount of two hundred 
and fifty dollars ; and in case the total 
profit made by him from the manufac- 
ture or sale, as aforesaid, of the arti- 
cle or articles to which the design, or 
colorable imitation thereof, has been 
applied, exceeds the sum of two hun- 
dred and fifty dollars, he shall be fur- 
ther liable for the excess of such prof- 
it over and above the sum of two hun- 
dred and fifty dollars ; and the full 
amount of such liability may be re- 
covered by the owner of the letters 
patent, to his own use, in any circuit 
court of the United States having ju- 
risdiction of the parties, either by ac- 
tion at law or upon a bill in equity for 
an injunction to restrain such in- 
fringement. 

Sec. 2. That nothing in this act 
contained shall prevent, lessen, im- 
peach, or avoid any remedy at law or 
in equity which any owner of letters 
patent for a design, aggrieved by the 
infringement of the same, might have 
had if this act had not been passed ; 
but such owner shall not twice re- 
cover the profit made from the in- 
fringement. 

FEES. 

Sec. 4934. The following shall be 
the rates for patent fees : On filing 
each original application for a patent, 
except in design cases, $15.00. On 
issuing each original patent, except in 
design cases, $20.00. In design cases : 
For three years and six months ; 
$10.00; for seven years. $15.00; for 
fourteen years, $30.00. On filing each 
caveat, $10.00. On every application 
for the reissue of a patent, $30.00. 
On filing each disclaimer, $10.00. On 
an appeal for the first time from the 
primary examiners to the examiners- 
in-chief. $10.00. On every appeal 
from the exa miners-in-chief to the 
Commissioner, $20.00. For certified 
copies of patents and other papers, in- 
cluding certified printed copies, 10 
cents per hundred words. For record- 
ing every assignment, agreement, pow- 
er of attorney, or other paper, of three 
hundred words or under, $1.00 ; of over 



three hundred and under one thousand 
words, $2.00 ; of over one thousand 
words, $3.00. For copies of drawings, 
the reasonable cost of making them. 

Sec. 4935. Patent fees may be paid 
to the Commissioner of Patents, or to 
the Treasurer, or any of the assistant 
treasurers of the United States, or to 
any of the designated depositaries, na- 
tional banks, or receivers of public 
money, designated by the Secretary of 
the Treasury for that purpose ; and 
such officer shall give the depositor a 
receipt or certificate of deposit there- 
for. All money received at the Patent 
Office, for any purpose, or from any 
source whatever, shall be paid into the 
Treasury as received, without any de- 
duction whatever. 

Sec. 4930. The Treasurer of the 
United States is authorized to pay 
back any sum or sums of money to 
any person who has through mis- 
take paid the same into the Treas- 
ury, or to any receiver or deposi- 
tary, to the credit of the Treas- 
ury, as for fees accruing at the Patent 
Office, upon a certificate thereof being 
made to the Treasurer by the Com- 
missioner of Patents. 

PATENT RIGHTS VEST IN ASSIGNEE IN 
BANKRUPTCY. 

Sec. 5040. All property conveyed 
by the bankrupt in fraud of his credit- 
ors ; all rights in equity, choses in 
action, patent rights, and copyrights ; 
all debts due him, or any person for 
his use, and all liens and securities 
therefor ; and all his rights of action 
for property or estate, real or personal, 
and for any cause of action which he 
had against any person arising from 
contract or from the unlawful taking 
or detention, or injury to the property 
of the bankrupt ; and all his rights of 
redeeming such property or estate ; to- 
gether with the like right, title, power, 
and authority to sell, manage, dispose 
of. sue for, and recover or defend the 
same, as the bankrupt might have had 
if no assignment had been made, shall, 
in virtue of the adjudication of bank- 
ruptcy and the appointment of his as- 
signee, but subject to the exceptions 
stated in the preceding section, be at 
once vested is [in] such assignee. 

Sec. 70. Title to Property. The 
trustee of the estate of a bank- 
rupt, upon his appointment and 
qualification, and his successor or 
successors, if he shall have one 
or more, upon his or their appoint- 
ment and qualification, shall in turn 
be vested by operation of law with the 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



241 



title of the bankrupt, as of the date he 
was adjudged a bankrupt, except in 
so far as it is to property which is 
exempt, to all (1) documents relating 
to his property; (2) interests in pat- 
ents, patent rights, copyrights, and 
trade-marks. 

LABELS. 
CHAPTER 301. AN ACT TO AMEND 

THE LAW RELATING TO PATENTS, 

TRADE-MARKS, AND COPYRIGHTS. 

Be it enacted, etc. [Section 1], That 
no person shall maintain an action for 
the infringement of his copyright un- 
less he shall give notice thereof by in- 
serting in the several copies of every 
edition published, on the title page or 
the page immediately following it, if it 
be a book ; or if a map, chart, musical 
composition, print, cut, engraving, 
photograph, painting, drawing, chromo, 
statue, statuary, or model or design 
intended to be perfected and completed 
as a work of the fine arts, by inscrib- 
ing upon some visible portion thereof, 
or of the substance on which the same 
shall be mounted, the following words, 
viz. : "Entered according to act of 

Congress, in the year , by A. B., 

in the office of the Librarian of Con- 
gress, at Washington" ; or, at his op- 
tion, the word "Copyright," together 
with the year the copyright was en- 
tered, and the name of the party by 
whom it was taken out, thus : "Copy- 
right. 18 by A. B." 

Sec. 2. That for recording and cer- 
tifying any instrument of writing for 
the assignment of a copyright, the 
Librarian of Congress shall receive 
from the persons to whom the service 
is rendered, $1.00 ; and for every copy 
of an assignment, $1.00; said fee to 
cover, in either case, a certificate of 
the record, under seal of the Libra- 
rian of Congress ; and all fees so re- 
ceived shall be paid into the Treasury 
of the United States. 

Sec. 3. That in the construction of 
this act, the words "engraving," "cut," 
and "print." shall be applied only to 
pictorial illustrations or works con- 
nected with the fine arts, and no prints 
or labels designed to be used for any 
other articles of manufacture shall be 
entered under the copyright law, 
but may be registered in the 
Patent Office. And the Commission- 
er of Patents is hereby charged 
with the supervision and control 
of the entry or registry of such 
prints or labels, in conformity with 
the regulations provided by law as to 
copyright of prints, except that there 



shall be paid for recording the title of 
any print or label not a trade-mark, 
$6.00, which shall cover the expense 
of furnishing a copy of the record un- 
der the seal of Commissioner of Pat- 
ents, to the party entering the same. 

Sec. 4. That all laws and parts of 
laws inconsistent with the foregoing 
provisions be, and the same are here- 
by repealed. 

Sec. 5. That this act shall take ef- 
fect on and after the first day of Au- 
gust, 1874. 

TRADE-MARKS. 

[The Constitutional Provision. The 
Congress shall have power * * * 
(3) to regulate commerce with foreign 
nations, and among the several States, 
and with the Indian tribes. Art. I, 
sec. 8.] 

THE STATUTE OF 187G. 

CHAPTER 274. AN ACT TO PUN- 
ISH THE COUNTERFEITING OF TRADE- 
MARK GOODS AND THE SALE OR 

DEALING IN OF COUNTERFEIT TRADE- 
MARK GOODS. 

Be it enacted, etc. [Section 1], That 
every person who shall, with intent to 
defraud, deal in or sell, or keep or 
offer for sale, or cause or procure the 
sale of, any goods of substantially the 
same descriptive properties as those 
referred to in the registration of any 
trade-mark, pursuant to the statutes of 
the United States, to which, or to the 
package in which the same are put up, 
is fraudulently affixed said trade-mark, 
or any colorable imitation thereof, cal- 
culated to deceive the public, knowing 
the same to be counterfeit or not the 
genuine goods referred to in said regis- 
tration, shall, on conviction thereof, 
be punished by fine not exceeding 
$1,000 dollars, or imprisonment not 
more than two years, or both such fine 
and imprisonment. 

Sec. 2. That every person who 
fraudulently affixes, or causes or pro- 
cures to be fraudulently affixed, any 
trade-mark registered pursuant to the 
statutes of the United States, or any 
colorable imitation thereof, calculated 
to deceive the public, to any goods, of 
substantially the same descriptive 
properties as those referred to in said 
registration, or to the package in 
which they are put up, knowing the 
same to be counterfeit, or not the 
genuine goods, referred to in said regis- 
tration, shall, on conviction thereof, 
be punished as prescribed in the first 
section of this act. 

Sec. 3. That every person who 
fraudulently fills, or causes or pro- 



242 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



cures to be fraudulently filled, any 
package to which is affixed any trade- 
mark, registered pursuant to the stat- 
utes of the United States, or any col- 
orable imitation thereof, calculated to 
deceive the public, with any goods of 
substantially the same descriptive 
properties as those referred to in said 
registration, knowing the same to be 
counterfeit, or not the genuine goods 
referred to in said registration, shall, 
on conviction thereof, be punished as 
prescribed in the first section of this 
act. 

Sec. 4. That any person or per- 
sons who shall, with intent to defraud 
any person or persons, knowingly and 
wilfully cast, engrave, or manufacture, 
or have in his, her. or their possession, 
or buy, sell, offer for sale, or deal in, 
any die or dies, plate or plates, brand 
or brands, engraving or engravings, on 
wood, stone, metal, or other substance, 
moulds, or any false representation, 
likeness, copy, or colorable imitation of 
any die plate, brand, engraving, or 
mould of any private label, brand, 
stamp, wrapper, engraving on paper 
or other substance, or trade-mark, reg- 
istered pursuant to the statutes of the 
United States, shall, upon conviction 
thereof, be punished as prescribed in 
the first section of this act. 

Sec. 5. That any person or persons 
who shall, with intent to defraud any 
person or persons, knowingly and wil- 
fully make, forge, or counterfeit, or 
have in his, her, or their possession, or 
buy, sell, offer for sale or deal in, any 
representation. likeness, similitude, 
copy, or colorable imitation of any pri- 
vate label, brand, stamp, wrapper, en- 
graving, mould, or trade-mark, regis- 
tered pursuant to the statutes of the 
United States, shall, upon conviction 
thereof, be punished as prescribed in 
the first section of this act. 

Sec. 0. That any person who shall, 
with intent to injure or defraud the 
owner of any trade-mark, or any other 
person lawfully entitled to use or pro- 
tect the same, buy, sell, offer for sale, 
deal in or have in his possession any 
used or empty box, envelope, wrapper, 
case, bottle, or other package to which 
is affixed, so that the same may be 
obliterated without substantial injury 
to such box or other thing aforesaid, 
any trade-mark, registered pursuant to 
the statutes of the United States, not 
so defaced, erased, obliterated, and de- 
stroyed as to prevent its fraudulent 
use, shall, on conviction thereof, be 
punished as prescribed in the first sec- 
tion of this act. 



Sec. 7. That if the owner of any 
trade-mark, registered pursuant to the 
statutes of the United States, or his 
agent, make oath, in writing, that he 
has reason to believe, and does believe, 
that any counterfeit dies, plates, 
brands, engravings on wood, stone, 
metal, or other substance, or moulds of 
his said registered trade-mark, are in 
the possession of any person, with in- 
tent to use the same for the purpose 
of deception and fraud, or make such 
paths that any counterfeits or colorable 
imitations of his said trade-mark, label, 
brand, stamp, wrapper, engravings on 
paper or other substance, or empty 
box, envelope, wrapper, case, bottle, or 
other package, to which is affixed said 
registered trade-mark not so defaced, 
erased, obliterated, and destroyed as 
to prevent its fraudulent use, are in 
the possession of any person, with in- 
tent to use the same for the purpose 
of deception and fraud, then the sev- 
eral judges of the circuit and district 
courts of the United States, and the 
commissioners of the circuit courts 
may, within their respective jurisdic- 
tions, proceed under the. law relating 
to search-warrants, and may issue a 
search-warrant authorizing and direct- 
ing the marshal of the United States 
for the proper district to search for 
and seize all said counterfeit dies, 
plates, brands, engravings on wood, 
stone, metal, or other substance, 
moulds, and said counterfeit trade- 
marks, colorable imitations thereof, 
labels, brands, stamps, wrappers, en- 
gravings on paper, or other substance, 
and said empty boxes, envelopes, wrap- 
pers, cases, bottles, or other packages 
that can be found ; and upon satisfac- 
tory proof being made that said coun- 
terfeit dies, plates, brands, engravings 
on wood, stone, metal, or other sub- 
stance, moulds, counterfeit trade- 
marks, colorable imitations thereof, 
labels, brands, stamps, wrappers, en- 
gravings on paper or other substance, 
empty boxes, envelopes, wrappers, 
cases, bottles, or other packages, are 
to be used by the holder or owner for 
the purposes of deception and fraud, 
that any of said judges shall have full 
power to order all said counterfeit 
dies, plates, brands, engravings on 
wood, stone, metal, or other substance, 
moulds, counterfeit trade-marks, col- 
orable imitations thereof, labels, 
brands, stamps, wrappers, engravings 
; on paper or other substance, empty 
boxes, envelopes, wrappers, cases, bot- 
tles, or other packages, to be publicly 
destroyed. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



243 



Sec. 8. That any person who shall, 
with intent to defraud any person or 
persons, knowingly and wilfully aid or 
abet in the violation of any of the 
provisions of this act, shall, upon con- 
viction thereof, be punished by a fine 
not exceeding five hundred dollars, or 
imprisonment not more than one year, 
or both such fine and imprisonment. 

[August 14, 1876.] 

THE STATUTE OF 1881. 

CHAPTER 138. AN ACT TO AU- 
THORIZE THE REGISTRATION OF 
TRADE-MARKS AND PROTECT THE 
SAME. 

Be it enacted, etc. [Section 1], That 
owners of trade-marks used in com- 
merce with foreign nations or with the 
Indian tribes, provided such owners 
shall be domiciled in the United States 
or located in any foreign country, or 
tribes, which, by treaty, convention, or 
law, affords similar privileges to citi- 
zens of the United States, may obtain 
registration of such trade-marks by 
complying with the following require- 
ments : 

First. By causing to be recorded in 
the Patent Office a statement specify- 
ing name, domicile, location, and citi- 
zenship of the party applying ; the 
class of merchandise, and the particu- 
lar description of goods comprised in 
such class to which the particular 
trade-mark has been appropriated ; a 
description of the trade-mark itself, 
with facsimiles thereof, and a state- 
ment of the mode in which the same is 
applied and affixed to goods, and the 
length of time during which the trade- 
mark has been used. 

Second. By paying into the Treas- 
ury of the United States the sum of 
$25.00, and complying with such regu- 
lations as may be prescribed by the 
Commissioner of Patents. 

Sec. 2. That the application pre- 
scribed in the foregoing section must, 
in order to create any right whatever 
in favor of the party filing it. be ac- 
companied by a written declaration 
verified by the person, or by a member 
of a firm, or by an officer of a cor- 
poration applying, to the effect that 
such party has at the time a right to 
the use of the trade-mark sought to be 
registered, and that no other person, 
firm, or corporation has the right to 
such use, either in the identical form 
or in any such near resemblance there- 
to as might be calculated to deceive ; 
that such trade-mark is used in com- 
merce with foreign nations or Indian 
tribes, as above indicated ; and that the 



description and facsimiles presented 
for registry truly represent the trade- 
mark sought to be registered. 

Sec. 3. That the time of the re- 
ceipt of any such application shall be 
noted and recorded. But no alleged 
trade-mark shall be registered unless 
the same appear to be lawfully used 
as such by the applicant in foreign 
commerce or commerce with Indian 
tribes, as above mentioned, or is with- 
in the provision of a treaty, conven- 
tion, or declaration with a foreign 
power ; nor which is merely the name 
of the applicant ; nor which is identi- 
cal with a registered or known trade- 
mark owned by another, and appro- 
priate to the same class of merchan- 
dise, or which so nearly resembles 
some other person's lawful trade-mark 
as to be likely to cause confusion or 
mistake in the mind of the public, or 
to deceive purchasers. In an applica- 
tion for registration the Commissioner 
of Patents shall decide the presumptive 
lawfulness of claim to the alleged 
trade-mark ; and in any dispute be- 
tween an applicant and a previous 
j registrant, or between applicants, he 
I shall follow, so far as the same may be 
applicable, the practice of courts of 
j equity of the United States in analo- 
gous cases. 

Sec. 4. That certificates of regis- 
try of trade-marks shall be issued in 
the name of the United States of 
America, under the seal of the De- 
partment of the Interior, and shall 
be signed by the Commissioner of Pat- 
ents, and a record thereof, together 
with printed copies of the specifica- 
tions, shall be kept in books for that 
purpose. Copies of trade-marks and 
of statements and declarations filed 
therewith and certificates of registry 
so signed and sealed shall be evidence 
in any suit in which such trade-marks 
shall be brought in controversy. 

Sec. 5. That a certificate of regis- 
try shall remain in force for thirty 
years from its date, except in cases 
where the trade-mark is claimed for 
and applied to articles not manufac- 
tured in this country, and in which it 
receives protection under the laws of a 
foreign country for a shorter period, 
in which case it shall cease to have 
any force in this country by virtue of 
this act at the time that such trade- 
mark ceases to be exclusive property 
elsewhere. At any time during the 
six months prior to the expiration of 
the term of thirty years such registra- 
tion may be renewed on the same 
terms and for a like period. 



244 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Sec. 6. That applicants for regis- 
tration under this act shall be credited 
for any fee or part of a fee hereto- 
fore paid into the Treasury of the 
United States with intent to procure 
protection for the same trade-mark. 

Sec. 7. That registration of a 
trade-mark shall be prima facie evi- 
dence of ownership. Any person who 
shall reproduce, counterfeit, copy, or 
colorably imitate any trade-mark regis- 
tered under this act and affix the same 
to merchandise of substantially the 
same descriptive properties as those 
described in the registration shall be 
liable to an action on the case for 
damages for the wrongful use of said 
trade-mark at the suit of the owner 
thereof; and the party aggrieved shall 
also have his remedy according to the 
course of equity to enjoin the wrong- 
ful use of such trade-mark used in 
foreign commerce or commerce with 
Indian tribes, as aforesaid, and to re- 
cover compensation therefor in any 
court having jurisdiction over the per- 
son guilty of such wrongful act ; and 
courts of the United States shall have 
original and appellate jurisdiction in 
such cases without regard to the 
amount in controversy. 

Sec. 8. That no action or suit shall 
be maintained under the provisions of 
this act in any case when the trade- 
mark is used in any unlawful business 
or upon any article injurious in itself, 
or which mark has been used with the 
design of deceiving the public in the 
purchase of merchandise, or under any 
certificate of registry fraudulently ob- 
tained. 

Sec. 9. That any person who shall 
procure the registry of a trade-mark, 
or of himself as the owner of a trade- 
mark, or an entry respecting a trade- 
mark, in the office of the Commission- 
er of Patents, by a false or fraudulent 
representation or declaration, orally 
or in writing, or by any fraudulent 
means, shall be liable to pay any dam- 
ages sustained in consequence thereof 
to the injured party, to be recovered 
in an action on the case. 

Sec. 10. That nothing in this act 
shall prevent, lessen, impeach, or 
avoid any remedy at law or in equity 
which any party aggrieved by any 
wrongful iise of any trade-mark might j 
have had if the provisions of this act ' 
had not been passed. 

Sec. 11. That nothing in this act 
shall be construed as unfavorably af- 
fecting a claim to a trade-mark after 
the term of registration shall have ex- j 
pired ; nor to give cognizance to any 



court of the United States in an 
action or suit between citizens of the 
same State, unless the trade-mark in 
controversy is used on goods intended 
to be transported to a foreign country, 
or in lawful commercial intercourse 
with an Indian tribe. 

Sec. 12. That the Commissioner of 
Patents is authorized to make rules 
and regulations and prescribe forms 
for the transfer of the right to use 
trade-marks and for recording such 
transfers in his office. 

Sec. 13. That citizens and residents 
of this country wishing the protection 
of trade-marks in any foreign coun- 
try the laws of which require registra- 
tion here as a condition precedent to 
getting such protection there may reg- 
ister their trade-marks for that pur- 
pose as is above allowed to foreigners, 
and have certificate thereof from the 
Patent Office. 

Approved, March 3, 1881. 

CHAPTER 393. AN ACT RELATING 
TO THE REGISTRATION OF TRADE- 
MARKS. 

Be it enacted, etc. That nothing 
contained in the law entitled "An act 
to authorize the registration of trade- 
marks and protect the same/' approved 
March 3, 1881, shall prevent the regis- 
try of any lawful trade-mark rightful- 
ly used by the applicant in foreign 
commerce or commerce with Indian 
tribes at the time of the passage of 
said act. Approved, August 5, 1882. 
Sec. 249(3. No watches, watch- 
cases, watch-movements, or parts of 
watch-movements, or any other arti- 
cles of foreign manufacture, which 
shall copy or simulate the name or 
trade-mark of any domestic manufac- 
ture [manufacturer], shall be admitted 
to entry at the custom-houses of the 
United States, unless such domestic 
manufacturer is the importer of the 
same. And in order to aid the officers 
of the customs in enforcing this pro- 
hibition, any domestic manufacturer 
who has adopted trade-marks may re- 
quire his name and residence and a de- 
scription of his trade-marks to be re- 
corded in books, which shall be kept 
for that purpose in the Department of 
the Treasury, under such regulations 
as the Secretary of the Treasury shall 
prescribe, and may furnish to the De- 
partment facsimiles of such trade- 
marks; and thereupon the Secretary 
of the Treasury shall cause one , or 
more copies of the same to be trans- 
mitted to each collector or other prop- 
er officer of the customs. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



245 



HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN PATENT SYSTEM. 



The century just closed stands out 
pre-eminently as the century of in- 
vention. It is therefore a fitting time 
briefly to refer to the origin, estab- 
lishment, and development of our pat- 
ent system, to call to mind the debt the 
United States owes to inventors, and 
at the same time to point out the ad- 
vantages that have followed the far- 
seeing wisdom of the framers of the 
Federal Constitution in incorporating 
in that instrument paragraph 8 of 
section 8 of Article I. of the Consti- 
tution, which gave to Congress the 
power "To promote the progress of 
science and the useful arts by securing 
for limited times to authors and invent- 
ors the exclusive rights to their re- 
spective writings and discoveries." 

One hundred years ago the population 
of the United States was less than 
0,000,000, and there was not a single 
city within our borders having a popu- 
lation of 75,000. The population of 
New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, 
and Boston was less than the present 
population of Minneapolis. The lat- 
ter city and its sister city of St. Paul, 
Chicago. Omaha, and Kansas City 
were unknown. Not a steam pro- 
pelled vessel was in use, nor was there 
a mile of railroad in the United' States. 
The electric telegraph and telephone 
were unknown. Our exports con- 
sisted of agricultural products. There 
was scarcely any well-developed line of 
manufacture, and our wants in that 
line were supplied by imports. It had 
been the policy of England to suppress 
manufacturing in its colonies. In 
1034 a law was passed in Virginia for 
the encouragement of textile manu- 
factures, but it was promptly annulled 
by England. In 1731 she enacted a 
law prohibiting the carriage of woolen 
goods and hats from one colony to an- 
other. In 1750 a woollen hat factory 
in Massachusetts was declared to be a 
nuisance and suppressed. No carpets 
were made in the colonies until after 
1770, except rag carpets. In 1800 
carpets were in this country a luxury. 
Even up to 1850 there was not a 
power loom for carpet making in the 
United States. 

What is true in the textile art is 
equally true of most of the other arts. 

Though the country was an agricul- 
tural one, little progress had been 
made in the manufacture of agricul- 
tural implements. It was not until 
1819 that an iron plow was produced 
in this country. The reaper appeared 



in 1833 and a successful thresher not 
until 1850. Up to the time of the 
Civil War there is no question but 
that the country continued to be an 
agricultural one. It is true that dur- 
ing the first sixty years of the last 
century our manufactures steadily and 
rapidly increased in kind and in extent, 
but our population increased even 
more rapidly, so that we consumed 
what we manufactured and were still 
largely dependent upon the import of 
manufactured articles. But in the 
last few years a great reversal, not 
only in sentiment but in conditions, 
has occurred ; the commercial relations 
of the United States with the great 
trading nations of the w r orld have rap- 
idly changed, so that the excess of im- 
ports of manufactured articles has 
turned into an excess of exports of 
such articles. 

One need not look far for the cause 
of this. It lies in the economy of 
manufacture arising from the use of 
labor-saving devices, mainly the inven- 
tion of our own people, which has en- 
abled us to compete in many lines of 
manufacture, notwithstanding the 
higher scale of wages paid in this 
country, with similar articles manufac- 
tured by any or all nations. To em- 
ploy these devices to the best advan- 
tage requires the intelligence of the 
American workmen, and the result is 
due to the combination of witty inven- 
tions and thinking men. Witless men 
behind witty machines would be of no 
use. To the patent system more than 
to any other cause are we indebted for 
the industrial revolution of the cen- 
tury. 

President Washington realized the 
importance of formulating a law to 
stimulate inventions, and in his first 
annual message to Congress, in 1790, 
said : 

"I can not forbear intimating to 
you the expediency of giving effectual 
encouragement as w r ell to the intro- 
duction of new and useful inventions 
from abroad as to the exertion of skill 
and genius in producing them at 
home." 

Congress was quick to act, and on 
April 10, 1790, the first law upon the 
subject was enacted. It constituted 
the Secretary of State, the Secretary 
of War. and the Attorney-General a 
board to consider all applications for 
patents. Owing to the fires that have 
destroyed the early records of the 
Patent Office, some question has arisen 



246 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



as to the number of patents issued 
under this act ; but from the best in- 
formation obtainable I place the num- 
ber at fifty-seven. The first patent 
issued was to Samuel Hopkins, July 
31, 1790, for making pot and pearl 
ashes. 

The act of 1793 superseded the act 
of 1790, and remained in force as 
amended from time to time until the 
act of 1830 was passed. The act of 
1793 was the only act ever passed in 
this country which provided for the is- 
suance of Letters Patent without the 
requirement of an examination into 
the novelty and utility of the inven- 
tion for which the patent was sought. 

The act of 1836. with modifications, 
remained in force until the revision of 
the patent laws in 1870. This revi- 
sion was largely a consolidation of the 
statutes then in force. 

Under the revision of the statutes 
of the United States in 1874 the act 
of 1870 was repealed ; but the revision 
substantially re-enacted the provisions 
of the act of 1870. 

Under the acts of 1790 and 1793 
Letters Patent were granted for a 
term of fourteen years. There vyas no 
provision for extension ; but while the 
act of 1793 was in force Congress ex- 
tended some thirteen patents. 

The act of 1830 provided that Let- 
ters Patent should be granted for a 
term of fourteen years, and provision 
was made for an extension for a term 
of seven years upon due application 
and upon a proper showing. Until 
1848 petitions for extensions were 
passed upon by a board consisting of 
the Secretary of State, the Commis- 
sioner of Patents, and the Solicitor of 
the Treasury. After that time power 
was vested solely in the Commissioner 
of Patents. 

The patent act of March 2, 1861 
(section 1C), provided that all patents 
thereafter granted should remain in 
force for a term of seventeen years 
from the date of issue, and the ex- 
tension of such patents was pro- 
hibited. 

The consolidated patent act of 1870, 
while providing that patents should be 
granted for a term of seventeen years, 
also provided that patents granted 

S>rior to March 2, 1861, might, upon 
ue application and a proper showing, 
be extended by the Commissioner of 
Patents for a term of seven years from 
the expiration of the first term. 

By the revision of the patent laws 
in 1874 the prohibition against the ex- 
tension of patents was dropped, and 



since that time Congress has had the 
power to extend Letters Patent. Con- 
gress extended five patents granted un- 
der the act of 1836, and in nine in- 
stances authorized patentees to apply 
to the Commissioner of Patents for ex- 
tension of their patents. So far as I 
have been able to discover, no patent 
granted for a term of seventeen years 
has been extended by Congress. 

It was not until 1842 that the 
statute was passed authorizing the 
grant of patents for designs. Under 
that act design patents were granted 
for seven years. Subsequently provi- 
sions were made for granting them for 
terms of three and one-half, seven, and 
fourteen years, at the election of the 
applicant. 

By the act of March 2, 1861. the 
Board of Exaininers-in-Chief was es- 
tablished. Prior to that time, and 
during the incumbency of Commission- 
er Holt, temporary boards of exam'.n- 
ers to decide appeals had been appoint- 
ed by him, and later on he created a 
permanent board of three examiners 
who were to decide on appeal rejected 
cases and submit their decisions to 
him for approval. 

The act of 1870 made the first pro- 
vision for an Assistant Commissioner 
and an Examiner of Interferences. 
Another provision in that act was the 
power given the Commissioner, sub- 
ject to the approval of the Secretary 
of the Interior, to establish regula- 
tions for the conduct of proceedings 
in the Office. 

On January 1. 1898, an act passed 
March 3, 1897, went into force. 
Some of the provisions of this act 
were that applications for patents 
should be completed and prepared for 
examination within one year after the 
filing of the application and that the 
applicant should prosecute the same 
within one year after an action there- 
on or it should be regarded as aban- 
doned (prior to that time two years 
was the limit) ; that an inventor 
should be debarred from receiving a 
patent if his invention had been first 
patented by him or his legal represen- 
tatives or assigns in a foreign coun- 
try, provided the application for the 
foreign patent had been filed more 
than seven months prior to the filing 
of the application in this country, and 
that if the invention for which a pat- 
ent was applied for had been patented 
or described in any printed publication 
in this or any foreign country for 
more than two years prior to the ap- 
plication a patent could not issue. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



247 



The first provision for affording ac- 
commodations for the Patent Office 
was in 1810, when Congress authorized 
the purchase of a building for the 
General Post-office and for the office 
of the Keeper of Patents. The build- 
ing purchased was known as "Blod- 
gett's Hotel," and stood on the site 
now occupied by the south front of 
the building until recently occupied by 
the Post-office Department, and now 
used by several bureaus of the Interior 
Department. The east end of this 
building was used for the records, mod- 
els, etc., of the Patent Office. This 
building was destroyed by fire Decem- 
ber 13, 1830. On July 4, 1836, an act 
was passed appropriating $108.000 for 
the erection of a suitable building for 
the accommodation of the Patent 
Office, and within that month the 
erection of the building was begun. 

It was the present south front of the 
Patent Office, excluding the south ends 
of the east and west wings. The base- 
ment (which is now the first or ground 
floor) was to be used for storage and 
analogous purposes, the first or por- 
tico floor for office rooms, and the sec- 
ond floor was to be one large hall with 
galleries on either side, and to have 
a vaulted roof. This hall was to be 
used for exhibition purposes, for the 
display of models of patented and un- 
patented inventions, and also as a na- 
tional gallery of the industrial arts 
and manufactures. 

During the erection of the Patent 
Office building temporary quarters 
were provided in the City Hall. In 
the spring of 1840 the building was 
completed and the Office moved into it. 
The sum of $422,011.65 was expend- 
ed on this building. The patented 
models were then classified and ex- 
hibited in suitable glass cases, while 
the national gallery was arranged for 
exhibition of models and specimens. 

By the act of March 3, 1849, the 
Interior Department was established 
and the Patent Office attached thereto. 
This same act appropriated $50,000 
out of the patent fund to begin the 
east or Seventh street wing, which was 
completed in 1852 at a cost of $600,- 
000, $250,000 of which was taken 
from the revenue of the Patent Office. 
In 1852 the plans for the entire build- 
ing, as it now stands, were prepared. 
The west wing was completed in 1856 
and cost $750,000. Work on the north 
or G street wing was begun the same 
year. In 1867 this wing was finished 
at a cost of $575,000. The entire 
building cost $2,347,011.65. 



Since July 28, 1836, 667,173 pat- 
ents for inventions, and since 1842 
34,018 patents for designs have been 
issued by this office. Many of these 
patents are for minor improvements, 
but among them may be found a very 
large number covering the most re- 
markable and valuable inventions, 
which have added untold sums to the 
world's wealth, revolutionized the old 
arts, created new ones, brought old- 
time luxuries within the reach of all, 
and made life doubly worth living. 
These contributions have come from 
men and women, white and colored. 
To many inventors more than a hun- 
dred patents have been issued. The 
following are some of the inventors 
who have received more than that 
number between 1872 and 1900, both 
years inclusive : 

Thomas A. Edison 742 

Francis H. Richards 619 

Elihu Thomson 444 

Charles E. Scribner 374 

Luther C. Crowell 293 

Edward Weston 280 

Rudolph M. Hunter 276 

Charles J. Van Depoele (de- 
ceased ) 245 

George Westinghouse 239 

John W. Hyatt 209 

Freeborn F. Raymond, 2d 182 

Sydney H. Short 178 

Rudolf Eickemeyer (deceased).. 171 

Milo G. Kellogg 159 

Walter Scott 156 

Arthur J. Moxham 150 

Cyrus W. Saladee 148 

Louis Goddu 146 

Hiram S. Maxim 146 

George D. Burton 144 

Lewis H. Nash 142 

Edwin Norton 141 

Abbot Augustus Low 137 

Philip Diehl., 137 

James C. Anderson 135 

Edward J. Brooks 133 

Elmer A. Sperry 132 

Peter K. Dederick 128 

Hosea W. Libbey 127 

James F. McElroy 121 

i William N. Whiteley 121 

Horace Wyman 118 

Frank Rhind 117 

i Louis K. Johnson 114 

Warren H. Taylor 112 

James M. Dodge Ill 

George H. Reynolds 110 

Talbot C. Dexter 109 

James H. Northrop 102 

From 1790 to March 1, 1895, some 
5,535 patents were granted to worn- 



248 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



en. It is-a fair estimate that out of 
every 1,000 patents one is granted to 
a woman. As a rule women take out 
but one patent, although there are 
many exceptions. While the majority 
of patents granted them are for im- 
provements in wearing apparel and in 
articles for household use, they have 
invented and received patents for add- 
ing machines, windmills, horseshoes, 
agricultural implements, and fire es- 
capes. 

To some 165 colored inventors about 
400 patents have been issued. Twen- 
ty-eight patents have been issued to 
one and to another 22. So far as the 
records show, Henry Blair, of Mary- 
land, was the first colored patentee. 
In 1834 he received a patent for a 
corn planter, and in 1836 one for a 
cotton planter. The character of their 
inventions follows lines suggested by 
their employment. Employed in the | 
field and in the house, improvements j 
in agricultural implements and arti- 
cles of domestic use predominate. The 
sphere of their inventive effort has 
widened with the added opportunities 
afforded them to engage in mechanical 
vocations. They have made contribu- 
tions to the electric arts and steam 
engineering, and many improvements 
in railway appliances and paper-bag 
machines. Before the Civil War the 
master of a slave living in Mississippi 
made application for a patent, but the 
Attorney-General held in an opinion 
reported in vol. 9, Attorney-General's 
Opinions, page 171, that an invention 
of a slave, though it be new and use- 
ful, could not be patented. 

In May. 1802. President Jefferson 
appointed Dr. William Thornton as a 
clerk at $1,400 per year, to have 
charge of the issuance of patents. He 
took the title of Superintendent, and 
continued to act in that capacity un- 
til his death, March 28, 1828. He 
was succeeded by Dr. William P. 
Jones, who acted until his removal in 
the early part of President Jackson's 
administration. John D. Craig fol- 
lowed Dr. Jones, and in 1834 he was j 
succeeded by B. F. Pickett, who served 
but a brief period. The last Superin- 
tendent was Henry L. Ellsworth, who 
became the first Commissioner under 
the act of 1836. and served until 1845. i 
The other Commissioners under that j 
act were : 

Edmund Burke. May 4, 1845. 
Thomas Ewbank, May 9, 1849. 
Silas H. Hodges, November 8, 1852. 
Charles Mason, May 16, 1853. 



Joseph Holt, September 10, 1857. 
William D. Bishop, May 27, 1859. 
Philip F. Thomas, February 16, 1860. 

D. P. Holloway, March 28, 1861. 
T. C. Theaker, August 17, 1865. 
Elisha Foote, July 29, 1868. 
Samuel S. Fisher. April 26, 1869. 

Commissioner Fisher continued as 
Commissioner for a short time under 
the act of 1870. Other Commission- 
ers under that act have been : 

M. D. Leggett, January 16, 1871. 
John M. Thacher, November 4, 1874. 
R. H. Duell, October 1, 1875. 
Ellis Spear, January 30, 1877. 
H. E. Paine, November 1, 1878. 

E. M. Marble, May 7, 1880. 
Benjamin Butterworth, November 1, 

1883. 
M. V. Montgomery, March 23, 1885. 

B. J. Hall, April 12, 1887. 

C. E. Mitchell, April 1, 1889. 
William E. Simonds, August 1, 1891. 
John S. Seymour. March 31, 1893. 
Benjamin Butterworth, April 7, 1897. 
Charles H. Duell, February 3, 1898. 

F. I. Allen, April 11, 1901. 

Commissioner Fisher was the first 
to publish his decisions and to have 
the copies of the specifications and 
drawings made by photo-lithography. 
He also instituted the practice of re- 
quiring competitive examinations for 
entrance to and promotions in the 
examining force of the office. 

Beginning in 1843 and annually 
thereafter the Patent Office reports 
were published, which, until 1853. con- 
tained merely an alphabetical index of 
the names of the inventors, a' list of 
the expired patents, and the claims of 
the patents granted during the week. 
In 1853 and afterward small engraved 
copies of a portion of the drawings 
were added to the reports to explain 
the claims. 

The act of 1870 authorized the Com- 
missioner to print copies of the claims 
of the current issues of patents and 
of such laws, decisions, and rules as 
were necessary for the information of 
the public. In conformity with this 
provision there was published weekly 
a list giving the numbers, titles, and 
claims of the patents issued during 
the week immediately preceding, to- 
gether with the names and residences 
of the patentees. This list was first 
published under the name of The 
Official Gazette of the United States 
Patent Office, on January 3. 1872. 
In July, 1872, portions of the draw- 
ings were introduced to illustrate the 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



249 



claiins in the patented cases. The 
Official Gazette has now become one 
of the most valuable and important of 
Government publications. Each Sena- 
tor and Representative is authorized to 
designate eight public libraries to re- 
ceive this publication free. One copy 
is also furnished free to each member 
of Congress. It is also sent all over 
the world in exchange for similar pub- 
lications by other Governments, and 
its paid subscription list is constantly 
increasing. 

The American patent system is 
known and spoken of as the "exam- 
ination system," in contradistinction 
to the English system, which has 
been mainly followed by other nations. 
The examination system is the ideal 
system, provided the examination can 
be made with sufficient care to mini- 
mize the likelihood of the issue of pat- 
ents for inventions not of a patentable 
nature. The field of search, however, 
yearly increases, and it becomes more 
and more difficult through lack of time 
to make a perfect examination. Some- 
thing more than two million domestic 
and foreign patents have been issued 
while the number of scientific publi- 
cations has enormously increased. It 
is only by means of a perfect classifi- 
cation that this great mass of matter 
can be so divided as to be convenient- 
ly accessible for use in the examination 
of any individual case. 

Of our patent system it has been 
well said : 

"It is generally recognized by the 
most profound students of our insti- 
tutions, both at home and abroad, that 
no one thing has contributed more to 
the pre-eminence of this country in the 
industrial arts and in manufactures 
than the encouragement given by our 
Constitution and laws to inventors and 
to investors in patent property." 

The system is by no means perfect ; 
but it is generally acknowledged that 
the patent laws of the United States 
are more libaral than those of any oth- 
er country, and that the examination, 
imperfect though at times it be, gives 
a value to a United States patent not 
possessed by a patent issued by a coun- 
try not having an examination system. 
It is undoubtedly true that the prac- 
tice before the Patent Office lacks sta- 
bility and uniformity by reason of the 
frequent changes of Commissioners, 
which prevents the establishment of 
definite policies. The salaries paid to 
the Commissioner and Assistant Com- 
missioner, to the examiners in chief, 
and to the examiners of the various 



grades are inadequate. It is also true 
| that too many appeals are permitted, 
and interference proceedings are ren- 
dered onerous and complicated by the 
number of motions and appeals pro- 
vided by the laws and rules. The 
most serious defect, however, follows 
from the power to keep applications in 
the Office for indefinite times through 
delays in amending the same. The act 
of March 3, 1897, was intended to 
prevent or check this evil ; but it has 
failed of its purpose. At the present 
time about 75 per cent of the patents 
granted are issued within one year 
after being filed, and were it not for 
the fact that applications are unduly 
delayed at least 00 per cent would 
issue within that time. The rights of 
the public would be protected and very 
seldom would an injustice be done to 
an inventor if provision was incorpo- 
rated into the patent laws providing 
that unless an application became in- 
volved in an interference it should not 
be permitted to remain in the Patent 
Office more than three years without 
abridging its life of seventeen years. 

The records of the Office show that 
there were pending in 1900, 4,829 
applications, filed prior to Janu- 
ary 1, 1898. Three of these ap- 
plications were filed in 1880, 
one in 1881. four in 1882, three 
in 1884, three in 1885, thirteen in 1880, 
seven in 1887, thirteen in 1888, nine- 
teen in 18S9, twenty-three in 1890, 
forty-five in 1891, sixty-four in 1892, 
one hundred and three in 1893, one 
hundred and fifty-four in 1894, three 
hundred and sixty-eight in 1895, nine 
hundred and ninety-two in 1896, and 
three thousand and eleven in 1897. 

It will be seen, therefore, that an 
application may be kept alive indefi-. 
nitely, if it be desired. While the list 
above given embraces only such appli- 
cations as were filed under the law as 
it existed prior to January 1, 1898, 
yet ten years later a similar list 
will undoubtedly be given, provided the 
statutes are. not amended, for the only 
difference lies in the fact that amend- 
ments now have to be made within a 
year after the official action instead of 
two years under the prior act. A law 
which permits this should be cor- 
rected. 

It should continue to be the policy 
of the government of a nation whose 
inventors have given to the world the 
cotton-gin and the reaper, the sewing 
machine and the typewriter, the elec- 
tric telegraph and telephone, the ro- 
tary web perfecting printing press and 



250 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



the linot.vpe, the - incandescent lamp 
and the phonograph, and thousands of 
other inventions that have revolution- 
ized every industrial art, to encourage 
invention in every lawful way and to 
provide that, so far as may be neces- 
sary, the money paid to the Govern- 
ment by inventors be used for their 
benefit. The wisdom of the policy has 
been demonstrated. 

The world owes as much to invent- 
ors as to statesmen or warriors. To 



them the United States is the greatest 
debtor, so much have they advanced 
American manufactures. Their labor- 
saving machinery does work that it 
would take millions of men using hand 
implements to perform. In this cen- 
tury the debt will be piled still higher, 
for inventors never rest. Abstract of 
report for 1900. 

C. H. DUELL, 

Commissioner of Patents. 



THE COPYRIGHT LAW OF THE UNITED STATES. 



CONSTITUTION. 1787. 

Art. 1. Sec. 8. The Congress shall 
have power * * * To promote the 
progress of science and useful arts, by 
Securing for Limited Times to Au- 
thors and Inventors the Exclusive 
Right to their Respective Writings 
and Discoveries. 

ACTS OF CONGRESS. 

Sec. 41)48. All records and other 
things relating to copyrights and re- 
quired by law to be preserved, shall be 
under the control of the Librarian of 
Congress, and kept and preserved in 
the Library of Congress. 

[The Appropriation Act approved 
February 19, 1897, provides for the 
appointment of a "Register of Copy- 
rights, who shall, on and after July 1, 
1897, under the direction and super- 
vision of the Librarian of Congress, 
perform all the duties relating to copy- 
rights, and shall make weekly deposits 
with the Secretary of the Treasury, 
and make monthly reports to the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury, and to the 
Librarian of Congress, and shall, on 
and after July 1. 1897, giye bond to 
the Librarian of Congress, in the sum 
of $20,000, with approved sureties, for 
the faithful discharge of his duties."] 

Sec. 4949. The seal provided for 
the office of the Librarian of Congress 
shall be the seal thereof, and by it all 
records and papers issued from the 
office, and to be used in evidence shall 
be authenticated. 

Sec. 4950. The Appropriation Act, 
approved February 19, 1897, provides : 
"The Librarian of Congress shall on 
and after July 1, 1897. give bond, pay- 
able to the United States, in the sum 
of $20,000, with sureties approved by 
the Secretary of the Treasury, for the 
faithful discharge of his duties ac- 
cording to law." 

Sec. 4951. The Librarian of Con- 
gress shall make an annual report to 



j Congress of the number and descrip- 
j tion of copyright publications for 
! which entries have been made during 
! the year. 

Sec. 4952. The author, inventor, 
designer, or proprietor of any book, 
map, chart, dramatic or musical com- 
position, engraving, cut, print, or 
photograph or negative thereof, or of 
a painting, drawing, chromo, statue, 
statuary, and of models or designs in- 
tended to be perfected as works of the 
fine arts, and the executors, adminis- 
[ trators, or assigns of any such person 
shali, upon complying with the provi- 
sions of this chapter, have the sole 
, liberty of printing, reprinting, pub- 
lishing, completing, copying, executing, 
I finishing, and vending the same ; and, 
j in the case of dramatic composition, of 
| publicly performing or representing it, 
or causing it to be performed or repre- 
sented by others ; and authors or their 
assigns shall have exclusive right to 
dramatize and translate any of their 
works for which copyright shall have 
been obtained under the laws of the 
United States. 

In the construction of this act the 
words "engraving," "cut." and "print." 
shall be applied only to pictorial illus- 
trations or works connected with the 
fine arts, and no prints or labels de- 
signed to be used for any other articles 
of manufacture shall be entered under 
the copyright law, but may be regis- 
tered in the Patent Office. And the 
Commissioner of Patents is hereby 
charged with the supervision and con- 
trol of the entry or registry of such 
prints or labels, in conformity with 
the regulations provided by law as to 
copyright of prints, except that there 
shall be paid for recording the title of 
any print or label, not a trade-mark, 
$0.00, which shall cover the expense of 
furnishing a copy of the record, under 
the seal of the Commissioner of Pat- 
ents, to the party entering the same. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



251 



Sec. 4953. Copyrights shall be 
granted for the term of twenty-eight 
years from the time of recording the 
title thereof, in the manner hereinaf- 
ter directed. 

Sec. 4954. The author, inventor, or 
designer, if he he still living, or his 
widow or children, if he be dead, shall 
have the same exclusive right contin- 
ued for the further term of fourteen 
years, upon recording the title of the 
work or description of the article so 
secured a second time, and complying 
with all other regulations in regard to 
original copyrights, within six months 
before the expiration of the first term 
And such person shall, within two 
months from the date of said renewal, 
cause a copy of the record thereof to 
be published in one or more newspa- 
pers, printed in the United States, for 
the space of four weeks. 

Sec. 4955. Copyrights shall be as- 
signable in law by any instrument of 
writing, and such assignment shall be 
recorded in the office of the Librarian 
of Congress within sixty days after its 
execution ; in default of which it shall 
be void as against any subsequent pur- 
chaser or mortgagee for a valuable 
consideration, without notice. 

Sec. 4956. No person shall be en- 
titled to a copyright unless he shall, on 
or before the day of publication, in 
this or any foreign country, deliver at 
the office of the Librarian of Congress, 
or deposit in the mail within the 
United States, addressed to the Libra- 
rian of Congress, at Washington, D. C., 
a printed copy of the title of the book, 
map, chart, dramatic or musical com- 
position, engraving, cut, print, photo- 
graph, or chromo, or a description of 
the painting, drawing, statue, statuary, 
or a model or design, for a work of 
the fine arts, for which he desires a 
copyright ; nor unless he shall also, 
not later than the day of the publi- 
cation thereof, in this or any foreign 
country, deliver at the office of the 
Librarian of Congress, at Washington, 
D. C., or deposit in the mail within 
the United States, addressed to the 
Librarian of Congress, at Washington, 
D. C., two copies of such copyright 
book, map, chart, dramatic or musical 
composition, engraving, chromo, cut, 
print or photograph, or in case of a 
painting, drawing, statue, statuary, 
model or design for a work of the fine 
arts, a photograph of the same : Pro- 
vided. That in the case of a book, pho- 
tograph, chromo, or lithograph, the 
two copies of the same required to be 
delivered or deposited as above, shall 



be printed from type set within the 
limits of the United States, or from 
plates made therefrom, or from nega- 
tives, or drawings on stone made with- 
in the limits of the United States, or 
from transfers made therefrom. Dur- 
! ing the existence of such copyright the 
importation into the United States of 
any brook, chromo. lithograph, or pho- 
tograph, so copyrighted, or any edition 
or editions thereof, or any plates of 
the same not made from type set, nega- 
tives, or drawings on stone made with- 
in the limits of the United States, shall 
1 be, and is hereby prohibited, except in 
the_cases specified in paragraphs 512 
to 51(J, inclusive, in Section 2 of the 
act entitled An act to reduce the 
revenue and equalize the duties on im- 
ports and for other purposes, approved 
October 1, 1890; and except in the 
j case of persons purchasing for use and 
I not for sale, who import subject to the 
duty thereon, not more than two cop- 
ies of such books at any one time ; 
and. except in the case of newspapers 
j and magazines, not containing in 
I whole or in part matter copyrighted 
j under the provisions of this act, un- 
! authorized by the author, which are 
I hereby exempted from prohibition of 
importation ; 

Provided, nevertheless. That in the 
case of books in foreign languages, of 
which only translations in English are 
copyrighted, the prohibition of impor- 
tation shall apply only to the trans- 
lation of the same, and the importation 
of the books in the original language 
shall be permitted. 

Sec. 4957. The Librarian of Con- 
gress shall record the name of such 
copyright book, or other article, forth- 
with in a book to be kept for that pur- 
pose, in the words following : "Lib- 
rary of Congress, to wit : Be it re- 
membered that on the - - day of 

, A. B.. of : , hath deposited in 

this office the title of a book (map, 
chart, or otherwise, as the case may 
be, or description of the article), the 
title or description of which is in the 
following words, to wit: (here insert 
the title or description), the right' 
whereof he claims as author (origina- 
tor, or proprietor, as the case may be). 
in conformity with the laws of the 
United States respecting copyrights. 
C. D., Librarian of Congress." And 
he shall give a copy of the title or 
description under the seal of the Li- 
brarian of Congress, to the proprietor, 
whenever he shall require it. 

Sec. 4958. The Librarian of Con 
gress shall receive from the persons to 



252 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



whom the services designated are ren- 
dered, the following fees: 1. For re- 
cording the title or description of any 
copyright book or other article, 50 
cents. 2. For every copy under seal 
of such record actually given to the 
person claiming the copyright,_or his 
assigns, 50 cents. [3. For recording 
and certifying any instrument of writ- 
ing for the assignment of a copyright, 
$1.00. 4. For every copy of an as- 
signment. $1.00.] All fees so received 
shall be paid into the treasury of the 
United States : Provided, That the 
charge for recording the title or de- 
scription of any article entered for 
copyright, the production of a person 
not a citizen or resident of the United 
States, shall be $1.00, to be paid as 
above into the treasury of the United 
States, to defray the expenses of lists 
of copyrighted articles as hereinafter 
provided for. 

And it is hereby made the duty of 
the Librarian of Congress to furnish 
to the Secretary of the Treasury copies 
of the entries of titles of all books and 
other articles wherein the copyright 
has been completed by the deposit of 
two copies of such book printed from 
type set within the limits of the United 
States, in accordance with the provi- 
sions of this act, and by the deposit 
of two copies of such other article 
made or produced in the United 
States ; and the Secretary of the 
Treasury is hereby directed to prepare 
and print, at intervals of not more 
than a week, catalogues of such title- 
entries for distribution to the collect- 
ors of customs of the United States, 
and to the postmasters of all post- 
offices receiving foreign mails, and 
such weekly lists, as they are issued, 
shall be furnished to all parties desir- 
ing them, at a sum not exceeding five 
dollars per annum, and the Secretary 
and the Postmaster-General are here- 
by empowered .and required to make 
and enforce such rules and regulations 
as shall prevent the importation into 
the United States, except upon the 
conditions above specified, of all arti- 
cles prohibited by this act. 

Sec. 4959. The proprietor of every 
copyright book or other article shall 
deliver at the office of the Librarian of 
Congress, or deposit in the mail, ad- 
dressed to the Librarian of Congress, 
at Washington, I). C. a copy of every 
subsequent edition wherein any sub- 
stantial changes shall be made: Pro- 
vided, however. That the alterations, 
revisions, and additions made to books 
by foreign authors, heretofore pub- 



lished, of which new editions shall ap- 
pear subsequently to the taking ef- 
fect of this act, shall be held and 
deemed capable of being copyrighted 
as above provided for in this act, un- 
less they form a part of the series in 
course of publication at the time this 
act shall take effect. 

Sec. 4960. For every failure on the 
part of the proprietor of any copy- 
right to deliver, or deposit in the mail, 
either of the published copies, or de- 
scription, or photograph, required by 
sections 4950 and 4959, the proprietor 
of the copyright shall be liable to a 
penalty of $25.00, to be recovered by 
the Librarian of Congress, in the name 
of the United States, in an action 
in the nature of an action of debt, 
in any district court of the United 
States within the jurisdiction of 
which the delinquent may reside or be 
found. 

The following act in relation to the 
deposit of copies was approved March 
3, 1893 : "That any author, inventor, 
designer, or proprietor of any book, or 
other article entitled to copyright, who 
has heretofore failed to deliver in the 
office of the Librarian of Congress, or 
in the mail addressed to the Librarian 
of Congress, two complete copies of 
such book, or description or photo- 
graph of such article, within the time 
limited by title GO, chapter 3, of the 
Revised Statutes, relating to copy- 
rights, and the acts in amendment 
thereof, and has complied with all oth- 
er provisions thereof, who has, before 
j the first day of March, 1893, delivered 
at the office of the Librarian of Con- 
gress, or deposited in the mail ad- 
dressed to the Librarian of Congress 
two complete printed copies of such 
book, or description or photograph of 
such article, shall be entitled to all 
the rights and privileges of said title 
sixty, chapter three, of the Revised 
Statutes and the acts in amendment 
thereof. 

Sec. 4901. The postmaster to whom 
such copyright book, title, or other ar- 
ticle is delivered, shall, if requested, 
give a receipt therefor ; and when so 
delivered he shall mail it to its des- 
tination. 

Sec. 4902. No person shall main- 
tain an action for the infringement of 
his copyright unless he shall give no- 
tice thereof by inserting in the several 
copies of every edition published, on 
the title-page, or the page immediately 
following, if it be a book ; or if a map, 
chart, musical composition, print, cut, 
engraving, photograph, painting, draw- 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



253 



ing. ohromo, statue, statuary, or 
model or design intended to be per- 
fected and completed as a work of the 
fine arts, by inscribing upon some 
visible portion thereof, or of the sub- 
stance on which the same shall be 
mounted, the following words, viz. : 
"Entered according to act of Congress, 

in the year , by A. B., in the office 

of the Librarian of Congress, at Wash- 
ington" ; or, at his option, the word 
"Copyright," together with the year 
the copyright was entered, and the 
name of the party by whom it was 
taken out, thus : "Copyright, 18 , 
by A. B." 

That manufacturers of designs for 
moulded decorative articles, tiles, 
plaques, or articles of pottery or metal 
subject to copyright may put the copy- 
right mark prescribed by Section 4902 
of the Revised Statutes, and acts addi- 
tional thereto, upon the back or bot- 
tom of such articles, or in such other 
place upon them as it has heretofore 
been usual for manufacturers of such 
articles to employ for the placing of 
manufacturers, merchants, and trade- 
marks thereon. 

Sec. 4003. Every person who shall 
insert or impress such notice, or words 
of the same purport, in or upon any 
book, map, chart, dramatic or musical 
composition, print, cut, engraving or 
photograph, or other article, whether 
such article be subject to copyright or 
otherwise, for which he has not ob- 
tained a copyright, or shall knowingly 
issue or sell any article bearing a no- 
tice of a United States copyright 
which has not been copyrighted 
in this country : or shall import 
any book, photograph, ohromo, or 
lithograph or other article bearing 
such notice of copyright or words 
of the same purport, which is 
not copyrighted in this country, shall 
be liable to a penalty of $100, recov- 
erable one-half for the person who 
shall sue for such penalty, and one-half 
to the use of the United States; and 
the importation into the United States 
of any book, chromo, lithograph, or 
photograph, or other article bearing 
such notice of copyright, when there 
is no existing copyright thereon in the 
United States, is prohibited ; and the 
circuit courts of the United States sit- 
ting in equity are hereby authorized to 
enjoin the issuing, publishing, or sell- 
ing of any article marked or imported 
in violation of the United States copy- 
right laws, at the suit of any person 
complaining of such violation : Pro- 
vided, That this act shall not apply to 



any importation of or sale of such 
goods or articles brought into the 
United States prior to the passage 
hereof. 

Sec. 4904. Every person who, after 
the recording of the title of any book 
and the depositing of two copies of 
such book as provided by this act, 
shall, contrary to the provisions of 
this act, within the term limited, and 
without the consent of the proprietor 
j of the copyright first obtained in writ- 
| ing, signed in presence of two or more 
\ witnesses, print, publish, dramatize, 
translate, or import, or, knowing the 
same to be so printed, published, dram- 
atized, translated, or imported, shall 
sell or expose to sale any copy of such 
book, shall forfeit every copy thereof 
to such proprietor, and shall also for- 
feit and pay such damages as may be 
recovered in a civil action by such 
! proprietor in any court of competent 
j jurisdiction. 

Sec. 490o. If any person, after the 
recording of the title of any map, 
chart, dramatic or musical composi- 
tion, print, cut, engraving, or photo- 
graph, or chromo, or of the descrip- 
tion of any painting, drawing, statue, 
statuary, or model or design intended 
to be perfected and executed as a 
work of the fine arts, as provided by 
this act, shall, within the term limited, 
contrary to the provisions of this act, 
and without the consent of the proprie- 
tor of the copyright first obtained in 
writing, signed in presence of two or 
more witnesses, engrave, etch, work, 
opy, print, publish, dramatize, trans- 
late, or import, either in whole or in 
part, or by varying the main design, 
with intent to evade the law, or know- 
ing the same to be so printed, pub- 
lished, dramatized, translated, or im- 
ported, shall sell or expose to sale any 
copy of such map, or other article, as 
aforesaid, he shall forfeit to the pro- 
prietor all the plates on which the 
same shall be copied, and every sheet 
thereof, either copied or printed, and 
shall further forfeit $1.00 for every 
sheet of the same found in his posses- 
sion, either printing, printed, copied, 
published, imported, or exposed for 
sale ; and in case of a painting, statue, 
or statuary, he shall forfeit $10.00 for 
every copy of the same in his posses- 
sion, or by him sold or exposed for 
sale: Provided, however, That in case 
of any such infringement of the copy- 
right of a photograph made from any 
object not a work of fine arts, the sum 
to be recovered in any action brought 
under the provisions of this section 



254 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



shall be not less than $100, nor more 
than $5,000, and : Provided, further, 
That in case of any such infringement 
of the copyright of a painting, draw- 
ing, statue, engraving, etching, print, 
or model or design for a work of the 
fine arts, or of a photograph of a work 
of the fine arts, the sum to be recov- 
ered in any action brought through the 
provisions of this section shall be not 
less than $250, and not more than 
$10,000. One-half of all the foregoing 
penalties shall go to the proprietors of 
the copyright and the other half to the 
use of the United States. 

Sec. 4960. Any person publicly per- 
forming or representing any draniatic 
or musical composition for which a 
copyright has been obtained, without 
the consent of the proprietor of said 
dramatic or musical composition, or 
his heirs or assigns, shall be liable for 
damages therefor, such damages in all 
cases to be assessed at such sum, not 
less than $100 for the first, and $50 
for every subsequent performance, as 
to the court shall appear to be just. 
If the unlawful performance and rep- 
resentation be wilful and for profit 
such person or persons shall be guilty 
of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction 
be imprisoned for a period not exceed- 
ing one year. Any injunction that 
may be granted upon hearing after 
notice to the defendant by any circuit 
court, in the United States, or by a 
judge thereof, restraining and enjoin- 
ing the performance or representation 
of any such dramatic or musical com- 
position may be served on the parties 
against whom such injunction may be 
granted anywhere in the United 
States, and shall be operative and may 
be enforced by proceedings to punish 
for contempt or otherwise by any other 
circuit court or judge in the United 
States ; but the defendants in said ac- 
tion, or any or either of them, may 
make a motion in any other circuit in 
which he or they may be engaged in 
performing or representing said drama- 
tic or musical composition to dissolv? 
or set aside the said injunction upon 
such reasonable notice to the plaintiff 
as the circuit court or the judge be- 
fore whom said motion shall be made 
shall deem proper ; service of said mo- 
tion to be made on the plaintiff in 
person or on his attorneys in the ac- 
tion. The circuit courts or judges 
thereof shall have jurisdiction to en- 
force said injunction and to hear and 
determine a mot'on to dissolve the 
same, as herein provided, as fully as if 
the action were pending or brought in 



the circuit in which said motion is 
made. 

The clerk of the court, or judge 
granting the injunction, shall, when 
required so to do by the court hearing 
the application to dissolve or enforce 
said injunction, transmit without de- 
lay to said court a certified copy of all 
the papers on which the said injunc- 
tion was granted that are on file in 
his office. 

Sec. 49(>7. Every person who shall 
print or publish any manuscript what- 
ever, without the consent of the au- 
thor or proprietor first obtained shall 
be liable to the author or proprietor 
for all damages occasioned by such 
injury. 

Sec. 4908. No action shall be main- 
tained in any case of forfeiture or 
penalty under the copyright laws, un- 
less the same is commenced within two 
years after the cause of action has 
arisen. 

Sec. 4969. In all actions arising 
under the laws respecting copyrights 
the defendant may plead the general 
issue, and give the special matter in 
evidence. 

Sec. 4970. The circuit courts, and 
district courts having the jurisdiction 
of circuit courts, shall have power, 
upon bill in equity, filed by any party 
aggrieved, to grant injunctions to pre- 
vent the violation of any right secured 
by the laws respecting copyrights, ac- 
cording to the course and principles of 
courts of equity, on such terms as the 
court may deem reasonable. 

Sec. 4971. 

[Revised Statutes, title 13, THE 
JUDICIARY, provides as follows : Chap. 
7 (sec. <>29. The circuit courts shall 
have original jurisdiction as follows : 
* * * Ninth. Of all suits at law 
or in equity arising under the patent 
or copyright laws of the United States. 
A writ of error may be allowed to re- 
view any final judgment at law, and 
an appeal shall be allowed from any 
final decree in equity hereinafter men- 
tioned, without regard to the sum or 
value in dispute : First. Any final 
judgment at law or final decree in 
equity of any circuit court, or of any 
district court acting as a circuit 
court, or of the supreme court of the 
District of Columbia, or of any Ter- 
ritory, in any case touching patent 
rights or copyrights. (Rev. Stat., 
3878, p. 130.) Chap. 12 (sec. 711). 
The jurisdiction vested in the courts 
of the United States in the cases and 
proceedings hereafter mentioned, shall 
be exclusive of the courts of the sev- 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



255 



eral States : * * * Fifth. Of all 
cases arising under the patent-right or 
copyright laws of the United States. 
(Rev. Stat., 1878, pp. 134, 135.) 
Chap. 18 (sec. 972). In all recoveries 
under the copyright laws, either for 
damages, forfeiture, or penalties, full 
costs shall be allowed thereon. (Rev. 
Stat., 1878, p. 183.)] 

The act approved March 3, 1891 
(51st Congress, 1st session, chap. 505: 
26 Statutes at Large, pp. 1106-1110), 
in addition to the amendments, noted 
above, of sections 4952, 4954, 4956, 
4958, 4959, 4963. 4964, 4965, and 
4967, provides further as follows: 

"That for the purpose of this act 
each volume of a book in two or more 
volumes, when such volumes are pub- 
lished separately, and the first one 
shall not have been issued before this 
act shall take effect, and each num- 
ber of a periodical shall be considered 
an independent publication, subject to 
the form of copyrighting as above." 
(Sec. 11.) 

"That this act shall go into effect on 
the first day of July, 1891." (Sec. 
12.) 

"That this act shall only apply to 
a citizen or subject of a foreign state 
or nation when such foreign state or 
nation permits to citizens of the 
United States of America the benefit 
of copyright on substantially the same 



basis as its own citizens; or when 
such foreign state or nation is a party 
to an international agreement which 
provides for reciprocity in the grant- 
ing of copyright, by the terms of which 
agreement the United States of Amer- 
ica may at its pleasure become a party 
to such agreement. The existence of 
either of the conditions aforesaid shall 
be determined by the President of the 
United States, by proclamation made 
from time to time as the purposes of 
this act may require." (Sec. 13.) 

[An Act providing for the public 
printing and binding and the distribu- 
tion of public documents (January 12, 
1895, 53d Congress, 3d session, chap. 
23, sec. 52 : 28 Statutes at Large, p. 
608). provides as follows: The Pub- 
lic Printer shall sell, under such regu- 
lations as the Joint Committee on 
Printing may prescribe, to any person 
or persons who may apply,' additional 
or duplicate stereotype or electrotype 
plates from which any Government 
publication is printed, at a price not to 
exceed the cost of composition, the 
metal and making to the Government 
and 10 per centum added : Provided, 
That the full amount of the price shall 
be paid when the order is filed : And 
provided, further, That no publication 
reprinted from such stereotype or elec- 
trotype plates and no other Govern- 
ment publication shall be copyrighted.] 



CHAPTER X. 



MANUFACTURES, EXPORTS ANI) IMPORTS. 



LOCALIZATION OP SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES, BY STATES: 1900. 



Industry. 


Value of 
Products in 
Continental State. 
United 
States. 


Value of 
Products in 
the State 
Named. 


Per Cent 
of Conti- 
nental 
United 
States in 
the State 
Named. 


Collars and cuffs. 


. ...1 $15,769,132 
12,608,770 
ing. . 3,670,134 
16,721,234 
i 7,157,856 
35,585,445 
; 3,927,867 
2,734,471 
6.547.310 


New York 
Connecticut 
Maryland 
New York 
Connecticut 
Pennsylvania. . . . 
Ohio 
Massachusetts. . 
California 
Connecticut 
Pennsylvania. . . 
Pennsylvania . . . 
Connecticut 
Massachusetts. . . 
Illinois 


$15,703,541 
9,538,397 
2,417,331 
10,854,221 
4,545,047 
22,282,358 
2,407,655 
1,651,221 
3,937,871 
9,269,159 
434,445,200 
23,113,058 
6,846,946 
117,115,243 
42,033,796 

279,842,835 
8,110,468 
5,886,923 
38,208,076 
22,001,130 
35,886,048 
39,966,662 
3,834,408 
2,698,691 
111,125,175 
13,320,620 
55,615,009 
7,546,882 

11,851,225 
26,715,628 


99.6 
75.7 
65.9 
64.9 
63.5 
62.6 
61.3 
60.4 
60.1 
54.1 
54.0 
48.0 
46.0 
44.9 
41.5 

40.1 
39.9 
39.9 
39.5 
38.9 
37.6 
37 3 
36.3 
33.9 
32.8 
28.6 
27.3 
27.2 

26.8 
21.0 


Plated and britannia ware. . 
Oysters, canning and preserv 
Leather gloves and mittens. . 

Clocks 
Coke 
Safes and vaults 
Whips 




Brassware : 17,140,075 
Iron and steel 803,908,273 
Carpets and rugs, other than rag 48,192,351 
Corsets 14,878,116 
Boots and shoes, factory product. . . . 201,028,580 
Agricultural implements 101,207,428 
Slaughtering and meat packing, whole- 
sale 098,206,548 
Turpentine and rosin 20,344,888 
Cotton, ginning ' 14,748,270 
Liquors, distilled 90,798,443 
Glass 56,539,712 
Hosiery and knit goods 95,482,566 
Silk and silk goods . . 107 25R.258 


Georgia 
Texas 


Illinois 
Pennsylvania. . . . 
New York. .... 
New Jersey 
Rhode Island 
New York 
Massachusetts. . . 
Rhode Island. . . . 
Pennsylvania. . . . 
Connecticut 

Ohio. . 
New York 


Silverware 
Salt 
Cotton goods 
Jewelry 
Leather, tanned, curried, and 
Fur hats 
Pottery, terra cotta, and 
products. . 


10,569,121 
7,966,897 
33^,200,320 
1 46,501,181 
finished. 204,038,127 
, 27,811,187 
fire-clay 
. . . 44,263,386 
127,326,162 


Paper and wood pulp 







Twelfth Census. 



257 



258 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



MANUFACTURING IN THE UNITED STATES 



Class. 


Number 
of Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Capital. 


Proprie- 
tors and 
Firm 
Members 


Wage -earners. 


Average 
Number. 


Total Wages 


Total 

Hand trades 
Governmental establishments .... 
Educational, eleemosynary, and 
penal institutions 
Establishments with a product of 
less than $500 
All other establishments 


640,056 

215,814 
133 

381 

127,346 
296,377 


$9,858,205,501 
392,442,255 


708,623 
242,154 


5,370,814 
559,130 


$2,323,055,634 
288,118,421 

2,117,466 
2,032,819,747 


44,371,111 136,054 
9,421,392,135 330,415 


64,671 
4,747,013 



Statistics for governmental establishments, educational, eleemosynary, and penal insti- 



MANUFACTURING IN THE UNITED STATES 

[Twelfth Census, 







Date of Census 




Items. 


1900. 1 


1890. 


1880. 


Number of establishments 
Canital 
Salaried officials, clerks, etc., number . . . 
Salaries 
Wage-earners, average number 


512,276 
$9,831,486,500 
397,092 
$404,112,794 
5,314,539 
$2,327,295,545 


355,405 
$6,525,050,759 
2 461,001 
2 $391,984, 660 
4,251,535 
$1,891,209,696 


253,852 
$2,790,272,606 
( 3 ) 
( 3 ) 
2,732,595 
$947,953,795 


Men, at least 16 years of age 
Wages 
Women, at least 16 years of age 
Wages 
Children under 16 years 


4,114,348 
$2,019,954,204 
1,031,608 

$281,679,649 
168,583 


3,326,964 
$1,659,215,858 
803,686 
$215,357,976 
120,885 


2,019,035 
( 3 ) 
531,639 
( 3 ) 
181,921 


Wages 
Miscellaneous expenses 
Cost of materials used 
Value of products, incl. custom work, etc, 


$25,661,692 
$1,027,865,277 
$7,316,358,979 
$13,010,036,514 


$16,625,862 
$631,219,783 
$5,162,013,878 
$9,372,378,843 


( 3 ) 
( 5 ) 
$3,396,823,549 
$5.309.579.191 



1 Includes, for comparative purposes, 85 governmental establishments in the District of 
Columbia having products valued at $9,887,355, the statistics for such establishments for 1890 
not being separable. 

2 Includes proprietors and firm members, with their salaries; number only reported in 
1900, but not included in this table. 

3 Not reported separately. 

4 Decrease. 

5 Not reported. 

NOTE. Exact comparisons between the censuses shown in this table are difficult and 
sometimes impossible on account of changes which have taken place from census to census in 
the form of inquiries contained in the schedules, in the industries canvassed, and in the methods 
of compilation. Comparisons between the censuses of 1890 and 1900 are more exact than has 
ever before been the case; but even between these two censuses there are certain important 
differences in the forms of inquiry, or the methods of handling the statistics in compilation, 
to which careful attention should be paid. 

1. Capital. It cannot be assumed that any true comparability exists between the sta- 
tistics on this subject elicited prior to 1890. At the census of 1880 the question read: ' 'Caoital 
(real and personal) invested in the business." At the census of 1890 live capital, i.e., cash on 
hand, bills receivable, unsettled ledger accounts, raw materials, stock in process of manufac- 
ture, finished products on hand, and other sundries, was for the first time included as a separate 
and distinct item of capital, and the capital invested in realty was divided between land, 
buildings, and machinery. The form of this inquiry at the census of 1890 and 1900 was so 
similar that comparison may be safely made. 

2. Salaried Officials. No comparison of the statistics of the number and salaries or 
salaried officials of any character can be made between the reports of any censuses. Not until 
the census of 1890 did the census begin to differentiate sharply between salaried officials, i.e., 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY FOR ALL ESTABLISHMENTS: 1900. 



259 



Miscellaneous 
Expenses. 


Cost of Materials Used. 


Total. 


Purchased in 
Raw State. 


Purchased in 
Partially Man- 
ufactured 
Form. 


Fuel, 
Freight, 
etc. 


Value of Prod- 
ucts, Including 
Custom Work 
and Repairing. 


$1,030,110,125 
124,623,253 


$7,363,132,083 

482,736,991 
6,917,518 

3,690,916 

8,895,774 
6,860,890,884 


$2,391,668,276 

8,851,162 
60,576 

1,037,343 

1,431,529 

2,380,287,666 


$4,648,561,271 

462,510,619 
6,607,447 

2,365,089 

7,437,420 
4,169,640,696 


$322,902,536 

11,375,210 
249,495 

288,484 

26,825 
310,962,522 


$13,053,562,917 

1,183,615,478 
22,010,391 

6,640,692 

29,762,675 
11,816,533,681 


2,524,681 
902,962,191 



tutions, and establishments with a product of less than $500, are included in Table only. 



COMPARATIVE SUMMARY: 1850 TO 1900. 
Vols. VII. and VIII. 



Date of Census. 


Per Cent of Increase. 


1870. 


1860. 


1850. 


1890 
to 
1900. 


1880 
to 
1890. 


1870 
to 
1880. 


1860 
to 
1870. 


1850 
to 
1860. 

14.1 

89.4 


252,148 
$2,118,208,769 
( 3 ) 
( 3 ) 
2,053,996 
$775,584,343 
1,615,598 
( 3 ) 
323,770 
( 3 ) 
114,628 
( 3 ) 
( 5 ) 
$2,488,427,242 
84,232,325,442 


140,433 
$1,009.855,715 
( 3 ) 
( 3 ) 
1,311,246 
$378,878,966 
1,040,349 
( 3 ) 
270,897 
( 3 ) 
( 3 ) 
( 3 ) 
( 5 ) 
$1,031,605,092 
$1,885,861,676 


123,025 
$533,245,351 
( 3 ) 
( 3 ) 
957,059 
$236,755,464 
731,137 
( 3 ) 
225,922 
( 3 ) 
( 3 ) 
( 3 ) 
( 5 ) 
$555,123,822 
$1,019,106,616 


44.1 
50.7 
4 13.9 
3.1 

25.0 
23.1 
23.7 
21.7 

28.4 
30.8 
39.5 
54.3 

62.8 
42.3 

38.8 


40.0 
133.8 

55 '.6'. 
99.5 
64.8 


0.7 
31.7 


79.6 
109.8 






33.0 

22.2 
25.0 


56.6 
104.7 
55.3 


37.0 
60.0 
42.3 


51.2 


64.2 


19.5 


19.9 


4 33. 6 58.7 










52.0 
74.5 


36.5 
26.9 


141.2 

124.4 


85.8 
85.1 



employees engaged at a fixed compensation per annum, and the wage-earning class, i.e., em- 
ployees paid by the hour, the day, the week, or the piece, for work performed and only fof 
such work. Prior to 1890 such salaried officials, if returned at all, were returned with the 
wage-earners proper. At the census of 1890 the number and salaries of proprietors and firm 
members actively engaged in the business, or in supervision, were reported, combined with 
clerks and other officials. Where proprietors and firm members Were reported without sala- 
ries, the amount that would ordinarily be paid for similar services was estimated. At the 
census of 1900 the number of proprietors and firm members actively engaged in industry or 
in supervision was ascertained, but no salaries were reported for this class, salaries, as a matter 
of fact, being rarely paid in such cases, proprietors and firm members depending upon the 
earnings of the business for their compensation. 

3. Employees and Wages. At the censuses of 1850 and 1860 the inquiries regarding em- 
ployees and wages called for "the average number of hands employed: male, female," "the 
average monthly cost of male labor," and "the average monthly cost of female labor." At 
the census of 1870 the average number of hands employed was called for. divided between 
"males above 16 years, females above 15 years, and children and youth," and the "total 
amount paid in wages during the year" was first called for. The inquiries at the census of 
1880 were like those of 1S70, though more extended for some of the selected industries. 

At the census of 1890 the average number of persons employed during the entire year was 
called for, and also the average number employed at stated weekly rates of pay, and the 
average number was computed for the actual time the establishments were reported as being 
in operation. At the census of 1900 the greatest and least numbers of employees were reported 
and al<o the average number employed during each month of the year. The average number 
of wage-earners (men, women, and children) employed during the entire year was computed 
in the Census Office by using 12, the number of calendar months, as a divisor into the total 
of the average numbers reported for each month. This difference in the method of ascertain- 



260 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



ing the average number of wage-earners during the entire year resulted in a variation in the 
average number as between the two censuses. 

Furthermore, the schedules for 1890 included in the wage-earning class "overseers, and 
foremen or superintendents (not general superintendents or managers)," while the census of 
1900 separates from the wage-earning class such salaried employees as general superintendents, 
clerks, and salesmen. It is probable that this change in the form of the question has resulted 
in eliminating from the wage-earners, as reported by the present census, many high-salaried 
employees included in 1890. 

4. Miscellaneous Expenses. This item was not shown at any census prior to that of 1890. 
Comparison between the totals reported can safely be made between the last two censuses. 

5. Materials. The same statement is true regarding the materials used in manufactures. 
Witn the exception of the schedules on which a few selected industries were reported at the 
census of 1880, the question concerning materials was as follows: "Value of materials used 
(including mill supplies and fuel)." At the census of 1890 the schedule contained separate 
questions as to the kind, quantity, and cost of the principal materials, and the cost of "mill 
supplies," "fuel," and "all other materials." The amounts paid for rent of power and heat 
were also included under this head in 1890. It is probable that some of the items included 
the cost of materials at the census of 1880 were included in "miscellaneous expenses" at the 
inquiries of 1890 and 1900. 

6. Products. These statistics are comparable beginning with the census of 1870. 



COMPARATIVE SUMMARY, BY SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES: 

[Twelfth Census, Vol. VII. page 3, and Vol. VIII. page 18.] 



1900. 





Num- 




Wage-earners. 




Value of Prod- 




ber of 






Cost of 


Jcts, Including 


Industry. 


Estab- 
lish- 


Capital. 


Average 
Num- 


Total Wages. 


Materials 
Used. 


Custom Work 
and Repair- 




ments. 




ber 






ing. 


Total 


512,191 


$9,813,834,390 


5,306,143 


$2,320,938,168 


$7,343,627,875 


$13,000,149,159 


Agricultural im- 


























plements 


715 


157,707,951 


46,582 


22,450,880 


43,944,628 


101,207,428 


Ammunition 


33 


6,719,081 


5,231 


2,560,954 


7,436,748 


13,027,635 


Artificial feathers 














and flowers 


227 


3,633,869 


5,333 


1,561,763 


2,765,151 


6,297,805 


Artificial limbs. . . 


87 


290,104 


249 


146,620 


126,062 


749,854 


Artists' materials.. 


21 


376,736 


200 


79,267 


249,107 


497,046 


Awnings, tents, 














and sails 


858 


4,342,728 


4,400 


2,038,613 


6,480,685 


11,728,843 


Axle grease 


29 


577,195 


127 


55,238 


360,411 


718,114 


Babbitt metal and 














solder 


51 


3,115,568 


535 


294,584 


7,998,369 


9,191,409 


Bags, other than 














paper 


78 


7,696,732 


4,039 


1,133,128 


16,849,311 


20,123,486 


Bags, paper 


63 


6,900,291 


2,029 


683,783 


4,659,001 


7,359,975 


Baking and yeast 














powders 


191 


8,337,723 


1,938 


717,000 


7,126,967 


14,568,380 


Baskets, & rattan 














and willow ware. 


550 


2,989,568 


4,396 


1,280,511 


1,398,374 


3,851,244 


Bells 


23 


1,038,305 


663 


307,991 


602,856 


1,247,730 


Belting and hose, 














leather 


105 


7,410,219 


1,667 


913,937 


7,500,413 


10,623,177 


Belting and hose, 














.. & 
linen 


7 


526,059 


254 


64,102 


452,430 


717,137 


Belting and hose, 














rubber 


18 


5,493,885 


1,771 


918,191 


4,075,702 


6,169,044 


Bicycle and tricy- 
cle repairing. . . . 


6,328 


6,760,070 


5,749 


2,505,974 


5,224,886 


13,766,033 


Bicycles and tri- 














cycles 


312 


29,783,659 


17,525 


8,189,817 


16,792,051 


31,915,908 


Billiard tables and 














materials 


75 


884,901 


455 


278,218 


730,046 1,650,868 


Blacking. . 


121 


2,718,504 


1,250 


424,174 


2,186,809 i 4,504,965 


Blacksm i t h i n g 










j 


and wheel 












wrighting 


51,771 


54,976,341 


36,193 


17,974,264 


24 701,632 85,971,630 


Bluing 


65 


415,119 


220 


79,380 


244,970 575,804 


Bone, ivory, and 










lamp black 


15 


782,247 


85 


46,107 | 105,712 359,787 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



261 



COMPARATIVE SUMMARY, BY SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES: 1900 Continued. 





Num- 




Wage-earners. 


Value of Prod- 


her of 






Cost of ucts, Including 


Industry. Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Capital. 


Average 
Num- 
ber 


Total Wages. 


Materials Custom Work 
Used. and Repair- 
ing. 


Bookbinding and 








blank-book 












making 


954 


$12,744,628 


' 15,971 i $6,671,666 


$7,702,543 


$20,790,858 


Boot and shoe cut 












stock 


342 


7,003,080 


6,155 I 2,230,691 


17,800,282 


23,242,892 


Boot and shoe 












findings 


186 


3,277,958 


2,993 1,127,784 


4,627,048 


7,145,820 


Boot and shoe 














uppers 


132 


273,796 


256 


125,627 


401,680 


700,225 


Boots and shoes, 














custom work 














and repairing. . 


23,560 


9,262,134 


9,698 


4,128,361 


8,288,664 


26,550,678 


Boots and shoes, 












factory product 1,600 


101,795,233 


142,922 


59,175,883 


169,604,054 


261,028,580 


Boots and shoes, ! 












rubber 22 


33,667,533 14,391 


6,426,579 


22,682,543 


41.089.819 


Bottling 2,064 


16,620,152 7,680 


3,589,447 


28,087,823 4li640i672 


Boxes, cigar 315 


3,288,272 


4,609 


1,439,599 


3,061,193 


5,856,915 


Boxes, fancy and 














paper 


729 


14,979,305 


27,653 


8,151,625 


11,765,424 


27,316,317 


Boxes, wooden 














packing 


896 


21,952,757 


22,034 


7,827,955 22,807,627 ! 38,216,384 


Brass 


10 


503,367 162 


98,796 1,152,635 


1,419,817 


Brass and copper, 










rolled 


19 


15,629,766 


6,759 


3,512,781 30,000,632 


37,536,325 


Brass castings and 












brass finishing. . 


442 


21,925,039 


11,964 


6,070,762 18,871,141 30,343,044 


Brassware 


204 


12,194,715 


7,668 


3,550,074 9,830,319 17,140,075 


Bread and other 










bakery products 14,917 


81,049,553 60,271 


27,893,170 95,221,915 175,657,348 


Brick and tile 5,423 


82,086,438 61,979 


21,883,333 ! 11,006,148 ! 51,270,476 


Bridges 196 


16,768,948 , 12,181 


6,711,260 


16,258,561 i 30,151,624 


Bronze castings. . . 21 


881,769 


621 


372,797 


1,339,722 


2,229,329 


Brooms and 














brushes 


1,526 


9,616,780 


10,349 


3,788,046 


9,546,854 


18,490,847 


Butter, rework'g .. 


10 


255,525 


148 


67,747 


1,345,418 


2,114,935 


Buttons 


238 


4,212,568 


8,685 


2,826,238 


2,803,246 


7,695,910 


Calcium lights. . . . 


19 


95,114 


55 


24,418 


34,982 


118,666 


Cardboard 


5 


1,168,495 


626 


264,427 


705,527 


1,270,416 


Card cutting and 














designing 


43 


337,642 


325 


135,130 312,760 


618,488 


Carpentering 


21,315 


71,327,047 123,985 


71,049,737 142,419,410 


316,101,758 


Carpets and rugs, 












other than rag. . 


133 


44,449,299 28,411 


11,121,383 


27,228,719 


48,192,351 


Carpets, rag 


1,014 


975,190 1,504 


492,656 


681,311 


1,993,756 


Carpets, wood. . . . 


31 


412,357 


608 


362,112 


418,343 


1,056,702 


Carriage and 














wagon materials 


588 


19,085,775 


15,387 


5,987,267 


13,048,608 


25,027,173 


Carriages and 














sleds, children's. 


77 


2,906,472 


2,726 


1,090,296 


1,996,070 


4,289,695 


Carriages and 














wagons 


7,632 


118,187,838 


62,540 


29,814,911 


56,676,073 


121,537,276 


Cars and general 














shop construc'n 












and repairs by 














steam railroad 














companies 


1,295 


119,473,042 


173,595 


96,006,570 


109,472,353 


218,113,658 


Cars, railroad and 














street, and re- 














pairs, not in- 














cluding estab- 














lishments oper- 














ated by steam 














railroad. com- 














panies 


193 


106,721,188 


44,063 


23,342,763 


70,046,354 


107,186,359 


Celluloid and cel- 














luloid goods (1890) 


12 


3,158,487 


939 


447,120 


856,180 


2,575,736 


Charcoal 


183 811,225 


1,786 


431,381 


405,339 


1,1 33.63S 



202 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



COMPARATIVE SUMMARY, BY SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES: 1900 Continued. 



Industry. 


Num- 
ber of 
Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Capital. 


Wage-earners. 


Cost of 
Materials 
Used. 


Value of Prod- 
ucts, Including 
Custom Work 
and Repair- 
ing. 


Average 
Num- 
ber. 


Total Wages. 


Cheese, butter, 














and condensed 














milk 


9,355 


$36,508,015 


12,865 


$6,170,670 


$109,151,205 


$131,199,277 


Chemicals ....... 


459 


89,091,430 


19,054 


9,401,467 


34,554,137 


62.676,730 


China decorating . 


169 


372,017 


360 


148,004 


261,819 


693,800 


Chocolate and co- 














coa products. . 


24 


6,890,732 


1,314 


525,875 


6,876,682 


9,666,192 


Cleansing and pol- 














ishing prepara- 












tions.* 


154 


943,328 


508 


209,438 j 965,242 


2,193,019 


Clocks 


46 


8,792,653 


6,037 


2,650,703 ! 3,028,606 


7,157,856 


Cloth, sponging 












and refinishing. . 


46 


288,894 


534 


268,191 j 17,490 


566,000 


Clothing, horse. . . 


26 


653,545 


575 


176,687 i 847,846 


1,305,164 


Clothing, men's ... 


28,014 


173,034,543 


191,043 


79,434,932 197,742,067 


415,256,391 


Clothing, women's 












dressmaking . . 


14,479 


13,815,221 


45,595 


14,352,453 16,503,754 


48,356,034 


Clothing, wom'n's, 












factory product. 


2,701 


48,431,544 


83,739 


32,586,101 84,704,592 


159,339,539 


Coffee and spice, 










roasting and 










grinding. ... 


458 


28,436,897 


6,387 


2,486,759 ! 55,112,203 69,527,108 


Coffins, burial 










cases, and un- 
dertakers' goods 


217 


13,585,162 


6,840 


3,077,481 ! 6,945,348 


13,952,308 


Coke. 


241 


36,502,679 


16,999 


7,035,736 ; 19,665,532 35,585,445 


Collars and cuffs, 






paper (1890). . . 


3 


237,764 82 


35,125 223,077 301,093 


Combs 


34 


832,791 1,399 


572,467 951,514 1,976,129 


Confectionery. . . 


4,297 


35155,361 33,583 


10,867,687 ' 45,534,153 81,290,543 


Cooperage 


2,146 


22,568,873 j 22,938 


9,200,303 23,299,312 40,576,462 


Copper, smelting 








and refining ... 


47 


53,063,395 11,324 


8,529,021 122,174,129 165,131,670 


Cordage and twine 
Cordials & syrups 


105 
39 


29,275,470 13 114 
1,153,006 ' 3 62 


4,113,112 26,632,006 37,849,651 
116,917 ; 1,505,096 1 2,107,132 


Cork, cutting. ... 


62 


2,683,683 2 340 


687,796 2,403,829 1 4,392,364 


Corsets 


216 


7,481,048 12,729 


3,791,509 6,555,467 14,878,116 


Cotton, comprers- 










ing 


111 


8,323,558 2 742 


735,288 


353,910 2,629,590 


Cotton, ginning .. . 11,369 


23,228,130 14 135 


1,930,039 3,912,303 14,748,270 


Cotton goods .. . 
Cotton waste . - . 


1,055 
26 


467,240,157 
2,560,759 


302,861 
1,116 


86,689,752 
336,827 


176,551,527 
4,950,490 


339,200,320 
5,880,024 


Crucibles 


11 


1,843,616 671 


250,654 


1,673,290 


2,607,308 


Cutlery and edge 










tools 


303 


16,532,383 12,069 


5,673,619 5,116,042 


14,881,478 


Dentistry ,Mechan 












ica! (1890) 


3,214 


4,019,637 


1,486 


768,401 ; 1,475,255 


7,864,299 


Dentists' materi'ls 


68 


2,112,236 


1,017 


508,603 ; 2,109,231 


3,721,150 


Druggists' prepa- 












rations, not in- 














eluding pre- 














scriptions . 


250 


16,320,120 


5,766 


2,041,061 


11,022,417 


23,192,785 


Drug grinding .... 
Dyeing and clean- 
ing 


26 
1,810 


2,837,911 
4,673,211 


644 
5,424 


291,823 
2,271,066 


3,315,228 
1,434,292 


4,308,144 
7,567,358 


Dyeing and finish- 
ing textiles . 


298 


60,643,104 


29,776 


12,726,316 


17,958,137 


44,963,331 


Dye stuffs and ex- 
tracts. . . 


77 


7,839,034 


1,647 


787,942 


4,745,912 


7,350,748 


Electrical appara- 














tusand supplies. 


580 


83,130,943 


40,890 


20,190,344 


48,916,440 


91,348,889 


Electrical con- 














struction and 














repairs 


1,162 


5,438,087 


5,949 


3,312,126 


7,673,507 


15,907,420 


Electroplating. . . . 


422 


1,460,692 


2,275 


1,036,750 


836,726 


3,007,455 


Emery wheels . . . 


34 


1,489,527 


546 


303,091 


508,753 


1,381,675 


Enameling and. 














enameled goods. 


129 


9,184,178 


7,675 


2,259,003 5,466,971 9,978,509 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



2G3 



COMPARATIVE SUMMARY, BY SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES: 1900 Continued. 



Industry. 


Num- 
ber of 
Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Capital. 


Wage-earners. Value of Prod- 
Cost of ucts, Including 
Average Materials Custom Work 
Num- Total Wages Used - anf * Repair- 
ber. ing- 


Engravers' ma- 








terials 


12 


$104,741 


79 $46,064 $143.270 $289.339 


Engraving and 






die-sinking 


414 


790,461 1,034 572,874 225,637 1,683,690 


Engraving, steel, 








including plate 






printing 


286 


5,061,520 3,299 ' 2,006,824 1,206,462 , 5,068,558 


Engraving, wood. 


145 


231,817 337 206,537 63,272 616,166 


Envelopes. 


51 


5,612,509 2,984 1,150,463 3,665,275 6,299,330 


Explosives 


97 


19,465,846 ; 4,502 2,383,756 10,334,974 17,125,418 


Fancy articles, not 








elsewhere spec- 










ified. 


392 


5,081,806 


5,718 1,921,578 4,061,400 9,046,342 


Felt goods 


36 


7,125,276 


2,688 ' 1,024,835 3,801,028 6,461,691 


Fertilizers. 


422 


60,685,753 11,581 4,185,289 ! 28,958,473 44,657,385 


Files . . . 


86 


3,857,647 3,160 i 1.277.199 i 1.166.414 3.403.906 


Firearms 


32 


6,916,231 4,482 


2,542,366 


1,305,421 5,444,659 


Fire extinguish- 










ers, chemical. . . 


17 


136,933 l 64 32,828 ' 70,874 217,833 


Fireworks 46 


1,086,133 1,638 506,990 , 627,761 1,785,271 


Fish, canning and 






; 


preserving 


312 


16,310,987 


11,318 


2,986,996 11,644,118 18,432,613 


Flags and banners 


36 


666,033 


509 


148,933 547,165 1,03^,052 


Flavoring extracts- 


352 


3,319,716 


1,254 


478,975 : 3,294,380 6,314,552 


Flax, dressed 


4 


71,496 


211 


46,000 91,032 158.650 


Flouring and grist 














mill products . 


25,258 


218,714,104 


37,073 


17,703,418 


475,826,345 


560,719,063 


Food preparations 


644 


20,998,102 


8,154 


3,051,718 


23,675,165 


38,457,651 


Foundry and ma- 














chine shop prod- 














ucts 


9,324 


665,038,245 


350,327 182,232,009 


286,357,107 


644,990,999 


Foundry supplies. 


30 


981,817 


278 135,877 


628,160 


1,128,856 


Fruits and vege- 










tables, canning 












and preserving. . 


1,808 


27,743,067 1 36,401 


8,050,793 37,524,297 


56,668,313 


Fur goods 


994 


13,373,867 8,588 


4,273,192 : 15,113,365 


27,735,264 


Furnishing goods, 










men's 


470 


20,163,222 30,216 


9,680,077 23,404,969 


43.902.162 


Furniture, includ- 








ing cabinetmak- 






1 




mg, repairing, & 












upholstering . . , 
Furs, dressed 


7,972 
92 


117,982,091 i 100,018 
798,030 i 835 


42,638,810 
478,190 


65,499,877 
519,699 


153,168,309 
1,400,455 


Galvanizing 


28 


1,775,770 


535 


229,406 


1,677,584 


2,470,703 


Gas and lamp fix- 














tures 


223 


10,009,239 


7,642 


3,504,301 


5,013,597 


12,577,806 


Gas and oil stoves 


35 


3,766,065 


2,471 


1,138,442 


2,501,568 


4,579,700 


Gas, illuminating 










1 




and heating .. . . 


877 


567,000,506 


22,459 


12,436,296 


20,605,356 


75,716,693 


Gas machines and 














meters 


114 


4,605,624 


2,167 


1,185,959 


1,943,769 


4,392,730 


Glass 


355 


61,423,903 


52,818 


27,084,710 


16,731,009 


56,539,712 


Glass, cutting, 














staining, and or- 














namenting .... 


417 


4,013,534 


4,931 


2,403,591 


3,540,097 


8,776,006 


Gloves and mit- 














tens 


394 


9,089,809 


14,345 


4,182,518 


9,483,130 


16,926,156 


Glucose 


8 


41,011,345 


3,288 


1,755,179 


15,773,233 


21,693,656 


Glue 


61 


6,144,407 


1,618 


685,096 


3,767,023 


5,389,006 


Gold and silver, 














leaf and foil. . . . 


93 


1,086,854 


1,163 


498,692 


1,604,013 


2,666,224 


Gold and silver, 














reducing and re- 














fining, not from 














the ore 


57 


1,944,124 


219 


141,400 


10,932,361 


11,811,537 


Graphite and 














graphite refin- 














ing . . 


411.128 


137 


64.376 


216.560 


429.173 



264 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



COMPARATIVE SUMMARY, BY SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES: 1900 Continued. 





Num- 


Wage-earners. 




Value of Prod- 




ber of 




Cost of 


ucts Including 


Industry. 


Estab- 


Capital. A-u-oro.ro 




Materials 


Custom Work 




lish- 




Num- 


Total Wages. 


Used. 


and Repair- 




ments. 




ber. 






ing. 


Grease and tallow. 


289 $7,080,692 \ 2,046 $1,069,683 


$8,761,857 


$11,969,821 


Grindstones 


25 


903,348 1 167 407 1ft3 


263,811 


1,088,909 


Hairwork 


397 


1,009,908 


1,101 


375,156 


673,004 


l!952i792 


Hammocks 


13 


308,254 


339 


101,626 


242,950 


480,114 


Hand knit goods. . 


86 


205,488 


304 


75,870 


124,009 


352,226 


Hand stamps 


268 


1,203,910 


1,052 


490,036 


522,659 


1,937,628 


Hardware . 


381 


39,311,745 


26,463 


11,422,758 


14,605,244 


35,846,656 


Hardware, sad- 














dlery 


80 


3,335,274 


2,940 


1,217,202 


1,690,168 


4,149,489 


Hat and cap ma- 














terials 


70 


1,744,419 


1,371 


434,148 


2,797,756 


3,849,116 


Hats and caps, not 










including wool 










hats 


816 


25,095,798 31,425 


14,144,552 24,421,052 


49,205,667 


Hones and whet- 










stones 


18 


216,836 189 


72,879 64,278 


196,323 


Hooks and eyes. . . 9 


1,382,394 300 


127,518 255,427 


499,543 


Horseshoes, fac- 










' tory product. . . 


6 


344,151 167 


90,527 172,237 


387,619 


Hosiery and knit 






goods 921 


81,860,604 83,387 


24,358,627 51,071,859 


95,482,566 


House furnishing 










goods, not else- 










where specified . 
Ice, manufact'd .. 


210 
775 


10,638,248 5,212 
38,019,507 6,880 


1,837,552 j 9,198,803 
3,402,745 3,312,393 


14,280,575 
13,780,978 


Ink 


104 


3,821,514 787 


412,140 2,109,142 


4,372,707 


Instruments, pro- 










fessional and 










scientific 


265 


4,491,627 ! 2,786 


1,433,715 1,385.292 


4,896,631 


Iron and steel. . . . 


668 


573,391,663 222,490 


120,820,276 


522,398,932 


803,968,273 


Iron and steel, 














bolts , nuts , 














washers, and 














rivets. . . 


72 


10,799,692 


7,660 


2,991,857 


8,071,071 


13,978,382 


Iron and steel, 














doors and shut- 












ters 


13 261.958 


117 


85,683 115,718 


319,629 


Iron and steel, 












forgings 


91 


9,677,193 


4,688 


2,559,433 5,213,550 


10,439,742 


Iron and steel, 














. nails and spikes, 














cutand wrought, 














including wire 














nails. . , 


102 


10,751,359 


4,477 


2,042,250 


8,561,571 


14,777,299 


Iron and steel, 














pipe, wrought. . 


19 


18,343,977 


5,536 


2,495,898 


15,523,858 


21,292,043 


Ironwork, archi- 














tectural and or- 














namental 


672 


33,062,409 


20,646 


11,111,226 


31,140,636 


53,508,179 


Ivory and bone 














work 


70 


939,714 


1,334 


529,051 


930,224 


1,873,357 


Japanning 


38 


117,639 


160 


75,453 


55,305 


215,506 


Jewelry . . 


908 


28,120,939 


20 676 


10,746,375 


22,356,067 


46,501,181 


Jewelry and in- 














strument cases. . 


63 


547,753 819 


322,566 


435,717 


1,156,977 


Jute and jute 














goods 


18 


7,027,293 


4,506 


' 1,181,790 


3,015,362 


5,383,797 


Kaolin and other 












earth grinding. . 


145 


12,212,341 2,094 


820,678 


1,651,335 


3,722,151 


Kindling wood. . . 


85 


1,775,272 1,525 


566,635 


735,844 


1,784,690 


Labels and tags. . . 


47 


848,115 754 


289,273 


3S7.517 


1,104,652 


Lamps and re- 














flectors 
Lapidary work. . . 


156 
60 


6,375,474 
3,087,390 


4,725 
498 


2,076,980 
498,715 


3,497,236 
4,655,765 


8,341,374 

5,786,281 


Lard, refined 


19 


1,335,759 


499 


237,930; 7,496,845 


8,630,901 


Lasts 


65 


1,484,966 


1,131 


649,654 526,670 


1,879,742 


Lead, bar, pipe, 










and sheet 


34 


3,949,330 i 605 


321,598 6,279,497 


7,477,824 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



265 



COMPARATIVE SUMMARY, BY SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES: 1900 Continued. 





Num- 


Wage-earners. 


Value of Prod- 




ber of 




f^rf of iir + c Tr/-1m-1 i*-* 


Industry. 


Estab- 


Capital. A^oroo-o 


Materials Custom Work 




lish- 
ments. 




Num- 
ber. 


Total Wages J Used - and Repair- 
ing. 


Lead, smelting 












and refining .... 


39 


$72,148,933 8,319 


$5,088,684 


$144,195,163 


$175,466,304 


Leather board . .. 


3 


49,500 71 


24,350 


49,451 


108,734 


Leather goods .... 


313 


5,467,294 


6,253 


2,256,280 


6,162,148 


ll.,717,401 


Leather, tanned, 














curried, and fin- 














ished 


1,306 


173,977,421 


52 109 


22,591,091 


i.w oon oni 


204 038 127 


Lime and cement . 


1,000 


48,833,730 


19,107 


7J49I815 : 1L04L577 




Linen goods 


18 


5,688,999 


3,283 


1,036,839 


2,550,517 


4!368|l59 


Liquors, distilled. 967 


32,551,604 3,722 


1,733,218 


15,147,784 


96,798,443 


Liquors, malt. . . . 


1,509 


415,284,468 39,532 


25,826,211 


51,674,928 


237,269,713 


Liquors, vinous. . . 


359 


9,838,015 


1,163 


446,055 


3,689,330 


6,547,310 


Lit ho graphing 














and engraving. . 


263 


22,676,142 


12,994 


6,882,168 


7 886,045 22,240,679 


Lock and gun- 










; 


smithing 


2,103 


2,250,300 1,553 


769,351 


929,700 


3,703,127 


Looking-glass and 










picture frames . . 


1,629 


7,747,382 7,712 


3,370,072 6,887,331 


15,570,293 


Lumber and tim- 










ber products . . . 


33,010 


611,429,574 283,179 


104,563,603 


317,832,865 


566,621,755 


Lumber, planing 












mill products, 














including sash, 














doors, and blinds 


4,204 


119,271,631 


73,627 


32,685,210 


99,927,707 


168,343,003 


Malt 


146 


39,288,102 


1,990 


1,182,513 


14,816,741 


19,373,600 


Mantels, slate, 














marble, and 














marbleized 


36 


811,995 


449 


291,050 


487,965 


1,153,540 


Marble and stone 














work 


fi n?n 


67,509,533 54,370 


98 KA3 941 30 443 9Q7 


85,101,591 


Masonry, brick 






and stone 8,333 


48,070,239 93,568 53,152,258 87,280,964 203,593,634 


Matches 22 


3,893,000 2,047 612,715 3,420,740 6,005,937 


Mats and matting 9 


994,155 1,197 237,282 516,137 1,165,330 


Mattresses and 








spring beds 
Millinery and lace 


797 


8,298,772 


7,959 


3,213,268 i 10,444,009 


18,463,704 


goods . . . 


591 


10,764,813 


16 871 


5.817.855 15 54 995 


99 4fiQ 40fi 


Millinery, custom I 








work 16,151 


27,740,386 


33,298 9,570,536 


36,455,0-13 70,363,752 


Millstones 3 


49,238 


37 20,957 


30,995 75.922 


Mineral and soda 












waters 


2,816 


20,518,708 


8,985 


4,169,113 8,801,467 


23,874,429 


Mirrors 


103 3,184,426 


2,555 


1,231,689 i 4,995,671 


8,004,301 


Models and pat- 














terns 539 


2,250,484 


2,608 


1,565,728 


825,111 


3,836,518 


Mucilage & paste. 


117 


1,265,426 


480 


205,082 


1,657,342 


2,629,299 


Musical i n s t r u- 














ments and ma- 














terials, not spec- 














ified 


229 


3,896,101 


2,405 


1,232,039 


1,205,337 


3,394,734 


Musical i n s t r u- 














ments, organs, 












and materials. . . 


129 


5,011,987 


3,435 


1,720,727 


2,220,165 


5,691,504 


Musical instru- 














ments, pianos 














and materials. . . 


261 


38,790,494 


17,869 


9,818,996 


15,147,520 


35,324,090 


Needles and pins. . 


43 


3,235,158 


2,353 


939,846 


972,570 


2,738,439 


Nets and seines. . . 


19 


1,160,782 


748 


222,146 


865,908 


1,476,022 


Oakum 


7 


416,199 


171 


51,343 


283,862 


440,237 


Oil, castor 


3 


539,221 


49 


29,068 


293,408 


395,400 


Oil, cotton seed 




j 








and cake 


369 


34 451,461 


11,007 


3,143,459 


45,165,823 


58,726.632 


Oil, essential 


70 


612,657 


199 


69,100 


596,112 


850,093 


Oil. lard 


7 


369,773 


78 


42,205 


971,647 


1,221,841 


Oil, linseed 


48 


15,460,512 


1,328 


693,311 


24,395,775 


27,184,331 


Oil, not elsewhere 














specified .. 


193 


9.441.984 


1.353 


679,730 


9,807,859 


17,089,799 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



COMPARATIVE SUMMARY, BY SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES: 1900 Continued. 





Num- 


Wage-earners. 




Value of Prod- 




ber of 




Cost of 


1 1 f* t s T n f* 1 1 1 H i n fr 


Industry. 


Estab- 


Capital. 


Average ' 


Materials 


Custom Work 




lish- 
ments. 




Num- 
ber. 


Total Wages. 


Used. 


and Repair- 
ing. 


Oil, resin 


8 


$284,110 


90 $53.596 


$535,320 


$738,680 


Oilcloth, enamel'd 


9 


1,702,904 


512 


300,878 


2,696,412 


3,595,515 


Oilcloth, floor. . . . 


18 


7,176,198 


2,718 


1,327,235 


4,853,260 


7,807,105 


Oleomargarine. . . 


24 


3,023,646 


1,084 


534,444 


7,639,501 


12,499,812 


Optical goods. . . 


350 


5,567,809 


4,341 


1,935,219 


3,233,430 


7,790,970 


Ordnance and ord- 














nance stores .... 


4 


3,468,713 


989 


615,280 


802,706 


2,239,797 


Oysters, canning 














and preserving .. 


39 


1,240,696 


2,779 


630,016 


2,608,757 


3,670,134 


Painting and pa- 














per hanging. . . . 


16,939 


27,217,086 


59,191 


34,822,819 


26,304,784 


88,396,852 


Paints 419 


42,501,782 


8,151 


3,929,787 


33,799,386 


50,874,995 


Paper and wood 












pulp 763 


167,507,713 


49,646 


20,746,426 


70,530,236 


127,326,162 


Paper goods, not 














elsewhere spec- 














ified 


190 


11,370,585 


6,117 


2,242,702 


9,819,820 


16,785,269 


Paper hangings. . . 51 


8,889,794 


4,172 


2,074,138 


6,072,809 


10,663,209 


Paper patterns. . . 


16 


256,075 


836 


262,559 


124,854 


563,653 


Patent medicines 














and compounds. 


2,026 


37,209,793 


11,809 


4,407,988 


18,185,513 


59,611,335 


Paving and pav- 














ing materials. . . 


1.729 


37,888,412 


34,090 


14,570,408 


20,152,477 


46,447,719 


Pencils, lead 


7 


2,227,406 


2,162 


683,281 


1,030,917 


2,222,276 


Pens, fountain and 














stylographic. . . . 


23 


590,629 


318 


141,012 


351,932 


906,454 


Pens, gold 


22 496,246 


378 


229,679 


312,537 


799,078 


Pens, steel 


3 


357,460 


473 


138,433 


52,466 


294,340 


Perfumery and 














cosmetics 


266 


3,499,168 


1,768 


569,286 


3,136,853 


7,095,713 


Petroleum refining 


67 


95,327,892 


12,199 


6,717,087 


102,859,341 


123,929,384 


Phonographs and 














graphophones .. 


11 


3,348,282 


1,267 


608,490 


827,529 


2,246,274 


Photographic ap- 














paratus 


48 


1,849,724 


1,961 


779,890 


595,925 


2,026,063 


Photographic ma- 














terials 105 


3,668,026 


1,483 


662,958 


2,782,285 


5,773,325 


Photography 


7,553 


13,193,589 


8,911 


4,013,018 


6,841,853 


23,238,719 


Photolithograph - 














ing and photo- 














engraving 


204 


1,999,921 


2,698 


1,756,578 


728,743 


4,226,106 


Pickles, preserves, 














and sauces 


474 


10,656,854 


6,812 


2,161,962 


12,422,432 


21,507,046 


Pipes, tobacco. . . . 


98 


1,111,144 


1,585 


737,647 


1,106,299 


2,471,908 


Plated and britan- 














nia ware 


66 


16,486,471 


6,392 


3,088,224 


5,875,312 


12,608,770 


Plumbers' s u p - 














plies 


174 


13,598,528 


8,024 


3,930,594 


7,289,867 


14,771,185 


Plumbing,and gas 
and steam fitti'g 


11,876 


47,111,264 


53,916 


31,873,866 


65,334,689 


131,852,567 


Pocketbooks. . . . . 


68 


991,876 


1,653 


588,595 


1,278,226 


2,495,188 


Pottery, terra cot- 














ta, and fire-clay 














products 


1,000 


65,951,885 


43,714 


17,691,737 


11,915,236 


44,263,386 


Printing and pub- 














lishing 
Printing materials 


22,312 
70 


292,517,072 
905,603 


162,992 
560 


84,249,954 
232,799 


86,856,290 
406,357 


347,055 050 
1,038,432 


Pulp, from fiber 














other than wood 


3 


479,158 


121 


28,462 


42,204 


103,204 


Pulp goods 


22 


2,316,985 


691 


283,835 


646,639 


1,267,013 


Pumps, not in- 














cluding steam 














pumps 


130 


1,260,710 


632 


247,193 


637,768 


1,341.713 


Refrigerators 
Regalia and so- 


95 


4,782,110 


3,329 


1,287,488 


2,476,518 


5,317,886 


ciety banners 














and emblems. . . 


120 


1.795,858 


1,586 


476,580 


1,608,415 


3,077,945 


Registers, car fare 


5l 104,408 52 


25,775 


17,403 


80,865 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



267 



COMPARATIVE SUMMARY, BY SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES: 1900 Continued. 





Num- 


Wage-earners. 




Value of Prod- 




ber of 




Cost of 


ucts, Including 


Industry. 


Estab- 
lish- 


Capital. 


Average 
Num- 


Total Wages. 


materials 
Used. 


Custom Work 
and Repair- 




ments. 




ber. 




ing. 


Registers, cash .. . 


13' $5,137,965 


2,015 


$1,223,966 $903,834 


$5,594,500 


Rice, cleaning and 












polishing 


80 


2,601,352 


651 


265,585 


7,575,522 


8,723,726 


Roofing and roof- 














ing materials. . . 


2,162 


17,594,162 


15,362 


6,996,810 


14,624,759 


29,916,592 


Rubber and elas- 














tic goods 


262 


39,304,853 


20,405 8,082,738 


33,485,694 


52,627,030 


Rules, ivory and 












wood 


11 


202,724 


213 66,732 


72,657 


207,757 


Saddlery and har- 












ness 


12,934 


43,354,136 


24,123 10,725,647 33,127,926 


62,630,902 


Safes and vaults. . 


35 


5,479,879 


2,033 1,017,237 1,689,148 


3,927,867 


Salt 


159 


27,123,364 4,774 


1,911,140 I 3,335,922 


7,966,897 


Sand and emery 










paper and cloth. 


9 1,372,307 274 


144,183 681.240 


1,175,895 


Saws . 


96 8.508.487 3.215 1.692.757 2.600:217 


6,443,748 


Scales and bal- 












ances 


86 


6,307,576 


2,775 


1,436,839 


1,533,379 


5,239,788 


Screws 


33i 7,931,457 


3,527 1,423,838 


1,720,455 


4,658,467 


Sewing machine 










cases 


7 1,333,341 


2,653 j 1,065,180 


1,533,880 


2,815,142 


Sewing machine 


i 








repairing 


396 331,433 310 . 154,036 220,537 


710,123 


Sewing machines 






and attachments 58 18,739,459 10,635 0,213,938 7,809,796 18,314,419 


Shipbuilding 1,116 


77,362,701 


46,781 1 24,839.163 33,486,772 | 74,578,158 


Shirts 986 20,312,412 


3S,492 11,425,101 23,662,317 I 49,022,845 


Shoddy 105 5,272,929 


1,926 748,948 . 4,875,192 i 6,730,974 


Show cases ! 102 1,152,898 


1,363 


708,211 ! 1,057,666 2,467,901 


Silk and silk goods 483 81,082,201 


65,416 


20.982,194 62,406,665 


107,256,258 


Silversmithing. . . 


44 1,999,921 


1,437 


803,662 1,229,158 


2,936,462 


Silverware 


59 12,142,008 


4,376 


2,639,480 4,554,487 


10,569,121 


Slaughtering and 














meat packing, 












not including re- 














tail butchering . 


1,134 190,706,927 


69,441 


33,923,253 


686,860,891 


790,252,586 


Smelting and re- 












fining, not from 












the ore 


61 ! 5,200,523 


983 


532,068 ' 5,899,935 


7,784,695 


Soap and candles. 


558 38,068,334 


9,487 


3,754,767 33,143,230 


53,231,017 


Soda water ap- 










paratus 


30 4,202,452 


963 


549,939 997,436 3,015,493 


Sporting goods.. . 144 2,018,737 2,230 810,913 1,802,903 3,633,396 


Springs, steel, car 








and carriage. . . . 


48, 4,684,278 


2,102 j 1,061,006 : 3,024,656 


5,690,499 


Stamped ware .... 139 13,954,176 


10,002 3,730,241 ! 7,333,028 14,546,191 


Starch . . 


124 11.671.567 


2,655 


1,099,696 R.ROfl.422 9.232.Q84 


Stationery goods, 















not elsewhere 














specified 


IIS 


4,494,507 


3,032 


958,471 


2,128,445 


5,065,869 


Steam fittings and 














heating appara- 












tus 


227 18,233,173 9,252 


4,982,857 


10,219,506 ' 22,084,860 


Steam packing . . . 


97 2,691,304 1,147 


525,332 


1,546,398 1 3,493,710 


Stencils and 









brands. ........ 


92 532,528 


418 206.231 


140,711 673,784 


Stereotyping and 












electrotyoing. . . 


140 2,389,215 


2,408 


1,458,977 


766,603 


3,772,025 


Straw goods, not 






1 




elsewhere speci- 










fied 


4 25,070 


54 


14,381 1 12,933 


36,985 


Sugar and molas- 












ses, beet 


30 20,141,719 


1,970 


1,092,207 


4,803,790 


7,323,857 


Sugar and molas- 












ses, refining. . . . 


832 184,245,519 


14.26? 


6,945,811 


222,503,741 


240,969,905 


Surehal applianc's 


219 


2,487,494 


1.531 


620,801 


1,291,580 


3,932,358 


Taxidermy 


147 


366,077 


180 


91,140 


177,038 


513,112 


Tinandterneplate 57 6,650,047 


3,671 


1,889,917 26,728,150 31.892.0H 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



COMPARATIVE SUMMARY, BY SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES: 1900 Continued. 



Tinfoil 


15 


$2,094,327 


582 


$227,774 


$1,074,192 


$1,593,169 


Tinsmithing, cop- 














persm i t hi n g, 














and sheet-iron 














working .. ..... 


12,466 


55,703,509 


45,575 


22,155,039 


50,329,282 


100,310,720 


Tobacco, chewing, 














smoking, and 














snuff 


437 


43,856,570 


29,161 


7,109,821 


35,038,287 


103,754,362 


Tobacco, cigars 














and cigarettes. . 


14,539 


67,706,493 


103,462 


40,925,596 


57,946,020 


160,223,152 


Tobacco, stem- 














ming and re- 














handling 


276 


12,526,808 


9,654 


1,817,067 


14,198,349 


19,099,032 


Tools, not else- 














where specified. 


448 


13,690,047 


7,615 


3,781,763 


4,657,200 


13,360,920 


Toys and games . . 


170 


3,289,445 


3,330 


1,123,593 


1,668,199 


4,024,999 


Trunks and valises 


391 


7,046,649 


7,084 


2,834,892 


6,045,387 


12,693,225 


Turpentine and 














rosin 


1,503 


11,847,495 


41,864 


8,393,483 


6,186,492 


20,344,888 


Type founding. . . 


22 


2,269,370 


1,424 


803,470 


863,689 


2,842,384 


Typewriter r e - 














pairing 


85 


134,123 


185 


116,220 


110,603 


367,176 


Typewriters and 














supplies 


47 


8,400,431 


4,340 


2,403,604 


1,402,170 


6,932,029 


Umbrellas and 














canes 


261 


4,677,917 


5,695 


1,889,673 


8,457,167 


13,855,908 


Upholstering ma- 














terials 


270 


7 593 598 


5,098 


1 715,073 


5,881,621 


10 048 164 


Varnish 


181 


171550,892 


1,546 


995,803 


10,939,131 


18,687,240 


Vault lights and 














ventilators 


14 


120,750 


138 


81,184 


140,719 


338,111 


Vinegar and cider. 


1,152 


6,187,728 


1,801 


720,316 


3,272,565 


6,454,524 


Washing machi'es 














and clothes 














wringers 


118 


2,404,569 


1,509 


548,707 


2,174,762 


3,735,243 


Watch and clock 














materials 


20 


357,291 


331 


152,234 


105,549 


345,347 


Watch cases 


30 


8,119,292 


3,907 


1,924,847 


4,393,647 


7,783,960 


Watch, clock, and 














jewelry repair- 














ing 


12,229 


12,741,973 


8,380 


4,683,086 


4,432,108 


20,235,039 


Watches 


13 


14,235,191 


6,880 


3,586,723 


1,291,318 


6,822,611 


Whalebone and 














' rattan 


3 


56,200 


14 


7,856 


98,875 


135,000 


Wheelbarrows. . . . 


15 


513,467 


321 


127,398 


180,036 


454,441 


Whips. 


60 


1,893,703 


1,287 


478,176 


1,278,324 


2,734,471 


Windmills 


68 


4,308,666 


2,045 


940,474 


2,172,098 


4,354,312 


Window shades. . .. 


207 


5,507,842 


2,012 


871,532 


6,046,062 


8,868,259 


Wire 


29 


4,242,173 


1,603 


859,645 


7,014,319 


9,421,238 


Wirework, includ- 














ing wire rope 














and cable 


597 


16,374,629 


9,255 


3,934,525 


10,858,229 


19,942,882 


Wood, preserving. 


21 


1,229,746 


478 


205,105 


1,825,355 


2,395,748 


Wood, turned and 














carved 


1,171 


10,278,418 


11,569 


4,375,345 


5,835,492 


14,338,503 


Woodenware, not 














elsewhere speci- 














fied 


104 


3,824,512 


3,206 


1,073,303 


1,468,383 


3,585,542 


Wool hats 


24 


2,050,802 


2,108 


937,855 


2,042,202 


3,591,9^0 


Wool pulling 


31 


944,715 


475 


247,950 


53,975 


531,287 


Wool scouring .... 


25 


1,081,123 


720 


338,606 


193,826 


889,809 


Woolen goods .... 


1,035 


124,336,262 


68,893 


24,757,006 


71,011,956 


118,430,158 


Worsted goods. . . 


186 


132,168,110 


57,008 


20,092,738 


77,075,222 


120,314,344 


Zinc, smelting 














arid refining .... 


31 


14,141,810 


4,869 


2,355,921 


13,286,058 


18,188,498 


All other indus- 














tries 


4 


447,959 


132 


58,661 


299,339 


503,449 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



269 



INDUSTRY GROUPS RANKED BY CAPITAL, NUMBER OF WAGE- 
EARNERS, WAGES, AND GROSS AND NET VALUE 

OF PRODUCTS: 1900. 
[Twelfth Census, Vol. VII, page clxiv, and Vol. VIII, page 18.] 



















Number 








Average 




Industry Group. 


of Estab- 
lishments. 


Rank. 


Capital. 


Rank. 


Number 
of Wage- 


Rank. 












earners. 




Total 


512,191 




$9,813,834,390 





5,306,143 




Food and kindred products. . . . 


61,266 


2 


937,686,610 


5 


311,717 


7 


Textiles 


30,048 


4 


1,366,604,058 


2 


1,029,910 


1 


Iron and steel and their prod- 














ucts 


13,896 


11 


1,528,979,076 


1 


733,968 


2 


Lumber and its remanufact'res. 


47,054 


3 


945,934,565 


4 


546,872 


4 


Leather and its finished prod- 














ucts 


16,989 


7 


343,600,513 


13 


238,202 


10 


Paper and printing . 


26,747 


6 


557,610 887 


6 


297,551 


x 


Liquors and beverages 


7,861 


13 


534,101,049 


7 


63,072 


14 


Chemicals and allied products. . 


5,443 


14 


498,282,219 


8 


101,489 


13 


Clay, glass, and stone products. 


14,809 


10 


350,902,367 


12 


244,987 


9 


Metals and metal products, 














other than iron and steel. . . . 


16,305 


8 


410,646,057 


9 


190,757 


11 


Tobacco 


15,252 


9 


124,089,871 


14 


142,277 


12 


Vehicles for land transportati'n 


10,112 


12 


396,671,441 


10 


316,157 


6 


Shipbuilding 


1,116 


15 


77,362,701 


15 


46,781 


15 


Miscellaneous industries 


29,479 


5 


1,348,920,721 


3 


483,273 


5 


Hand trades 


215,814 


1 


392,442,255 


11 


559,130 


3 



Value of Products. 



Industry Group. Wages. Rank. " 



Gross. Rank. ; Net. Rank. 



Total 


2,320,938,168 





$13,000,149,159 




' 

$8,367,997,844 




Food and kindred products. 


128,667,428 


8 


2,273,880,874 


1 


1,750,811,817 


1 


Textiles 


341,734,399 


2 


1,637,484,484 


3 


1,081,961,248 


2 


Iron and steel and their 














products 


381,875,499 


1 


1,793,490,908 


2 


983,821,918 


3 


Lumber and its remanu- 














factures 


212,124,780 


4 


1,030,695,350 


5 


547,227,860 


6 


Leather and its finished 














products 
Paper and printing 


99,759,885 
140,092,453 


10 

7 


583,731,046 
606,317,768 


9 

s 


329,614,996 
419,798,101 


11 

7 


Liquors and beverages 


36,946,557 


14 


425,504,167 


12 


349,157,618 


10 


Chemicals and allied prod- 














ucts 
Clay, glass, and stone prod- 


43,850,282 


13 


552,797,877 


10 


372,538,857 


8 


ucts 


109,022,582 


9 


293,564,235 


13 


245,447,118 


14 


Metals and metal products, 














other than iron and steel . 


96,749,051 


11 


748,795,464 


7 


371,154,446 


9 


Tobacco 


49,852,484 


12 


283,076,546 


14 


264,052,573 


12 


Vehicles for land transpor- 














tation. . , 


164,559 022 


6 


508 524 510 


1 1 


250 622 377 


1 ^ 


Shipbuilding 
Miscellaneous industries. . . 
Hand trades. . 


24.839J63 
202,746,162 
288.118.421 


15 
5 
3 


74|578;i58 
1,004,092,294 
1.183.615.478 


15 
6 
4 


42!492',518 
638,191,538 

791 1fU 85Q 


lo 

15 
5 

j. 



270 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



BANK OF INDUSTRIES WITH PRODUCTS 

[Twelfth Census, Vol. VII, page 



Industry. 


Number 
of Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Rank. 


Capital, 


Rank. 


Iron and steel 
Slaughtering and meat packing, not including retail 
butchering 
Foundry and machine shop products 


668 

1,134 
9 324 


41 

31 
15 


$573,391,663 

190,706,927 
665,058 245 


3 

10 
1 


Lumber and timber products 
Flouring and grist mill products 
Clothing, men's . . 
Printing and publishing 


33,010 
25,258 
28,014 
22,312 
1 055 


2 
4 
3 
5 
33 


611,429,574 
218,714,104 
173,034,543 
292,517,072 
467,240,157 


2 
9 
13 
8 
5 


Carpentering 
Woolen manufactures 


21,315 
1,414 


6 

28 


71,327,047 
310,179,749 


31 

7 


Boots and shoes, factory product 
Sugar and molasses, refining 
Liquors, malt 
Cars and general shop construction and repairs by 


1,600 
832 
1,509 

1,295 


26 
37 

27 

30 


101,795,233 
184,245,519 
415,284,468 

119,473,042 


21 
11 
6 

16 




1 306 


29 


173 977 421 


12 


Masonry brick and stone 
Bread and other bakery products 
Lead, smelting and refining 
Lumber, planing mill products, including sash, doors, 
and blinds 
Copper, smelting and refining 
Tobacco, cigars, and cigarettes 
Clothing, women's, factory product 
Furniture, including cabinetmaking, repairing, and 
upholstering 
Plumbing, and gas and steam fitting 


8,333 
14,917 
39 

4,204 
47 
14,539 
2,701 

7,972 
11,876 
9 355 


16 
9 
55 

22 
54 
10 
23 

17 
13 
14 


48,070,239 
81,049,553 
72,148,933 

119,271,631 
53,063,305 
67,706,493 
48,431,544 

117,982,091 
47,111,264 
36 508 015 


39 

28 
30 

17 
37 
32 
38 

19 
40 

47 


Paper and wood pulp 
Petroleum, refining 


763 
67 


38 
53 


167,507,713 
95,327,892 


14 
22 


Carriages and wagons 
Silk and silk goods 
Cars, railroad and street, and repairs, not including es- 
tablishments operated by steam railroad companies. . 


7,632 
483 

193 
437 


18 
44 

52 

47 


118,187,838 
81,032,201 

106,721,188 
43 856 570 


18 

27 

20 
41 


Agricultural implements 
Tinsmithing, coppersmithing, and sheet-iron working. . 
Liquors, distilled 


715 

12,466 
967 


39 
12 
34 


157,707,951 
55.703,509 
32,551,604 


15 
35 
51 


Hosiery and knit goods 
Electrical aoparatus and supplies 
Painting and paper hanging 
Blacksmithing and wheelwrighting 
Marble and stone work 
Confectionery 
Gas, illuminating and heating 
Shipbuilding 
Millinery, custom work 
Coffee and spice, roasting and grinding 
Chemicals 
Saddlery and harness 
Patent medicines and compounds 
Oil, cottonseed and cake 
Fruits and vegetables, canning and preserving 
Glass 
Ironwork, architectural and ornamental 


921 
580 
16,939 
51,771 
6,070 
4,297 
877 
1,116 
16,151 
458 
459 
12,934 
2,026 
369 
1,803 
355 
672 
558 


35 
42 
7 
1 
19 
21 
36 
32 
8 
46 
45 
11 
24 
49 
25 
50 
40 
43 


81,860,604 
83,130,943 
27,217,086 
54,976,341 
67,509,533 
35,155,361 
567,000,506 
77,362,701 
27,740,386 
28,436,897 
89,091,430 
43.354,136 
37,209,793 
34,451,461 
27,743,067 
61,423,903 
33,062,409 
38 068 334 


26 
24 
55 
36 
33 
48 
4 
29 
54 
52 
23 
42 
46 
49 
53 
34 
50 
45 


Rubber and elastic goods 
Brick and tile 
Paints. . 


262 
5,423 
419 


51 
20 

48 


39,304,853 
82,086,438 
42,501,782 


44 
25 
43 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



271 



VALUED AT OVER $50,000,000: 1900. 
clxiii, and Vol. VIII, page 18.] 



Average 
Number 
of Wage- 
earners. 


Rank. 


Wages. 


Rank. 


Value of Products. 


Net. 


Rank. 


Gross. 


Rank. 


222,490 


4 


$120,820,276 


2 


$432,687,119 


3 


$803,968,273 


1 


69,441 


17 


33,923,253 15 


684,119,221 


1 


790,252,586 


2 


350,327 


1 


182,232,009 1 377,812,876 


4 


644,990,999 


3 


283,179 


3 104;563,603 3 307,838,590 


5 


566,621,755 


4 


37,073 


34 17,703,418 


35 


540,052,649 


2 


560,719,063 


5 


191.043 


5 79,434,932 


7 


220,140,823 


8 


415,256,391 


6 


162,992 


7 ; 84,249,954 


6 264,859,062 


7 


347,055,050 


7 


302,861 


2 i 86,689,752 


5 296,633,150 


6 


339,200,320 


8 


123,985 


10 i 71,049,737 


8 176,611,706 


12 


316,101,758 


9 


159,108 


8 


57,933,817 


10 


218,637,292 


9 


296,990,484 


10 


142,922 


9 


59,175,883 


9 


93,701,767 


19 


261,028,580 


11 


14,262 


45 


6,945,811 


46 


'49,216,847 


40 


240,969,905 


12 


39,532 


33 


25,826,211 


23 


202,582,268 


10 


237,269,713 


13 


173,595 


6 


96,006,570 


4 


111,622,240 


16 


218,113,658 


14 


52,109 


26 


22,591,091 


27 


186,389,057 


11 


204,038,127 


15 


93,568 


13 


53,152,258 


11 


125,356,555 


14 


203,593,634 


16 


60,271 


21 


27,893,170 


21 


89,262,303 


23 


175,657,348 


17 


8,319 


52 


5,088,684 


49 


97,425,341 


18 


175,466,304 


18 


73,627 


16 


32,685,210 16 


74,205,166 


28 


168,343,003 


19 


11,324 49 


8,529,021 42 


76,502,702 


26 


165,131,670 


20 


103,462 ! 11 


40,925,596 13 


152,300,012 


13 


160,223,152 


21 


83,739 


14 


32,586,101 


17 


75,315,179 


27 


159,339,539 


22 


100,018 


12 


42,638,810 


12 


91,151,488 


22 


153,168,309 


23 


53,916 


24 


31,873,866 18 


68,035,688 


30 


131,852,567 


24 


12,865 


46 


6,170,670 48 


124,008,573 


15 


. 131,199,277 


25 


49,646 


27 


20,746,426 32 


77,954,480 


25 


127,326,162 


26 


12,199 


47 


6,717,087 47 


107,512,092 


17 


123,929,384 


27 


62,540 


19 


29,814,911 19 


67,172,479 


31 


121,537,276 


28 


65,416 


18 


20,982,194 


31 


86,483,994 


24 


107,256,258 


29 


44,063 : 31 


23,342,763 


26 


39,326,856 


47 


107,186,359 


30 


29,161 39 


7,109,821 


45 


92,915,542 


20 


103,754,362 


31 


46,582 ' 29 


22,450,880 


28 


60,535,599 


36 


101,207,428 


32 


45,575 


30 


22,155,039 


29 


51,638,038 


38 


100,310,720 


33 


3,722 


55 


1,733,218 


55 


91,451,293 


21 


96,798,443 


34 


83,337 


15 


24,358,627 


25 


54,544,999 


37 


95,482,566 


35 


40,890 


32 


20,190,344 


33 


44,583,830 


41 


91,348,889 


36 


59,191 


22 


34,822,819 


14 


62,541,861 


35 ' 


88,396,852 


37 


36,193 


36 


17,974,264 


34 


63,764,914 


34 


85,971,630 


38 


54,370 


23 


28,663,241 


20 


69,097,079 


29 


85,101,591 


39 


33,583 


37 


10,867,687 


38 


44,179,706 


42 


81,290,543 


40 


22,459 


41 


12,436,296 


36 


64,276,431 


33 


75,716,693 


41 


46,781 


28 


24,839,163 


24 


42,492,518 


46 


74,578,158 


42 


33,298 


38 


9,570,536 


40 


34,529,813 


51 


70,363,752 


43 


6,387 


54 


2,486,759 


54 


64,741,832 


32 


69,527,108 


44 


19,054 


44 


9,401,467 


41 


36,918,124 


48 


62,676,730 


45 


24,123 


40 


10,725,647 


39 


30,677,173 


52 


62,630,902 


46 


11,809 


48 


4,407,988 


50 


43,819,968 


44 


59,611,335 


47 


11,007 


50 


3,143,459 


53 


43,196,446 


45 


58,726,632 


48 


36,401 


35 


8,050,793 


44 


36,668,635 


49 


56,668,313 


49 


52,818 


25 


27,084,710 


22 


43,905,999 


43 


56,539,712 


50 


20,646 


42 


11,111,226 


37 


23,398,179 


54 


53,508,179 


51 


9,487 


51 


3,754,767 


52 


24,228,062 


53 


53,231,017 


52 


20,405 


43 


8,082,738 


43 


35,278,808 


50 


52,627,030 


53 


61,979 


20 


21.883,333 30 50.312,022 


39 


51,270,476 


54 


8,151 53 3,929,787 51 18,545,525 i 55 50,874,995 


55 



272 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



ESTABLISHMENTS AND PRODUCTS CLASSIFIED BY CHARACTER 
OF ORGANIZATION, BY GROUPS OF INDUSTRIES: 1900.* 

[Twelfth Census, Vol. VII, pages Ixvi and 503.] 



Industry Group. 


Character of Organization. 


Total. Individual. 


o? Stab"- Value of 


Number 
of Estab- 
lishments. 


Value of 
Products. 


Total 


512,191 $13,000,149,159 


372,692 


$2,674,426,373 


Food and kindred products 
Textiles 
Iron and steel and their products 
Lumber and its remanufactures 
Leather and its finished products 
Paper and printing 


61,266 
30,048 
13,896 
47,054 
16,989 
26,747 
7,861 
5,443 
14,809 

16,305 
15,252 
10,112 
1,116 
29,479 
215,814 


2,273,880,874 
1,637,484,484 
1,793,490,908 
1,030,695,350 
583,731,046 
606,317,768 
425,504,167 
552,797,877 
293,564,235 

748,795,464 
283,076 546 
508,524,510 
74,578,158 
1,004,092,294 
1,183,615,478 


42,569 
18,701 
5,717 
28,463 
12,906 
16,392 
5,063 
2,085 
8,761 

10,666 
12,803 
5,750 
748 
18,545 
183,523 


444,230,465 
262,342,066 
107,343,147 

265,781,468 

127,116,593' 
69,353,112 

'69,147,764' 


Liquors and beverages 
Chemicals and allied products 
Clay, glass, and stone products 
Metals and metal products, other than 
iron and steel 


Tobacco 
Vehicles for land transportation 
Shipbuilding 
Miscellaneous industries 
Hand trades. . . 


79,919,991 
43,223,011 
12,592,136 
173,848,128 
777,274,319 





Industry Group. 


Character of Organization. 


Firm and Limited 
Partnership. 


Incorporated Com- 
pany. 


Cooperative and 
Miscellaneous. 


Num- 
ber of 
Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Value of 
Products. 


Num- 
ber of 
Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Value of 
Products. 


Num- 
ber of 
Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Value of 
Products. 


Total 

Food and kindred products. . . . 
Textiles 
Iron and steel and their prod- 
ucts - 


96,701 


$2,565,242,473 


40,705 


$7,729,520,548 ji 2,093 


$30,959,765 


11,905 
8,084 

3,329 
13,893 

2,990 

5,682 
1 463 


394,387,619 
547,349,114 

177,415,968 
256,014,803 

208,571,042 
106,830,193 


4,994 
3,245 

4,843 
4,670 

1,091 
4,490 
1,333 
2,205 
2,132 

1,470 
358 
2,282 
151 
4,750 
2,691 


1,410,298,055 
827,705,447 

1,508,493,141 
508,341,338 

257,808,524 
368,923,042 
305,129,467 
450,008,084 
157,336,458 

578,172,577 
128,478,983 
430,731,303 
55,571,624 
641,875,764 
100,646,741 


1,798 
18 

7 
28 

o 
183 
2 
1 
25 

2 
6 

"io 

10 


24,964,735 

87,857 

238,652 
557,741 

'3,453,946 
752,693 
' '221,238 

2i5,'032 
82,413 


Lumber and its remanufact'res. 
Leather and its finished prod- 
ucts 
Paper and printing 


Chemicals and allied products. . 
Clay, glass, and stone products. 
Metal and metal products, 
other than iron and steel. . . . 
Tobacco 
Vehicles for land transportati'n 
Shipbuilding 
Miscellaneous industries 
Hand trades 


1,152 
3,891 

4,167 
2,085 
2,079 
217 
6,174 
29,590 


60,181,725 
66,327,320 

88,143,271 
74,456,334 

6,4141398' 
188,153,370 
305,612,005 



*In this table values have been omitted wherever they disclosed the products of individual 
es tablishments . 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



273 



ESTABLISHMENTS CLASSIFIED BY NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES, NOT 
INCLUDING PROPRIETORS AND FIRM MEMBERS: 1900. 

[Twelfth Census, Vol. VII, pages Ixxiii and 582. J 



Industry Group. 


Total 
Num- 
ber of 
Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Number of Establishments Reporting. 


No. 
Em- 
ploy- 
ees. 


Under 
5. 


5 

to 
20. 


21 
to 
50. 


51 
to 
100. 


101 
to 
250. 


251 
to 
500. 


501 
to 
1000. 


Over 
1000. 

443 

29 
120 

103 

7 

19 
6 
2 

10 
9 

20 
11 

48 
9 
50 


Total 

Food and kindred prod- 
ucts 
Textiles 
Iron and steel and their 


512,191 

61,266 
30,048 

13,896 
47,054 

16,989 
26,747 
7,861 

5,443 
14,809 

16,305 
15,252 

10,112 
1,116 
29,479 
215,814 


110,509 

' 14,611 
1,300 

783 
2,069 

5,028 
2,400 
671 

643 
1,022 

2,950 
3,637 

1,183 
198 
5,191 

68,823 


232,716 

34,759 
11,036 

3,102 
16,836 

8,163 
12,628 
4,185 

1,607 

3,876 

8,029 
7,273 

3,772 
211 
10,403 
i 106,836 


112,120 

8,129 
9,722 

4,349 
20,039 

1,644 
7,962 
2,070 

1,689 
6,121 

3,542 
3,004 

3,080 
361 
8,026 
232,382 


32,403 

1,888 
3,458 

2,186 
4,814 

857 
2,139 
569 

806 

2,186 

951 

672 

829 
152 
3,123 
3 7,773 


11,658 

912 

1,828 

1,395 
1,892 

560 

874 

228 

390 

857 

386 
309 

467 
83 
1,477 


8,475 

696 
1,620 

1,244 
1,128 

472 
565 
103 

224 
562 

291 
233 

416 
56 

865 


2,804 

161 
669 

513 

218 

196 
143 

27 

64 
134 

85 
85 

229 
29 
251 


1,063 

81 
295 

221 
51 

50 
30 

6 

10 
42 

51 

28 

88 
17 
93 


Lumber and its reman u- 
factures 
Leather and its finished 
products 


Paper and printing 
Liquors and beverages. . . 
Chemicals and allied 
products 
Clay, glass, and stone 
products 
Metals and metal prod- 
ucts, other than iron 
and steel 
Tobacco 
Vehicles for land trans- 
portation. . . . 


Shipbuilding 
Miscellaneous industries . 
Hand trades 



1 Includes establishments with 1 to 5 employees. 

2 Includes establishments with 6 to 20 employees. 

3 Includes establishments with over 20 employees. 



AMERICAN IRRIGATION. 

There are in the United States some 
500,000,000 acres in what is known 
as the Arid Belt. These are not avail- 
able for agriculture until they have 
been irrigated. "It is now estimated 
that at least 15,000,000 acres will be 
added to the available domain of the 
country during the first ten years" 
following the enactment of a new law, 
"while the authorities in charge of the 
work insist that under its operations 
it will be possible to bring into actual 
cultivation and use some years earlier 
than had been anticipated the 100,000 
square miles included in the original 
estimate." 

The new law referred to "repealed 
the previous enactment permitting 



single individuals to take up land to 
the amount of 1GO acres under the 
Homestead timber culture and pre- 
emption systems, making 480 acres in 
all." It provided, among other things, 
that 160 acres should be the maximum. 
London "Times," October 31, 1903. 

POPULATION OF EUROPE. 

The population of Europe has been 
carefully estimated at recent dates by 
MM. Levasseur and Bodio with these 
results : 

YEAR. POPULATION. 

1900 401.098 000 

188G 346,700,000 

1880 331,000,000 

1878 325,700,000 

1860 289.000,000 

Daily Mail Year Book. 



274 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



COST OF MATERIALS USED IN EACH OF THE FIFTEEN GROUPS 
OF INDUSTRIES: 1900. 

[Twelfth Census, Vol. VII. page cxxxvii.] 



Industry Group. 


Cost of Materials Used. 


Per Cent of Cost of 
Materials to Gross 
Value of Products. 


Per Cent 
of Cost of 
Materials 
Purchased 
in Raw 
State of 
Net Value 
of Prod- 
ucts. 


Purchased 
in Raw 
State. 


Purchased 
in Partially 
Manufac- 
tured Form. 


Fuel, 
Freight, 
etc. 


Purchased 
in Partial- 
ly Manu- 
factured 
Form. 


Purchased 
in Raw 

State. 


Total 

Food and kindred 
products 
Textiles 


$2,389,138,828 

1,279,450,388 
314,089,230 

74,781,646 
64,502,232 

134,809,625 
11,396,844 

37,340,408 
154,470,332 
18,971,906 

98,737,311 
86,709,511 

1,342,802 


$4,632.151,315 


$322,337,732J 35 6 


18.4 


28.6 


523,069,057 
555,523,236 

809,668,990 
483,467,490 

254,116,050 
186,519,667 

76,346,549 
180,259,020 
48,117,117 

377,641,018 
19,023,973 

257,902,133 
32,085,640 

365,900,756 
462,510,619 


35,148.815 
26,372,330 

102,747,734 
13,440,897 

6,625,557 
16,241,912 

8.531,116 
21,422,432 

27,526,258 

20,601,039 
1,449,172 

8,966,610 
1,401,132 

20,487,518 
11,375,210 


23.0 
33.9 

45.1 
46.9 

43.5 
30.8 

17.9 
32.6 
16.4 

50.4 

6.7 

50.7 
43.0 

36.4 
39.1 


56.3 
19.2 

4.2 
6.3 

23.1 
1.9 

8.8 
27.9 
6.5 

13.2 
30.6 

0.3 


73.0 
29.0 

7.6 
11.8 

40.9 

2.7 

10.7 
41.5 

7.7 

26.6 
32.8 

0.5 


Iron and steel and 
their products. . . . 
Lumber and its re- 
manufact ;res. . . . 
Leather and its fin- 
ished products. . . . 
Paper and printing. . 
Liquor and bever- 
ages. . , 
Chemicals and al ied 
products 
Clay, glass, and stone 
products. . . . 


Metals and metal 
products, other 
than iron and 
steel 
Tobacco. . . 


Vehicles for land 
transoortation. . . 
Shipbuilding 


Miscellaneous in- 
dustries 
Hand trades 


103,685,431 

8,851,162 


10.3 
0.7 


16.2 
1.2 



TOURISTS IN SWITZERLAND. 

The following figures with regard 
to tourists in Switzerland have been 
compiled by Herr Freuler, of Zurich. 

Money paid annually by visitors to 
hotel proprietors between $15,000,000 
and $20,000,000 ; paid to railway com- 
panies, etc., $3.375,000: gross profit 
is estimated at $12,375.000, from 
which $8,000 has to be taken for de- 
preciation and improvements. The 
capital outlay is estimated at $120,- 
000.000. 

There are some 1,890 hotels and 
pensions, etc., with 104,800 beds; 945 
are only open in the season, 951 are 
open all the year, 22,000 people find 
.egular employment in these hotels, 
and 5,000 irregularly, with wages 
totaling 9 to 11 million francs and 
gratuities amounting to 3 1-2 to 4 
million francs. " Daily Mail " Year 
Book. 



JURA TUNNEL. 

The Grand Council of the Canton 
of Berne, in the year 1903, agreed to 
grant a subvention for the construc- 
tion of the projected Jura Tunnel for 
a line between Soleure and Minister, 
which will give access to the proposed 
tunnel through the Bernese Alps for 
communication with the Simplon Tun- 
nel. An agreement has also been ar- 
rived at between the Federal Council 
and the Simplon Tunnel Company by 
which the latter will receive an in- 
creased amount for the construction 
of the Simplon Tunnel, but will not 
be liberated from its obligation to con- 
struct a second tunnel. The company 
agrees to transfer the tunnel to the 
Federal Government. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



275 



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1900. 




DIVISION OF INDUSTRIES. SEGMENTS 

ARE BASED ON PRODUCTION IN 

THE CENSUS YEAR 1890. 



276 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE DURING 

THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1903. 

(Bureau of Statistics). 



Articles. 


Quantities. Values. 


AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS: 




Dollars. 


Mowers and reapers, and parts of. . . 




10,326,641 


Plows and cultivators, and parts of. . 




; 3,169,961 


All other, and parts of 




7,510,020 


Total 




21,006,622 


Aluminum, and manufactures of 




133,256 


ANIMALS: 






Cattle 


No. . . 


402,178 29,848,936 


Hogs 


No. 


4,031 40 Q9.1 


Horses 


.' '. No. . . 


34,007 


3,152,159 


Mules 


No... 


4,294 


521,725 


Sheep 


No... 


176,961 


1,067,860 


All other, including fowls 






149,590 


Total. . . 










34,781,193 


Art works: Paintings and statuary. . . . 






512,558 


Asbestos, and manufactures of 






133,427 


Asphaltum, and manufactures of 
Babbitt metal 






104,586 
44,635 


Bark, and extract of, for tanning 






239,786 


Beeswax. . . . 


................. .Ibs.. . 


' ' 70,81 l' ' 


21,337 


Billiard balls 






4,228 


Bird skins 






650 


BLACKING: 








Stove polish 






198,152 


All other 






511,136 


Bones, hoofs, horns, and horn tips, strips, and waste 


193,817 


Books, maps, engravings, etchings, and 
Brass, and manufactures of 


other Dinted matter 




4,442,653 
2,000,432 


BREADSTUFFS: 








Barley 
Bread and biscuit 


. .bush. . . 

....Ibs.. . 


8,429,141 
11,104,575 


4,662,544 
589,536 


Buckwheat 


bush. . . 


117,953 


75,713 


Corn 


bush. . . 


74,833,237 


40,540,637 


Corn meal 


bbls... 


451,506 


1,382,127 


Oats 


bush. . . 


4,613,809 


1,850.728 


Oatmeal 


Ibs... 


67,823,935 1,839,106 


Rye 


bush. . . 


5,422,731 3,143,910 


Rye flour 


bbls.. . 


3,757 12,818 


Wheat . . 


bush. . . 


114,181,420 87,795,104 


Wheat flour 


bbls. . . 


19,71(5,484 73,756,404 


Preparations of, for table food 




' 2,667,409 


All other, for animal feed 






Bran, middlings, and mill feed. . . . 


tons. . . 


49,513 945,053 


Dried grains and malt sprouts. . . . 


tons. . . 


73,104 1,320,065 


All other 




661,131 


Total 




221,242,285 


BRICKS: 






Building 


M... 


3,725 26,310 


Fire 




403,598 


Total 




429,908 


Bristles 




515 


Broom corn 




211,253 


Brooms and brushes 




283,994 


Candles 


'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.ibs.'.'. 


6,323,554 514,753 


Carbon 




44,494 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



277 



SUMMARY OF EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE Continued. 



Articles. 



CARRIAGES, CARS, OTHER VEHICLES, AND PARTS OF: 

Automobiles, and parts of 

Cars, passenger and freight, and parts of - 

For steam railways 

For other railways 

Cycles, and parts of 

All other carriages and parts of 



Quantities. 



Values. 



Dollars. 
1,207,065 

2,687,303 

915,273 

2,132,629 

3,556,925 



Celluloid, and manufactures of 
Cement 


.' .' .' . bbiv. ; ; 


"271,272" 


249,488 
419,361 
37 238 


Charcoal 






5,118 
27,242 


CHEMICALS, DRUGS, DYES, AND MEDICINES: 
Acids 
Ashes, pot and pearl 
Baking powder 
Copper, sulphate of . ... 


'. .ibs.'.. 

Ibs... 
. . Ibs. . . 


'1,193,258 
1,178,540 
18,101,320 


219,568 
60,376 
397,965 
736,137 


Dyes and dyestuffs . 






619 645 


Ginseng 
Lime, acetate of 
Medicines, patent or proprietary 


Ibs... 
Ibs.. . 


151,985 
59,449,811 


- 796,008 
987,067 
3,407,696 


Roots, herbs, and barks, not elsewhere specified. . . . 
Washing powders or mixtures, etc 


Ibs 


6 322 357 


320,122 
352 537 


All other 
Total 

Cider 
CLAYS: 
Fire 


...galls.. . 


598,119 


5,800,480 
13,697,601 
84,084 
4 402 


All other 
CLOCKS AND WATCHES: 
Clocks, and parts of 
Watches, and parts of 






149,897 

1,091,724 
1,041,805 



Total 

COAL AND COKE: 
Coal- 
Anthracite 

Bituminous 

Total coal 

Coke 

Coal tar 

Cocoa, ground or prepared, and chocolate. 
COFFEE: 

Raw or green 

Roasted or prepared 

COINS, UNITED STATES: 



KckeL .'.'.: 



COPPER AND MANUFACTURES OF: 
Ore 

Ingots, bars, plates, and old. . . 
All other manufactures of 

Total, not including orp 

Copper residue 

Cork, manufactures of. . 



2,133,529 



. tons. . . 

. tons. . . 


1,388,653 
5,210,322 


6,732,571 
14,473,927 




6,598,975 


21,206,498 


.tons. . .. 


380,038 


1,912,459 


.bbls.. . 


4,834 


15,531 
213,476 


. . Ibs. . . 
. .Ibs.. . 


29,233,837 
535,108 


3,295,968 
89,899 






41 
2,650 



.tons. 
. .Ibs. 



Ib.s. 



12,868 
297,056,122 



522,280 



927,417 

37,354,061 
2,313,135 

39,667,196 
42,385 
33,844 



278 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE Continued. 



Articles. 



COTTON, AND MANUFACTURES OF: 
Unmanufactured 

Sea Island ( bales. . 

) Ibs. . 

Upland and other j bales. . 

I Ibs. . . 



Quantities. Values. 



51,688 

20,205,080 

6,886,591 

3,522,837,942 



Dollars. 

j- 4,038,370 
[312,142,059 



Total unmanufactured ... . . ( bales. . . 6,938,279 \ Q ir ion ^on 

Hbs. . .. 3,543,043,022 T 316 ' 180 ' 42 ' 

Waste Ibs. . . 26,098,947 884,842 

Manufactures of 
Cloths- 
Colored yds... 169,511,667 8,443,148 

Uncolored yds. . . 325,867,530 16,909,436 

Total cloths 495,379,197 25,352,584 

Wearing apparel 2,600,136 

Waste, cop and mill Ibs. . . 22,997,428 1,294,064 

All other 2,969,520 

Total manufactures '...!.... j 32,216,304 

Curios, antiques, etc 1,698 

Dental goods 401,761 

EARTHEN, STONE, AND CHINA WARE: 

Earthen and stone ware 519,159 

China ware 63,900 

Total. 583,059 

Eggs.. . .doz. .. 1,517,189 325,571 

Egg yolks 48,108 

EMERY, AND MANUFACTURES OF: 

Emery I 19,975 

Manufactures of 

Cloth ; 9,654 

Paper 1,389 

Wheels 216,345 

Feathers 141,257 

FERTILIZERS: 

Phosphates, crude tons. . . 817,503 6,344,224 

All other tons.. . 16,677 380,077 

FIBRES, VEGETABLE, AND TEXTILE GRASSES, MANUFACTURES OF: 

Bags 387,840 

Cordage Ibs. . . I 9,119,620 935,587 

Twine 3,331,101 

All other 636,420 

Total 5,290,948 

FlH' 

Fresh, other than salmon Ibs. . . 1,568,753 60,692 

Dried, smoked, or cured 

Cod, haddock, hake, and pollock Ibs. . . 3,043,497 148,557 

Herring Ibs. . . 1,202,630 33,632 

All other - . Ibs. . . 467,525 23,020 

Pl Macferel bbls. . . 524 7,360 

All other bbls.. 19,167 74,346 

Salmon 

Canned . . Ibs. . . 50,353,334 4,350*791 

All other, fresh or cured 869,352 

Canned fish, other than salmon and shellfish 105,228 

Caviare 39,278 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



279 



SUMMARY OF EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE Continued. 



Articles. 



Quantities. 



FISH (Continued). 

Shellfish- 
Oysters 

All other 

All other fish and fish products 

Total 

Flowers, cut 

Fly paper 

FRT T ITS AND NUTS: 
Fruits 

Apples, dried Ibs . . , 39,646,297 

Apples, green or ripe bbls. . . 1,656,129 

Apricots, dried Ibs. . . j 9,190,081 

Oranges 

Prunes Ibs. . . J 66,385,215 

Raisins Ibs. . . ! 4,280,028 

All other green, ripe, or dried 

Preserved 

Canned 

All other. 

Nuts 

Total 

Furniture of metal 

Furs and fur skins 

Ginger ale doz. qts. . . 1,501 

GLASS AND GLASSWARE: 

Window glass 

All other 

Total 

Glucose or grape sugar. . . . .Ibs. . . 126,239,981 

Glue Ibs. . . 2,569,164 

Goldbeaters' skins 

Graphite 

Grasses, dried (Pampas plumes, etc.) 

Grease, grease scraps, and all soap stock 

GUNPOWDER AND OTHER EXPLOSIVES: 

Gunpowder 

All other explosives 

Total 

Hair, and manufactures of 

Hay. , : 

Hides and skins, other than furs 

Honey 

Hops 

Household and personal effects 

Ice 

INDIA RUBBER, MANUFACTURES OF: 

India rubber, reclaimed 

India rubber, scrap and old 

Belting, hose, and packing 

Boots and shoes. 

All other. . . 



. .Ibs. 



.tons. 
..Ibs. 



..Ibs. 

.tons. 



1,112,490 



50,974 
12,859,549 

' '7,794,705' 
19,626' 



2,307,401 



Total. 



INK: 

Printers'. 
All other. 



280 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE Continued. 



Articles. 


Quantities. 


Values. 


INSTRUMENTS AND APPARATUS FOR SCIENTIFIC PURPOSES: 
Electrical appliances, including telegraph and telephone in- 
struments 
All other. . 


Dollars. 
4,206,617 
2,923,891 

266,982 

362,068 

96,107 
721,284 

1,059,130 
802,173 
68,064 

78,745 

3,154 

710,886 

191,332 
734,151 
66,010 
1,963,797 
5,172,140 

7,461,594 
413,679 
4,189,551 
156,601 
1,916,091 

69,848 
253,662 
1,002,410 

1,475,199 
5,779 459 


IRON AND STEEL, AND MANUFACTURES OF: 
Iron ore 


tons. . . 77,220 


Pig iron 
Ferro-manganese. . . 


All other 
Scrap and old, fit only for remanufacture 
Bar Iron. 
Bars or rods of steel 
Wire rods 
All other 
Billets, ingots, and blooms 
Hoop, band, and scroll 


::Jons::: [ 18 - 198 

. .tons.. . 6,043 
Ibs... 40,583,205 

..Ibs... 71,360,171 
Ibs... 30,447,664 
tons.. . 2,127 
Ibs... 3,740,234 

tons. . . 81 
tons.. . 22,896 

Ibs... 6,491,690 
Ibs... 31,680,206 
Ibs... 1,555,146 
tons.. . 32,952 
Ibs... 224,153,085 


Rails for railways 
Iron 
Steel. 
Sheets and plates 
Iron 


Steel 
Tin plates, terne plates, and taggers tin 
Structural iron and steel ' . . 
Wire 
Builders' hardware, saws, and tools 
Locks, hinges, and other builders' hardware. . 
Saws. 


Tools, not elsewhere specified 
Car wheels 
Castings, not elsewhere specified 


.'.'. '.'.'.'.'No. .' . ' ' '22,106' ' 


Cutlery- 
Table. . . 




All other 
Firearms 
Machinery, machines, and parts of 
Cash registers 
Electrical machinery. . 




No... 16,786 


Laundry machinery 
Metal working machinery 
Printing presses, and parts of 
Pumps and pumping machinery. . , 
Sewing machines, and parts of. 
Shoe machinery 
Steam engines, and parts of 
Fire. . 


..' No... 10 
No. . . 289 
No 1 459 


512,108 
2,826,111 
1,050,773 
2,715,553 
5,105,852 
719,797 

19,650 
3,219,778 
725,294 
2,485,226 
3,966.741 
20,387,065 

347,007 
1,245,946 
290.862 
5,431,459 
184,706 
650,250 
961,562 
9,048,992 


Locomotive 
Stationary. 


Boilers, and parts of engines 
Typewriting machines, and parts of 
All other 
Nails and spikes 
Cut. . . 




Ibs 16 129 436 


Wire 
All other, including tacks. , 
Pipes and fittings 
Safes 
Scales and balances 
Stoves, ranges, and parts of 
All other manufactures of iron and steel 

Total, not including ore. . 


Ibs... 62,997,105 
Ibs... 5,556,014 

. .'.".".'.'."No.! '. ' ' "2,933' ' 




96,642,467 

68,816 
174,158 

939,797 
353,224 
1.133.290 


Ivory, manufactures of, and scrap 
Jewelers' ashes and sweepings 
JEWELRY, AND OTHER MANUFACTURES OF GOLD AND 
Jewelry. . . 


SILVER: 


All other manufactures of gold and silver 
Lamps, chandeliers, and all other devices for illuminatinc nurnoses. . 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



281 



SUMMARY OF EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE Continued. 



Articles. 



Quantities. 



Values. 



LEAD, AND MANUFACTURES OF: Dollars. 

Pigs, bars, and old Ibs. . . 308,807 15,527 

Type Ibs. . . 407,647 137,875 

All other manufactures of 299,300 

LEATHER, AND MANUFACTURES OF: 

Sole leather -. Ibs. . . 37,428,437 6,920,467 

Upper leather 

Kid, glazed 1,995,200 

Patent or enameled 122,782 

Splits, buff, grain, and all other upper 13,493,499 

All other leather 982,251 

Manufactures of 

Boots and shoes pairs. . . 4,197,566 6,665,017 

Harness and saddles 1 373,677 

All other 1,064,496 

Total I 31,617,389 

Lime... ..bbls... 39,658 I 32,694 

Malt bush.. . 347,147 252,801 

MARBLE AND STONE, AND MANUFACTURES OF: 

Unmanufactured 194,879 

Manufactures of 

Roofing slate 628,612 

All other 641,753 

Total 1,465,244 

Matches 56,330 

Metal polish 32,274 

Mica 4,615 

Mineral specimens 10,306 

Moss and seaweeds 46,499 

Mucilage 12.563 

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS: 

Organs No. . . 15,986 1,137,713 

Pianofortes No. . . 2,019 419,029 

All other, and parts of 1,824,767 

Total i 3,381,509 

Natural history specimens 13,119 



NAVAL STORES: 

Rosin 

Tar 

Turpentine and pitch 

Turpentine, spirits of 

Total 

NICKEL: 

Oxide and matte 

Manufactures of. 

Notions, not elsewhere specified. 

Nursery stock 

Oakum 

OIL CAKE AND OIL-CAKE MEAL: 

Corn-oil cake 

Cotton-seed 

Flaxseed or linseed 

Total 

OILCLOTHS: 

For floors 

All other. . . . 



.bbls. 
.bbls. 
.bbls 
. galls. 



Ibs. 



. .Ibs. 
. . Ibs. 
. . Ibs. 



2,396,498 

18,622 

15,972 

16,378,787 



2,997,400 



8,093,222 

1 100,392,988 

570,908,149 



1,679,394,359 



4,817,052 
50,802 
36,379 

8,014,322 



12,918,708 



864,221 
97,787 
186,653 
158,959 
26,740 



95,568 
12,732,497 
7,011,214 



19,839,279 



56,902 
164,515 



282 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE Confirmed, 



Articles. 




Quantities. 


Values. 


OILS: 

Animal 
Fish 


. . galls. . . 


1,293,393 


Dollars. 
377,551 


Lard 
Whale 
All other. . 


galls... 
galls.. . 
. .ealls. . . 


356,653 
19,092 
221,669 


306,334 
13.174 
159.505 



Total animal 




1,890,812 856,564 


Mineral, crude, including all natural oils 

gravity 


, without regard to 
galls.. . 


134,892,170 6,329,899 


Mineral, refined or manufactured 
Naphthas, including all lighter products 
Illuminating. . 
Lubricating, and heavy paraffin 
Residuum, including tar, and all other, 
bodies have been distilled 

Total refined or manufactured 


of distillation. galls. . . 
galls.. . 
galls. . . 
from which the light 
bbls.. . 


13,139,228 1,225,661 
699,807,201 47,07^,931 
93,318,257 12,052,927 

542,893 566,115 
60,923,634 


Vegetable- 
Corn. . . . 


galls. 


3,788,033 1 467 493 


Cotton seed 
Linseed 
Volatile or essential 
Peppermint 
All other. . 


galls. . . 
galls... 

Ibs.. . 


35,642,994 14,211,244 
182,330 98,116 

13,033 34,943 
252 770 


All other vegetable 




169,796 


Total vegetable 

PAINTS, PIGMENTS, AND COLORS: 
Carbon black, gas black, and lamp black 




16,234,362 

299 587 


Zinc, oxide of 
All other 


Ibs.. . 


11,091,960 446,786 
1,604,564 


Total. . . 




2 350,937 


PAPER, AND MANUFACTURES OF: 
Paper hangings 
Printing paper 
Writing paper and envelopes. 
All other 


.'; '.'.'.'. '.'.'.'.'.'. '.'.\bs.'. '. 


256,243 
97,880,037 2,613,117 
901,700 
3,408,954 


Total . 




7 180 014 


Paraffin and paraffin wax 
Paste. . 


Ibs.. . 


201,325,210 9,411,294 
5 631 


Pencils . 




186 363 


Pens and penholders 
Perfumery and cosmetics 
Photographic materials 
Plaster, builders'. .. . 




66,317 
. 1 390,502 
! 758,320 
50,427 


Plaster of Paris. . . . 




21 459 


Plated ware 
Platinum, and manufactures of, and scrap. 

PROVISIONS, COMPRISING MEAT AND DAIRI 
Meat products 
Beef products 
Beef, canned. . 


( PRODUCTS: 
Ibs. 


662,708 
15,786 

76 307,114 7,916,928 


Beef, fresh 
Beef, salted or pickled 
Beef, other cured 
Tallow 
Hog products 
Bacon 


Ibs... 
Ibs.. . 
. .Ibs.. . 
Ibs... 

Ibs. 


254,795,963 25,013,323 
52,801,220 3,814,671 
1,126,032 102,184 
27,368,924 1,623,852 

207,336 000 22,178,525 


Hams 
Pork, canned 
Pork, fresh.. . 


Ibs... 

ibs. . : 

Ibs 


214,183,365 25,712,633 
13,590,897 1,369,687 
20 966 113 2,035,491 


Pork, salted or pickled. . . 


. . Ibs. . . 


95,287,374 9,959,762 


Lard. . 


..Ibs... 


490.755.821 50.854,504 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE Continued. 



Articles. 


Quantities. 


Values. 


PROVISIONS, COMPRISING MEAT, ETC. C 
Lard compounds, and substitutes 
etc.) 
Mutton 


jntinued. 
for (cottolene, lardine, 
Ibs... 
Ibs.. . 

. .Ibs... 
Ibs 


46,130,004 
6,144,020 

126,010,339 
7,645,652 

'5,264,648' ' 


Dollars. 
3,607,542 
532,476 

11,981,888 
798,273 
1,079,056 
585,088 
1,964,524 

1,831,940 


Oleo and oleomargarine 
Oleo, the oil 
Oleomargarine, imitation butter. 


Poultry and game. . 


'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. Ibs'. '. '. 


Sausage and sausage meats 
Sausage casings 
All other meat products 
Canned 
All other . 




2,101,785 

1,604,327 
2,250,229 
921,026 


Dairy products 
Butter 
Cheese 


. . Ibs. . . 
Ibs.. . 

Ibs.. . 


8,896,166 
18,987,178 


Milk 
Total 

Quicksilver 
Quills, crude and prepared 
Rags and paper stock 
Rice 
Rice bran, meal, and polish 
Rice root 
Roofing felt and paper 
Root beer 


1,415,464 


179,839,714 

762,201 
3,976 
89,710 
27,048 
122,589 

164,250 
834 
70,296 
73,956 

1,549,687 
532,732 
5,698,492 
853,829 
581,773 
238,770 


'.'.\ba.'.'. 

Ibs... 


' '532,092' ' 
19,218,356 


doz. qts. . . 
Ibs... 


949 
16,446,380 

15,522,527 
51,622,370 
4,128,130 

18,289,917 


Salt 
Sand 


SEED-,: 
Clover 


Ibs 


Cotton 
Flaxseed or linteed 
Timothy 
Other grass seeds. . . 


Ibs... 
bush. . . 
Ibs.. . 


All other. . 






Total. . 






9,455,283 

94,766 
57,406 

412,415 
19,968 

573,588 
1,879,189 

2,452,777 

44,915 

36,787 

1,082,982 
95,758 


Shells. . . . 




Shoe findings 






SILK: 
Manufactures of. . . 


Waste 
SOAP: 
Toilet or fancy 


..Ibs... 


149,400 
' '46,596,354' ' 


All other 
Total 
Spermaceti and spermaceti wax. . 


Ibs.. .' 


Ibs 


197,966 


Spices 

SPIRITS, WINES, AND MALT LIQUORS: 
Malt liquors 
In bottles 


doz qts 


759,027 
400,072 


In other coverings 
Total malt liquors 


galls. . . 




1,178,740 


Spirits, distilled 
Alcohol- 
Wood 
All other, including pure, neutral, 

Brandy. . . 


proof galls. . . 
or cologne spirits 
proof galls. . . 
proof galls. . 




833,629 

120,697 
18,117 
1,096,719 


452,892 

23,510 
19,213 
1,458,393 


Rum. . 


. . proof galls. . . 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE Continued. 



Whisky- 
Bourbon 
Rye 
All other. 


. . . .proof galls. . . 169,369 
proof galls. .. 104,236 
proof galls. 48,014 


Dollars. 
203,137 
223,480 
62,358 


Total spirits, distilled. . 


2,390,808 


2,442,983 


Wine- 
In bottles 


. . .doz. qts... 5,232 
galls 678,150 


24,624 
290,552 


Total wines. 




315,176 


Total spirits, wines, and malt liquors. . . 
Sponges 


Ibs 95,159 


3,936,899 
50,306 


Starch 


Ibs 27,759,599 


832,943 


Stereotype and electrotype plates 
Straw. 




37,419 
1,747 


Straw and palm leaf, manufactures of 

SUGAR, MOLASSES, AND CONFECTIONERY: 

Molasses. . 
Sirup. . . . 


galls. 3,413,387 
galls 12,265,295 


480,569 

492,260 
1,714,899 


Sugar 
Brown. . . 


Ibs 99,101 


3,545 


Refined 


Ibs... 10,421,055 


358,537 


Total. . . 




2,569,241 


Candy and confectionery 

Teasels 
Teeth, artificial 
Theatrical effects, etc 
TINS: 
Matte and scrap 
Manufactures of 

TOBACCO, AND MANUFACTURES OF: 
Unmanufactured- 
Leaf 
Stems and trimmings 


Ibs 357,496,342 
'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. Ibs'.. '.\ 10,687,742 


535,412 

34,258 
4,715 
41,656 

6,611 
656,096 

34,972,033 
278,860 


Total unmanufactured 

Manufactures of 
Cigars 


368,184,084 
M 1,966 


35,250,893 
46 962 


Cigarettes 
Plug 
All other 


M... 1,456,452 
Ibs... 7,335,640 


2,281,531 
1,683,152 
1,182,151 








Total manufactures 




5,193 796 


Toys 
Tripoli 
Trunks, valises, and traveling bags 
Varnish 
Vegetables : 
Beans and pease 
Onions 
Potatoes 
Vegetables, canned 
All other, including pickles and sauces 


...'...'.. .galls'.; . 660,553" 

bush. 232,841 
bush. . . 145,509 
bush. . . 843,075 


281,591 
20,262 

188,875 
667,475 

530,875 
116,624 
552,533 
597,759 
745,697 


Total 

VESSELS SOLD ABROAD: 
Steamers 
Sailing vessels 

Total 


No. . . 123 
No. . 

123 


2,543,488 
196,164 
196,164 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



285 



SUMMARY OF EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE Continued. 



Articles. Quantities. 


Values. 


Vinegar galls. . . 103,417 


Dollars. 
18,072 


Vulcanized fiber '. 
Wax, shoemakers' 
Whalebone Ibs.. . 113,204 
White metal 

WOOD, AND MANUFACTURES OF: 
Timber and unmanufactured wood 
Sawed M feet 530,659 
Hewn cubic feet. 3,291,498 


9,331 
5,961 
507,552 

7,462,111 

787 082 


Logs, and other 
Lumber 
Boards, deals, and planks M feet. . . 1,065,771 
Joists and scantling M feet. . . 46,894 
Shingles M. . . 38,211 


4,506,728 

20,965,328 
647,920 
86,245 


Shocks 
Box 
All other No. . . 566,205 
Staves No 55,879 010 


779,777 
829,248 
4 740 680 


Heading : 
All other 


134,383 
3,732,782 


Total unmanufactured : 


44,672,284 


Manufactures of 
Doors, sash, and blinds 
Furniture, not elsewhere specified 
Hogsheads and barrels, empty 
Trimmings, moldings, and other house finishings 
Wooden ware 
Wood pulp Ibs 22 464 472 


1,727,387 
4,454,309 
175,020 
565,213 
886,080 
445 228 


All other 


4,818,014 


Total manufactures 
Total wood, and manufactures of 


13,071,251 
57,743,535 



WOOL, AND MANUFACTURES OK: 
Wool, raw 

Manufactures of 

Carpets 

Dress goods 

Flannels and blanket? 

Wearing apparel 

All other 

Total manufactures 

Yeast. 

ZINC, AND MANUFACTURES OF: 
Unmanufactured 

Dross 

Ore 

Manufactures of 
Pigs, bars, 
All other. . 

Total manufactures 

All other articles 

Total value of exports of domestic merchandise. 

Carried in cars and other land vehicles 

CARRIED IN AMERICAN VESSELS: . 

Steam 

Sailing 

CARRIED IN FOREIGN VESSELS: 

Steam 

Sailing 



...Ibs... 

. . . yds. . . 
. . .yds.. . 



518,919 



69,337 
7,719 



71,818 

57,979 

6,442 

48,141 

1,290,853 

318,713 



Pigs, bars, plates, and sheets 

11 i 



. tons. 
. .Ibs. 



48,731 



3,539,071 



1,722,128 
24,675 



674,262 
1,386,694 



186,192 
99,481 



285,673 

150,315 

1,392,231,302 

129,189,875 

77,671,627 
10,688,035 

1,114,951,632 
59,730,133 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



MERCHANDISE IMPORTED AND EXPORTED, AND THE ANNUAL 

EXCESS OF IMPORTS OR OF EXPORTS, 1860 TO 1903 

SPECIE VALUES. 



Year 
end- 




Exports. 






Total Ex- 


Excess of 


Excess of 


ing 
June 
30 


Domestic. 


Foreign. 


Total. 


Imports. 


ports and 
Imports. 


over 
Imports. 


over 
Exports. 


1860 
1861 
1862 
1863 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1867 


Dollars. 

316,242,423 
204,899,616 
179,644,024 
186,003,912 
143,504,027 
136,940,248 
337,518,102 
279,786,809 


Dollars. 

17,333,634 
14,654,217 
11,026,477 
17,960,535 
15,333,961 
29,089,055 
11,341,420 
14,719,332 


Dollars. 

333,576,057 
219,553,833 
190,670,501 
203,964,447 
158,837,988 
166,029,303 
348,859,522 
294,506,141 


Dollars. 

353,616,119 
289,310,542 
189,356,677 
243,335,815 
316,447,283 
238,745,580 
434,812,066 
395,761,096 


Dollars. 

687,192,176 
508,864,375 
380,027,178 
447,300,262 

475,285,271 
404,774,883 
783,671,588 
690,267,237 


Dollars. 
'l,3i3,824 


Dollars. 

20,040,662 
69,756,709 

' ' 39, 37 1, 368 
157,609,295 
72,716,277 
85,952,544 
101,254,955 


1868 
1869 


269,389,900 
275 166 697 


12,562,999 
10 951,000 


281,952,899 
286,117,697 


357,436,440 
417,506,379 


639,389,339 
703,624,076 




75,483,541 
131 388,682 


1870 
1871 

1872 
1873 
1874 

1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 


376,616,473 
428,398,908 
428,487,131 
505,033,439 
569,433,421 
499,284,100 
525,582,247 
589,670,224 
680,709,268 
698,340,790 
823,946,353 
883 925 947 


16,155,295 
14,421,270 
15,690,455 
17,446,483 
16,849,619 
14,158,611 
14,802,424 
12,804,996 
14,156,498 
12,098,651 
11,692,305 
18 451 399 


392,771,768 
442,820,178 
444,177,586 
522,479,922 
586,283,040 
513,442,711 
540,384,671 
602,475,220 
694,865,766 
710,439,441 
835,638,658 
902 377 346 


435,958,408 
520,223,684 
626,595,077 
642,136,210 
567,406,342 
533,005,436 
460,741,190 
451,323,126 
437,051,532 
445,777,775 
667,954,746 
642,664,628 


828,730,176 
963,043,862 
,070,772,663 
,164,616,132 
,153,689,382 
,046,448,147 
,001,125,861 
,053,798,346 
,131,917,298 
,156,217,216 
,503,593,404 
,545,041,974 


' '18,876,698 

' '79,643,481 
151,152,094 
257,814,234 
264,661,666 
167,683,912 
259,712,718 


43,186,640 
77,403,506 
182,417,491 
119,656,288 

' '19,562,725 


1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 


733,239,732 
804,223,632 
724,964,852 
726,682,946 
665,964,529 
703,022,923 
683,862,104 
730,282,609 
845,293 828 


17.302,525 
19,615,770 
15,548,757 
15,506,809 
13,560,301 
11,160,288 
12,092,403 
12,118,766 
12,534,856 


750,542,257 
823,839,402 
740,513,609 
742,189,755 
679,524,830 
716,183,211 
695,954,507 
742,401,375 
857,828,684 


724,639,574 
723,180,914 
667,697,693 
577,527,329 
635,436,136 
692,319,768 
723,957,114 
745,131,652 
789,310,409 


,475,181,831 
,547,020,316 
,408,211,302 
,319,717,034 
,314,960,966 
,408,502,979 
,419,911,621 
,487,533,027 
,647,139,093 


25,902,683 
100,658,488 
72,815,916 
164,662,426 
44,088,694 
23,863,443 

' '68,518,275 


' '28,662,607 
2,730,277 


1891 

1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 


872,270,283 
1,015,732,011 
831,030,785 
869,204,937 
793,392,599 


12,210,527 
14,546,137 
16,634,409 
22,935,635 
14,145 566 


884,480,810 
1,030,278,148 
847,665,194 
892,140,572 
807 538,165 


844,710,196 
827,402,462 
866,400,922 
654,994,622 
731,969,965 


,729,397,006 
,857,680,610 
,714,066,116 
,547,135,194 
,539,508,130 


39,564,614 

202,875,686 

'237,145,950 
75,568,200 




18,735,728 




1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 


863,200,487 
,032,007,603 
,210,291,913 
,203,931,222 
,370,763,571 
,460,462,806 
,355,481,861 
,392,231,302 


19,406,451 
18,985,953 
21,190,417 
23,092,OSO 
23,719,511 
27,302,185 
26,237,540 
27,910,377 


882,606,938 
,050,993,556 
,231,482,330 
1,227,023,302 
,394,483,082 
,487,764,991 
,381,719,401 
,420,141,679 


779,724,674 
764,730,412 
616,049,654 
697,148,489 
849,941,104 
823,172,165 
903,320,948 
1,025,719,237 


,662,331,612 
,815,723,968 
1,847,531,984 
1,924,171,791 
2,244,424,266 
2,310,937,156 
2,285,040,349 
2,445,860,916 


102,882,264 
286,263,144 
615,432,676 
529,874,813 
544,541,89? 
664,592,826 
478,398,453 
394,422,442 






Statistical Abstract of the United States. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



287 



UNITED STATES TRADE IN 1903. 



INCREASED TRADE WITH CANADA TRADE WITH GREAT BRITAIN AND THE EMPIRE. 

By Hon. O. P. Austin, Chief of the United States Bureau of Statistics. 



The commerce of the United States 
in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1903, 
has been the largest in the history of 
the country. This is true both of in- 
ternal and foreign commerce. In the 
case of foreign commerce it is easily 
shown from the official figures of the 
imports and exports of the year. In 
the case of internal commerce, conclu- 
sions can be drawn from certain great 
facts of production, transportation, 
and importation for manufacturing 
purposes. 

The total foreign commerce of the 
year amounted to practically 2 1-2 bil- 
lions of dollars, and the internal com- 
merce to fully twenty billions of dol- 
lars. 

As already indicated, the measure- 
ment of the internal commerce of the 
country is not easy, but there are cer- 
tain great factors of production, trans- 
portation, and the activity of the man- 
ufacturing industry, which make pos- 
sible a fair statement of the internal 
commerce. 

The Census states the value of the 
great products of the country, such as 
manufactures, agricultural products, 
the products of the forests, the fisher- 
ies, etc. ; and by taking these great fac- 
tors as a basis and calculating for but 
a single transaction in each of them, we 
get a grand total of 20 billions of dol-. 
lars value, a sum practically equal to 
the international commerce of the 
world. 

The last census showed the gross 
value of manufactures in 1900 to be 
13 billions of dollars; the value of the 
agricultural products, nearly 4 bil- 
lions ; products of the mines, a billion 
dollars : and adding to these the prod- 
ucts of the forests, fisheries and mis- 
cellaneous, and the cost of transporta- 
tion to the consumer, it becomes ap- 
parent that a single transaction in 
each article would bring the total up to 
20 billions of dollars. And all of the 
records of production and transporta- 
tion for 1903 show that its activities 
were even greater than those of the 
census year. Every factory was busy : 
the railroads, even though equipped 
with additional carrying facilities, 
were working up to the limit of their 
capacity, and the reports of the Bu- 



reau of Statistics from the great lake- 
carrying trade showed a larger busi- 
ness than in any preceding year. 

This record of the freight movement 
on the Great Lakes is an important 
index to the activities of the country, 
both in production and manufacturing. 
The section of the country fronting on 
Lake Superior is a great producer of 
wheat and of iron ore and copper. So 
the record of movements of freight 
through the canals connecting Supe- 
rior with the lower lakes is an impor- 
tant indication of the demand of the 
great manufacturing section for iron 
and copper, and of the supply which 
that great region has of agricultural 
products for distribution to the world. 
The records of the Bureau of Statis- 
tics for the month of June and the 
portion of the navigation year ending 
with June shows a greater movement 
of freight through these canals than in 
any preceding year. 

That the iron furnaces and works of 
the country were working up to their 
highest capacity is shown by the fact 
that despite the high prices which pre- 
vailed, the consumers of the country 
were compelled to turn to foreign 
countries to obtain a part of the iron 
and steel which they required ; the im- 
ports of iron and steel being greater in 
1903 than in many years. 

The pig iron produced in the United 
States in the calendar year 1902 
amounted to 17,821,307 gross tons. 
This makes the pig-iron production of 
the United States in 1902 larger than 
that of any two other countries of the 
world. The pig-iron production of 
1902 is double that of 1896. and more 
than three times that of 1886. 

Yet, despite this unparalleled pro- 
duction, the importations of iron and 
steel were greater in value in the fiscal 
year 1903 than in any year since 1891, 
and with that single exception, greater 
than in any year since 1883. The 
above facts regarding the production 
and importation of iron and steel are 
stated somewhat in detail because of 
the general belief that, in the United 
States at least, the consumption of iron 
and steel is a reliable index of the 
business activity of the country. If 



288 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



this be true, it may be safely asserted 
that the business of the year 1903 has 
exceeded in value that of any of its 
predecessors. 

.LABOR. Another indication of the. 
general activity was the difficulty re- 
ported everywhere in obtaining labor. 
This was especially noticeable during 
the harvest season. The crop was 
abundant, and the demand for labor 
far in excess of the supply, so 
much so that reports from the West 
showed that in some cases farmers 
flagged railroad trains and after stop- 
ping them passed through the trains 
soliciting the passengers to step off 
and accept employment in the harvest 
field. Curiously these incidents were 
reported especially from the State of 
Kansas, which a few years ago was 
the scene of the greatest discontent 
because of the crop shortage, heavy 
farm indebtedness, and general con- 
ditions of financial depression. But 
the same general reports of difficulty 
of obtaining labor, especially in the 
agricultural districts, came from all 
parts of the country. 

IMMIGRATION. One effect of the 
prosperity and general demand for la- 
bor in the United States in the past 
few years is noticeable in the in- 
creased immigration. The number of 
immigrants entering the United States 
in 1903 was larger than in any pre- 
ceding year. The total number of im- 
migrants entering the United States 
in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1903, 
was 857,056. This was 25 per cent, in 
excess of any preceding year, practi- 
cally twice as many as in 1900, and 
about four times as many as in 1898. 

The attractions in the United States 
seem to have resulted in a marked in- 
crease in the immigration from the 
United Kingdom, though the largest 
increase is from the countries of south- 
ern Europe and Russia. The arrivals 
from England in the fiscal year 1903 
were 26,219 against 13,571 * in 1902; 
those from Scotland. 6,153 against 
2,560 in 1902; and those from Ire- 
land, 35,300 against 29,138 in 1902. 
From Germany the number was 40,- 
086 against 28,304 in the preceding 
year. The largest increase, however, 
was from Italy, Austria-Hungary, and 
Russia. The number from Italy was 
230622, against 178.375 in the pre- 
ceding year; from Austria-Hungary, 
206,011 against 171,889 in the pre- 
ceding year ; and from Russia, 136,093 
against 107,347 in 1902. 

The reviews of the statistics of im- 
migration which this unprecedented 



flood of arrivals has suggested show 
that the total number of immigrants 
arriving in the United States since 
1800 is over 21 millions, and the num- 
ber of persons of foreign birth now 
residing in the country, over 10 mil- 
lions. Notwithstanding the demand 
for labor in the agricultural sections, 
however, the bulk of this large im- 
migration remains in the cities. There 
is a great demand for labor in the 
manufacturing towns and cities, and 
they absorb a large proportion of the 
arrivals, while the mining regions also 
draw largely upon the new arrivals. 
This is especially true of the people 
from southern Europe and Russia, the 
chief additions to the agricultural pop- 
ulation being those from Norway, 
Sweden, and Germany. 

The foreign commerce of the year 
1903, as already indicated, was the 
largest in the history of the country. 
This statement, however, relates to the 
commerce as a whole, combining im- 
ports and exports under that term. 
In imports the figures of the year 
were the largest in the history of the 
country, but in exports the figures 
were slightly below the high record of 
1900. The total imports were $1,025,- 
000,000, and the total exports $1,420,- 
000,000. These figures, it will be ob- 
served, are stated in round millions, 
because they are more readily assim- 
ilated in this form. 

This increase of imports and de- 
crease of exports was doubtless due in 
both cases to the general prosperity 
and business activity already noted. 

IMPORTS. The increase in imports 
was chiefly in material for use in 
manufacturing, though there was a very 
considerable increase in importation of 
finished manufactures. This is quite 
natural in a time of business prosper- 
ity, when money is plentiful. The in- 
crease in importations of manufac- 
tures ready for consumption amounted 
to about 28 million dollars compared 
with the preceding year, and of dia- 
monds and other precious stones, about 
7 millions. In manufacturing mate- 
rial, however, the importations showed 
the greatest growth. In raw material 
for use in manufacturing the importa- 
tions of the year were 48 million dol- 
lars in excess of the preceding year, 
and in partly manufactured material 
for use in manufacturing, the increase 
was 23 millions, making the total in- 
crease in manufacturing materials im- 
ported over 70 million dollars as com- 
pared with the preceding year. 

The increase in partly manufactured 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



289 



materials was chiefly in pig-iron, plates 
and bars of iron, etc. The increase in 
raw materials was chiefly in raw silk, 
fibres, tin chemicals, india-rubber, and 
other articles of this character. 

EXPORTS. In exports the reduction 
was doubtless due to the unusual home 
demand both for foodstuffs and manu- 
factures. Exports of iron and steel 
were 25 million dollars below those of 

1900, and those of agricultural prod- 
ucts were 70 millions below those of 

1901. Yet the iron and steel manu- 
facturing establishments of the coun- 
try were turning out more of their 
products than ever before, and the ag- 
ricultural production of 1903 was 
quite up to the usual total in most of 
the great staples. 

U. S. COLONIAL TRADE. One inter- 
esting development of the year 1903. 
and one which attracted some atten- 
tion because of its novelty, was the 
announcement that the commerce be- 
tween the United States and its non- 
contiguous territory amounted to 100 
million dollars in 1903. This was 
the first time that the country had 
a clear view of the value of its com- 
merce with the colonies, or noncon- 
tiguous territory, as they are general- 
ly designated. 

Soon after the annexation of the 
Hawaiian Islands and Porto Rico, 
they were made customs districts of 
the United States, and as there was no 
law authorizing the collection of the 
statistics of commerce between the 
customs districts, the persons engaged 
in that commerce refused to furnish 
statements of the value of their ship- 
ments to and from the islands. As a 
result the country was without any 
information regarding the value or 
growth in this commerce. 

The Bureau of Statistics, seeing the 
importance of some system by which 
this commerce could be measured, pre- 
pared a bill, which was passed by Con- 
gress, authorizing the collection of 
these statistics in the same manner as 
those of the commerce with foreign 
commerce. As a result, the country 
has now, for the first time since the 
annexation, a record of the commerce 
between the United States and all of 
its noncontiguous territory . This shows 
a grand total of 100 million dollars. 
Of this grand total of 100 millions, 
about 37 millions was merchandise 
shipped to the territory in question, 58 
millions merchanch'pe received from it, 
and nearly 5 millions gold bullion 
produced in Alaska territory. The ter- 
ritories included in this statement are 



Alaska, Porto Rico, the Hawaiian 
Islands, and the Philippines. It is a 
novel experience for the people of the 
United States, and they find it espec- 
ially interesting to observe their own 
territory furnishing them a market for 
37 million dollars' worth of merchan- 
dise, while their sales to the same ter- 
ritory in 1893 were less than 8 million 
dollars. 

U. S. A. AND GREAT BRITAIN. The 
development of the commerce of 1903, 
with reference to the United Kingdom 
and British territory in general, was 
of marked interest. The exports 
to the United Kingdom fell 24 million 
dollars, while the imports from that 
country increased 26 millions. This is 
especially interesting because of the 
fact that to practically all other Euro- 
pean countries the exports increased. 
The total exports to all Europe were 
1,039 million dollars against 1,008 mil- 
lions in 1902, but those to the United 
Kingdom were 524 millions against 
548 millions in 1902. To Germany 
there was an increase of 20 millions"; 
to Russia an increase of 6 millions ; to 
France G millions, and to Netherlands 

3 millions. 

The chief falling off in the exports 

to the United Kingdom was in cotton 

: and wheat. The falling off in cotton 

| amounted to 4 millions, and that of 

vvheat 19 millions, though the latter 

was offset in part by an increase of 3 

millions in flour. 

Of the 26 millions increase in im- 
ports from the United Kingdom about 

4 millions was in coal, chiefly due to 
the coal strike in the early part of the 
year, and the remainder, manufactures 
of various sorts, especially iron and 
steel, of which the total imports ex- 
ceeded those of last year by 24 mil- 
lion dollars. 

U. S. A. AND BRITISH COLONIES. 
To practically all other parts of the 
British Empire the exports of the year 
showed an increase. Canada, despite 
the decrease in duty on products of 
Great Britain and the Colonies, made 
in 1897, 1898 and 1900. which was ex- 
pected to place the United States at a 
great disadvantage, increased her tak- 
ings of the products of the United 
States, 12 millions, the total exports 
to Canada in the fiscal year being 123 
million dollars. The imports from 
Canada also increased, being 55 mil- 
lions against 48 millions in 1903. 

RESULTS OF CANADA'S TARIFF. 
The first reduction in the Canadian tar- 
iff on products of the United King- 
dom and most of the Colonies occurred 



290 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



in April, 1897, a reduction of 12 ^ per 
cent, in the tariff on merchandise from 
the United Kingdom and her Colonies, 
while there was no reduction on mer- 
chandise from the United States. On 
June 30th, 1898, another reduction 
of 12^ per cent occurred, and in 
1900 the reduction was made 33 1-3 
per cent. Yet, comparing the imports 
for consumption in 1902 with those of 
1896, as shown by the Canadian Sta- 
tistical Year Book, the imports from 
the United Kingdom have increased 
16 million dollars and those from the 
United States, 62 million dollars, 
while the figures of the United States 
for 1903 show . further increase of 
about 13 millions in exports to Can- 
ada. 

CANADA'S TRADE WITH THE U. S. A. 
AND GREAT BRITAIN. In 1882, ac- 
cording to the Canadian Statistical 
Year Book above quoted, the imports 
of Canada from Great Britain were 
50 millions, and those from the Uni- 
ted States 48 millions. In 1902, 20 
years later, those from Great Britain 
were 49 millions, and those from the 
United States 120 millions, notwith- 
standing the fact that the tar'ff on 
products from Great Britain had been 
reduced one-third as against those 
from the United States. 

Comparing 1902 with 1882, there is 
a slight reduction in the imports from 
the United Kingdom and an increase 
of about 150 per cent in those from the 
United States. Of the 123 million 
dollars' worth of exports from the 
United States to Canada in 1903, 



about 20 millions were manufactures 
of iron and steel ; 6 millions coal ; 8 
millions wheat, flour and corn ; 4 mil- 
lions agricultural implements ; 3 mil- 
lions cotton manufactures ; and tfye 
bulk of the remainder miscellaneous 
manufactures. 

The convenience of buying from the 
salesman who brings the samples to 
the door of the purchaser and orders 
whatever is wanted by telephone 
across the border with the assurance 
that the goods will be delivered the 
next day, if desired, apparently more 
than balances the difference of 33 1-3 
per cent in duty. 

U. S. A. TRADE WITH THE BRITISH 
EMPIRE. In general terms it may be 
said that the commerce between the 
United States and the British Empire 
in 1903 was over a billion dollars, of 
which 746 millions was exports and 
325 millions imports. Of the 746 mil- 
lions of exports to British territory 
524 millions was to the United King- 
dom ; 123 millions to Canada ; 33 mil- 
lions to British Africa ; 32 millions to 
Australasia and New Zealand ; 10 
millions to the British West Indies ; 
and 8 millions to Hongkong. Of the 
325 millions of imports from the Brit- 
ish Empire, 191 millions was from the 
United Kingdom ; 55 millions from 
Canada ; 50 millions from India ; 13 
millions from the West Indies ; and 
7 millions from Hongkong. 

ANALYSIS OF COMMERCE, 1893-1903. 
The following tables present an 
analysis of the commerce of the United 
States from 1893 to 1903 : 



ANALYSIS OF THE TRADE OF THE U. S. A. 

Imports into the United States. 
"(According to Continents.) [In millions of dollars.] 





Europe. 


N. America. 


S. America. 


Asia. 


Oceania. 


Africa. 


Year. 


Mills. 


Per 


Mills. 


Per 


Mills. 


Per 


Mills. 


Per 


Mills. 


Per 


Mills. 


Per 




Dolls. 


Cent. 


Dolls. 


Cent. 


Dolls. 


Cent. 


Dolls. 


Cent. 


Dolls. 


Cent. 


Dolls. 


Cent 


1893 


458 


52.91 


183 


21.21 


102 


11.80 


87 


10.11 


25 


3.00 


9 


.97 


1894 


295 


45 . 05 


166 


25.49 


100 


15.29 


66 


10.10 


21 


3.28 


3 


.79 


1895 


383 


52.41 


133 


18.29 


112 


15.32 


77 


10.61 


17 


2.39 


5 


.98 


1896 


418 


53.69 


126 


16.27 


108 


13.96 


89 


11.49 


24 


3.16 


11 


.43 


1897 


430 


56.26 


105 


13.85 


107 


14.04 


87 


11.41 


24 


3.19 


9 


.25 


1898 


305 


40.66 


91 


14.83 


92 


14.95 


92 


15.03 


26 


4.36 


7 


.17 


1899 


353 


50.76 


112 


16.09 


86 


12.42 


107 


15 . 36 . 


26 


3.87 


10 


.50 


1900 


440 


51.84 


130 


15.30 


93 


11.02 


139 


16.45 


34 


4.07 


11 


.32 


1901 


429 


52.19 


145 


17.63 


110 


13.41 


117 


14.30 


11 


1.3S 


8 


.09 


1902 


475 


52.61 


151 


16.73 


119 


13.26 


129 


14.35 


14 


1.57 


13 


.48 


1903 


550 


53.63 


188 18.42 


107 


10.47 


145 


14.21 


21 


2.05 


12 


.22 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



291 



Exports from the U. S. A. 
(According to Continents). 



Europe. 


N. America. 


S. America. Asia. 


Oceania. 


Africa. 


Year. 


Mills. 


Per 


Mills. 


Per 


Mills. 


Per Mills. 


Per 


Mills. 


Per 


Mills. 


Per 




Dolls. 


Cent. 


Dolls. 


Cent. 


Dolls. Cent. 


Dolls. 


Cent. 


Dolls. 


Cent. 


Dolls. 


Cent. 


1893 


661 


78.10 


119 


14.13 


32 


3.85 


16 


1.91 


11 


1.32 


5 


.69 


1894 


700 


78.57 


119 


13.42 


33 


3.72 


20 


2.34 


11 


1.34 


4 


.61 


1895 


627 


77.76 


108 


13.45 


33 


4.15 


17 


2.15 


13 


1.62 


6 


.87 


1896 


673 


76.26 


116 


13.21 


36 


4.11 


25 


2.90 


17 


1.95 


13 


1.57 


1897 


813 


77.39 


124 


11.89 


33 


3.21 


39 


3.74 


22 


2.16 


16 


1.61 


1898 


973 


79.07 


139 


11.35 


33 


2.75 


44 


3.63 


22 


1.78 


17 


1.42 


1899 


936 


76.33 


157 


12.87 


35 


2.91 


48 


3.94 


29 


2.43 


18 


1.5?, 


1900 


1,040 


74.60 


187 


13.45 


38 


2.79 


64 


4.66 


43 


3.11 


19 


1.79 


1901 


1,133 


76.39 


196 


13.21 


44 


2.98 


49 


3.34 


35 


2.36 


25 


1.72 


1902 


1,008 


72.96 


203 


14.75 


38 


2.76 


63 


4.63 


34 


2.48 


33 


2.4t 


1903 


1,029 


72.49 


215 


15.18 


41 


2.89 


57 


4.09 


37 


2.64 


38 


2.71 



Exports of Domestic Merchandise from the U. S. A., 1893 to 1903. 
(According to classes.) 



Year 
end- 
ing 


Manufac- 
tures. 


Agricultural 
Products. 


Products 
of the 
Mines. 


Products 
of the 
Forests. 


Products 
of the 
Fisheries. 


Miscel- 
laneous 
Products. 


Total. 


June 
30 


Mills. 


Per 


Mills. 


Per Mills. 


Per 


Mills. 


Per 


Mills. 


Per 


Mills. 


Per 


Mills. 




Dolls. 


Cent. 


Dolls. 


Cent. 


Dolls. 


Cent. 


Dolls. 


Cent. 


Dolls. 


Cent, 


Dolls. 


Cent. 


Dolls. 


1893 


158 


19.02 


615 


74.05 


20 


2.41 


28 


3.38 


5 


.67 


3 


.47 


831 


1894 


183 


21.14 


628 


72.28 


20 


2.35 


28 


3.22 


4 


.49 


4 


.52 


869 


1895 


183 


23.14 


553 


69.73 


18 


2.33 


28 


3.61 


5 


.67 


4 


.52 


793 


1896 


228 ! 26.48 


569 


66.02 


20 


2.32 


33 


3.91 


6 


.79 


4 


.48 


863 


1897 


277 ! 26.87 


683 


66.23 


20 


2.01 


40 


3.92 


6 


.63 


3 


.34 


1,032 


1898 


290 


24.02 


853 


70.54 


19 


1.60 


37 


3.13 


5 


.45 


3 


.26 


1,210 


1899 


339 


28.21 


784 


65.19 


28 


2.34 


42 


3.49 


5 


.50 


3 


.27 


1,203 


1900 


433 


31.65 


835 


60.98 


37 


2.76 


52 


3.81 


6 


.46 


4 


.34 


1,370 


1901 


412 


28.22 


943 


64.62 


37 


2.60 


54 


3.72 


7 


.53 


4 


.31 


1,460 


1902 


403 


29.77 


851 


62.83 


39 


2.90 


48 


3.55 


7 


.57 


5 


.38 


1,355 


1903 


408 


29.32 


873 


62.72 


38 


2.79 


57 


4.15 


7 


.56 


6 


.46 


1,392 



Imports into the U. S. A., 1893 to 1903. 
(According to classes.) 



Year 
end- 
ing 
June 
30 


Food and 
Live Animals. 


Crude Articles 
for Domestic 
Industries. 


Articles Wholly 
or Partially 
Manufactured 
for Use as 
Materials in 
Mechanic Arts. 


Articles Manu- 
factured Ready 
for Consump- 
tion. 


Luxuries, and 
other Articles 
of Voluntary 
Use. 


Total. 

Mills. 
Dolls. 


Mills. 
Dolls. 


Per 

Cent. 


Mills. 
Dolls. 


Per 
Cent. 

25.85 
19.89 
25.64 
26.57 
26.26 
32.16 
31.82 
36.04 
33.54 
36.27 
36.58 


Mills. 
Dolls. 

94 
65 
83 
79 
69 
58 
60 
80 
74 
91 
114 


Per 
Cent. 

11.20 
10.32 
11.46 
10.46 
8.85 
9.91 
8.76 
9.70 
9.27 
10.09 
11.15 


Mills. 
Dolls. 


Per 

Cent. 


Mills. 
Dolls. 


Per 
Cent. 


1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 


269 
275 
226 
228 
254 
170 
207 
216 
213 
201 
218 


31.89 
43.33 
30.97 
30.13 
32.27 
29.08 
30.27 
26.02 
26.45 
22.26 
21.18 


218 
126 
187 
201 
207 
188 
218 
299 
270 
327 
375 


153 

99 
140 
160 
165 
94 
110 
130 
135 
150 
170 


18.22 
15.60 
19.25 
21.09 
20.91 
16.15 
16.15 
15.72 
16.81 
16.66 
16.61 


108 
69 
92 
89 
92 
74 
89 
103 
112 
132 
147 


12.84 
10.86 
12.68 
11.75 
11.72 
12.70 
13.00 
12.51 
13.93 
14.72 
14.38 


844 
636 
731 
759 
789 
587 
685 
830 
807 
903 
1,025 



Daily Mail Year Book. 



292 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



IMPORTS OF MERCHANDISE, BY PRINCIPAL ARTICLES AND 
CLASSES, IN ORDER OF MAGNITUDE IN 1903. 



Articles. 


1903. 


Articles. 


1903. 


Sugar 
Chemicals, drugs, and dyes 
Coffee 
Hides and skins 
Cotton, manufactures of 
Iron and steel, and manufac- 
tures of 
Silk, unmanufactured 
Fibres, vegetable, etc., manu- 
factures of 


Dollars. 

72,088,973 
64,351,199 
59,200,749 
58,031,613 
52,462,755 

51,617,312 
50,011,050 

39,334,521 
35 963,552 


Articles, the growth, etc., of the 
United States, returned 
Metals, and manufactures of. ... 
Spices 
Paper, and manufactures of. ... 
Provisions: Meat and dairy 
products 
Vegetables 
Animals 
Books, maps, engravings, etc. . . 


Dollars. 

7,170,573 
7,057,202 
4,815,125 
4,733,036 

4,703,536 
4,581,355 
4,533.845 
4,323,938 
4,310,315 


Fibres, vegetable, etc., unman- 
ufactured 


34,462,513 


Toys 
Lead, in ore . . . 


4,232,074 
4,073,099 


Diamonds, and other precious 
stones 
India rubber and gutta-percha, 
crude 
Wood manufactures of. 


31,479,223 

31,004,541 

28,746,271 


Hats, bonnets, and hoods, and 
materials for 
Matting, for floors, etc 
Cement 
Copper ore 


3,871,278 
3,780,050 
3,607,666 
3,385,524 


Fruits and nuts 
Tin, in bars, blocks, or pigs 
Wool, unmanufactured 
Tobacco, and manufactures of. . 
Wool, manufactures of 
Copper, and manufactures of . . . 
Spirits, malt liquors, and 
wines 
Tea 
Furs, and manufactures of 
Oils 
Leather, and manufactures of. . 
Cotton, unmanufactured 
Coal, bituminous 
Earthen, stone, and china 
ware 
Fish 
Cocoa, crude, and leaves and 


23,726,63(i 
23,618,802 
22,152,961 
20,579,120 
19,546,385 
17,505,247 

17,171,617 
15,659,229 
15,301,912 
12,283,957 
11,294,167 
10,892,591 
10,562,185 

10,512,052 
8,635,583 


Fertilizers 
Rice 
Breadstuffs 
Paper stock, crude 
Household and personal effects . 
Seeds 
Hair, and manufactures of 
Clocks and watches, and parts of 
Bristles 
Cork wood, or cork bark, and 
manufactures of 
Feathers and downs, crude, not 
dressed, etc 
Iron ore 
Hay 
Jewelry, and manufactures of 
fold and silver 
other articles . 


3,100,276 
3,061,473 
3,023,160 
3,015,084 
2,856,007 
2,831,279 
2,775,084 
2,672,310 
2,654,604 

2,567,580 

2,476,659 
2,351,278 
2,238,109 

2,007,433 
55,637,603 


shells of 
Glass and glassware 


7,820,087 
7,255,879 


! Total 


1,025,719,237 



Foreign Commerce and Navigation, Bureau of Statistics. 



MOTIVE-POWER APPLIANCES. 

By Edward H. . Sanborn, Expert Special Agent Twelfth Census. 



The 1,170 establishments covered 
by the report produced during the 
census year 40,533 steam boilers, rep- 
resenting an aggregate of 2,928,983 
horsepower, with a total value of $25,- 
(563,445. Of steam engines of all types 
there were manufactured 29.120, rep- 
resenting 2,210,727 horsepower, and 
valued at $28,019,971. The number 
of internal-combustion engines, using 
gas, petroleum, or other vapors, pro- 
duced by these establishments was 18.- 
531, their aggregate horsepower was 
164,662, and their total value amount- 
ed to $5,579,398. There were also 
manufactured 2,680 water motors, in- 
cluding overshot and undershot wheels, 
turbines, and impact wheels, with an 
estimated total of 367.934 horsepower. 



and an aggregate value of $1,520,849. 
The totals for all primary powers, ex- 
clusive of steam boilers, were as fol- 
lows : Number of units, 50.331 ; ag- 
gregate horsepower, 2.743,323 ; total 
value, $35,120,218. The other prod- 
ucts of these 1,170 establishments 
amounted in value to $84,754,239; the 
amounts received for custom work and 
repairing reached a total of $26,664,- 
243, and the total output of all prod- 
ucts and all classes of work represent- 
ed a value of $172.202,145. 

The table shows the number, ag- 
gregate horsepower, and total value of 
each kind of motive-power appliances 
produced by these establishments dur- 
ing the census year. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



293 



NUMBER, AGGREGATE HORSEPOWER, AND VALUE OF PRIMARY POWERS: 1900. 
Number of establishments. . . 
Steam boilers: 
Fire tube 

Number 

Aggregate horsepower. . . 

Total value 

Water tube- 
Number 

Aggregate horsepower 

Total value 

Steam engines: 
Marine 

Number 

Aggregate horsepower. . 
Total value. . . . 
Fixed cut-off throttling 

Number 

Aggregate horsepower 

Total value. . . . 
High speed variable automatic 

cut-off- 
Number 

Aggregate horsepower. . ..... 

Total value. . . . 

POWER, COMPARATIVE SUMMARY: 1870 TO 1900. 
[Twelfth Census, Vol. VII, pages cccxvi, and 582.] 



r.' . I 1 

$18 

1 


1,170 

35,802 
,943,222 
,037,451 

4,731 
985,761 
,625,994 

767 
396,047 
,018,369 

21,806 
658,111 
,963,805 

3,823 
314,668 

,282,787 


Low speed variable automatic 
cut-off- 
Number 
Aggregate horsepower 


2,724 
841,901 
$9,755,010 

18,531 
164,662 
$5,579,398 

58 
1,257 
$12,250 

1,665 
311,527 
$1,232,090 

957 
55,150 
$276,509 

50,331 
2,743,323 
35,120,218 


Total value 
Internal-combustion engines: 
Number 
Aggregate horsepower 
Total value 
Overshot or undershot water wheels 
Number 


$7 

r 

$7 

r 

$7 
itomatic 

r. ...... 

$3 


Aggregate horsepower 
Total value 
Turbine water wheels: 
Number 


Aggregate horsepower 
Total value 
Impact water wheels: 
Number 


Aggregate horsepower 
Total value 
Primary powers, all kinds: 
Number 
Aggregate horsepower 
Total value 1 



Power. 


Date of Census. 


Per Cent, of Increase. 


1900. 


1890. 


1880. 


1870. 


1890 
to 
1900. 


1880 
to 
1890. 


1870 
to 

1880. 


Total number of establishments. 
Total number of establishments 
reporting power 
Per cent of establishments 
reporting power to total 
number 
Total horsepower 
Average horsepower per es- 
tablishment 
Steam engines: 
Number 
Horsepower 
Per cent of total horse- 
power 
Gas engines: 
Number . 


512,191 
169,364 

33.1 
11,298,119 

66.7 

150,051 
8,741,338 

77.4 

14,884 
143,850 

1.3 

39,168 
1,726,661 

15.3 

16,912 
310,729 

2.8 

2,144 
54,490 

0.5 
321,051 

2.8 
183,682 

137,369 


355,405 
100,726 

28.3 
5,954,204 

59.1 

91,403 
4,581,305 

76.9 

0) 
8,930 

0.1 

39,005 
1,255,045 

21.1 

0) 
15,569 

0.3 

C 1 ) 

4,784 

0.1 

88,571 

1.5 

( 4 ) 

( 4 ) 


253,852 
85,923 

33.8 
3,410,837 

39.7 

56,483 

2,185,458 

64.1 

0) 
C 1 ) 

55,404 
1,225,379 

35.9 

0) 
0) 

C 1 ) 

0) 

"( v )'" 

"(Y)" ' 

0) 


252,148 
C 1 ) 

2,346,142' 

29.3 

0) 
1,215,711 

51.8 

0) 
0) 


44.1 
68.1 

89 '.8 
12.9 

70.7 
90.8 

1,510'.9 


40.0 
17.2 

' 74'. 6' 

48.9 

61.8 
109.6 


0.7 


' 45'. 4 ' 
326.9 

"79". 8 


Horsepower 
Per cent of total horse- 
power . . . 


Water wheels: 
Number 
Horsepower 
Per cent of total horse- 
power 
Electric motors: 
Number 
Horsepower 
Per cent of total horse- 
power 
Other power: 
Number 
Horsepower 
Per cent of total horse- 
power 
Total rented horsepower 
Per cent of total horse- 
power 
Electric rented horsepower . 
All other rented horse- 
power 


0) 
1,130,431 

48.2 
P) 

0) 

0) 
C 1 ) 

"( v )" ' 
"(>')'" 

C 1 ) 


0.4 

37.6 

i,895'.8 


329.6 
2.4 


' "8.4" 


1,039'.0 
' 262 '.5 


! 







1 Not reported. 2 Average for all establishments. 3 Decrease. 4 Not reported separately 



294 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



METAL-WORKING MACHINERY IN THE UNITED STATES KIND, 
QUANTITY, AND VALUE OF PRODUCTS: 1900. 



Number of establishments re- 
porting 397 

Hammers steam, power, and 
drop: 

Number 857 

Value $671,287 

Forging machines, including bolt 
headers, and all other ma- 
chines for forging hot metal 
with dies and by pressure: 

Number 821 

Value $424,774 

Stamping, flanging, and forming 
machines for plate and sheet 
metal : 

Number 7,895 

Value $1,180,960 

Punching and shearing machines: 

Number 5,269 

Value $1,219,605 

Bending and straightening rolls: 

Number 914 

Value $202,230 

Riveting machines: 

Number 202 

Value $139,295 

Lathes : 
Hand- 
Number 3,945 

Value $306,081 

Engine 

Number 12,089 

Value $4,451,867 

Turret, including all automatic 
or semi-automatic lathes 
for making duplicate 
pieces 

Number 3,687 

Value $2,449,121 



Boring and turning mills or verti- 
cal lathes: 

Number 

Value 

Boring and drilling machinery, 
including all machines using 
drills or boring bars: 

Number 

Value 

Planers, including plate-edge 
planers : 

Number 

Value 

Blotters and shapers: 

Number 

Value 

Milling machines, including all 
machines using a milling 
cutter: 

Number 

Value 

Sawing machines: 

Number 

Value 

Grinding and polishing machin- 
ery, including all machines 
using abrasive cutters: 

Number 

Value 

Bolt, nut, and pipe threading 
and tapping machines: 

Number 

Value 

Pneumatic hand tools: 

Number 

Value 

All other metal working machines, 

value 

All other products, value 

Amount received for custom 

work and repairing 

Total value of all products 

U. S. Census 



534 
$1,123,314 



22,890 
82,779,983 



1,543 
$1,808,955 



3,076 
$1,136,350 



4,119 
$2,171,966 



2,846 
$222,563 



10,014 
$880,965 



2,088 
$698,362 

6,751 
$143,325 

$2,726,901 
$16,375,956 

$3,271,369 
$44,385,229 
Bulletin. 



OUR IRON AND STEEL PRODUCTION. 



The statement that in 1902 forty 
per cent, of the pig iron in the world 
was produced in the United States 
gives one no very definite realization 
of the quantity of. that product, though 
he be reminded on every hand by iron 
and steel ships, bridges, railroads, 
buildings, machinery, tools, nails, 
tacks, etc., ad nauseam, that this is 
the iron age. Even the statement that 
the United States last year mined over 
thirty million long tons of iron ore 
gives one no adequate impression of 
the vastness of this amount. On the 
other hand, if one should see the entire 
iron ore production of the year piled 
up in a single heap, he would readily 
comprehend this quantity by a com- 
parison of the pile with familiar ob- 
jects in the landscape. This shows us 
that it is large numbers instead of 



large quantities which confuse the 
mind ; for example, the statement that 
a wagon holds over 30,000,000 grains 
of coal would give a person a very hazy 
idea of the actual quantity specified, 
but he would immediately comprehend 
the quantity if told that it represent- 
ed two tons ; for a larger unit of 
weight would be used, thereby reduc- 
ing the count to a figure well within 
the mental grasp. Thus in trying to 
represent to our readers just how large 
are the quantities of materials used in 
the iron and steel industry, we have 
endeavored to choose larger units of 
measurement ; and finding that our 
standard measures are far too small 
for the purpose, we have resorted to 
the use of familiar landmarks as bases 
of comparison. 

As a unit of bulk, no larger single 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



295 




Copyright, l'J03, by Munn & Uo. 

COMPARATIVE DIAGRAM SHOWING THE TOTAL ANNUAL AMOUNT OF RAW 
MATERIALS OF THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED 
STATES, AS COMPARED WITH THE FINISHED PRODUCTS SHOWN ON 
PAGES 296, 297 AND 298. 



296 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



monument has man produced than the 
old pyramid of Cheops, and large 
though it be, it is all too small when 
used as a unit by which to measure 
the stupendous volume of material 
used in our pig-iron production of a 
single year. In the accompanying il- 
lustration, the huge blast furnace 
shown at the left represents a furnace 
which would receive at a single charge 
all our iron ore production during the 
year 1902, together with the fuel and 
limestone used. The charge measures 
approximately two billion cubic feet, 
or to. use our proposed unit of bulk, 
this would be equivalent to twenty- 
four pyramids. As many individuals 
may have formed no adequate concep- 
tion of the size of the Great Pyramid, 
we have used as an additional basis 
of comparison the tallest building in 



umn 400 feet square, the column would 
reach an altitude of 6,500 feet. No 
human monument is large enough to 
give us, by comparison with this col- 
umn, any idea of such a height. If 
the base of the column were situated 
at sea level, a person at the top could 
look down on the summit of Mount 
Washington, N. H., and it would over- 
top every mountain in this country 
east of the Rockies. 

Our column of coal includes both 
anthracite and bituminous. In the 
last two years there has been a con- 
siderable falling off in the use of an- 
thracite, while bituminous coal mixed 
with coke has shown a great increase 
over former years, so that our column 
would probably be made up of two 
parts bituminous to one part anthra- 
cite coal. Their combined bulk would 




Copyright, 1903, by Munn & Co. 

PROPORTION OF FINISHED PRODUCTS FORMED 
INTO RAIL. 



the world, namely, the Park Row 
Building in New York. This building 
measures 390 feet in height, and it 
would require thirteen such buildings 
placed one above the other, to equal 
the height of our hypothetical blast 
furnace. 

FUEL. 

Of the contents of the blast furnace 
by far the larger bulk is fuel, though 
the weight of the iron ore is almost 
twice that of the fuel. The square col- 
umns in our illustration will serve to 
give one some idea of the amount of 
fuel which was consumed in 1902 by 
the blast furnaces of the United 
States. A fair estimate would be 
about 16,000,000 tons of coke, 1.600.- 
000 tons of coal, and 300,000 tons of 
charcoal. Coke is so light that if the 
16,000,000 tons were built up in a col- 



form a column 200 feet square by 
1,300 feet high a midget in compari- 
son to the coke column, but not so 
small after all when compared with 
the Park Row Building. 

Charcoal, which is the smallest item 
in the fuel statistics for 1902, or about 
one-fifth of the number of tons of coal, 
yet forms a column nearly two-thirds 
the height of the coal column, or twice 
that of the Park Row Building. 

FLUX. 

The amount of limestone used for 
fluxing purposes last year amounted 
to 9,490,090 tons. This would make a 
column 5,500 feet high, with a cross- 
section 200 feet square. It may be in- 
teresting to note here that oyster shells 
are used in one of the furnaces in 
Maryland in place of limestone. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



297 



IRON ORE. 

The next column, which is of a 
height equal to that of the coke col- 
umn, is composed of 34,636,121 tons 
of iron ore. However, this represents 
in bulk only one-quarter that of the 
coke. 

PIG IRON. 

All the above-mentioned materials 
were used last year to produce 17,- 
821,307 tons of pig iron. This makes 
a column twice the height of the Eiffel 
Tower, the tallest monument to human 
skill in the world. 

STEEL. 

The larger part of the pig iron pro- 
duction of this country is converted 



into steel ; 14,947,250 tons represent 
the total outpat for last year. Of this, 
9,138,363 tons were made by the Bes- 
semer process, 5,687,729 by the open- 
hearth process, and 121,158 tons were 
crucible steel. 



FINISHED PRODUCTS. 

Of the finished products for the 
year, 2.947,933 tons represent the 
amount of iron and steel formed into 
rails. If all this metal were rolled into 
a single rail of standard proportions, it 
would measure approximately 81 feet 
high, and would be about a mile and 
one-fifth long. The base would, of 
course, equal the height, and the tread 
would have a width of 43 feet. In our 




Copyright, 1903, by Mumi & 



Park Row Cut Washington Wire Eiffel 

Building. Nail. Monument. Nail. Tower. 

PROPORTION OF FINISHED PRODUCTS FORMED INTO WIRE NAILS 
AND CUT NAILS. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



illustration we have shown the relative 
proper ri ons of a locomotive of average 
size placed on this rail. 

Next in quantity to the iron and 




Copyright, 1903, by Munn & Co. 
PROPORTION OF FINISHED PRO- 
DUCTS FORMED INTO PLATES 
AND SHEETS. 



steel rail production is last year's out- 
put of plates and sheets ; 2,005,409 
LOUS of metal were thus converted. 
This amount, if rolled into a single 
sheet of No. 30 standard gage, which is 
the thinnest sheet steel commercially 
used, would cover 420 square miles, or 
nearly twenty times the area of the isl- 
and of Manhattan. The extent of 
this area is illustrated in the accom- 
panying sketch plan of New York city 
and its vicinity. 

The production of nails forms no 
small part of the finished products for 
the year. Wire nails represent, of 
course, a much larger part of the out- 
put. The totals are 10,982,24(5 100- 
pound kegs of wire nails and 1,633,762 
100-pound kegs of cut nails. Follow- 
ing the method in our two previous 
comparisons, w r e have represented eacli 
amount by a single nail of standard 
proportions. The cut nail would tow- 
er far above the Park Row Building, 
measuring almost exactly the height of 
the Washington Monument, while the 
wire nail would rise to nearly double 
this height, overiopping the Eiffel 
Tower, and forming a solid column of 
metal 54 feet in diameter and 1,000 
feet high. 



CARRIAGES AND WAGONS. 



The manufacture of carriages and 
wagons has been carried on in the 
United States practically since the 
time of the early settlers. In the 
Census year 1900 there were 7,632 es- 
tablishments, having a capital of $118,- 
187,838. The industry gave employ- 
ment to 66,842 persons (officials, 
clerks, wage-earners) and the salaries 
and wages were $33,888,843. The cost 
of materials used was $56,676,073. The 
value of products, including custom 
work and repairing, was $121,537,27(5. 
The increase in product of the Census 
year 1900 over Census year 1890 was 
$18,856,835. 

The trend of the industry is toward 
the Central States, where land is 
cheaper, where suitable lumber is 



abundant and prices are therefore fa- 
vorable, and where also the developed 
railroad systems afford abundant 
means of transportation. The same 
rapid development of the industry is 
seen in certain of the Southern States, 
such as North Carolina, Tennessee and 
Virginia, where lumber is cheap and 
where manufactures are fast gaining 
industrial predominance. The increase 
in Massachusetts, New Jersey, New 
York and Pennsylvania is due partly 
to the growing use of the automobile, 
to the diminishing use of the bicycle, 
and materially to the more perfect 
segregation of the "factory product" 
and that formerly classed as "custom 
work and repairing." 



PHONOGRAPHS AND TALKING MACHINES. 



In 1900 there were eleven establish- 
ments engaged in the manufacture of 
phonographs and other talking ma- 
chines. The capital invested was $3,- 
348,282, and the industry gave em- 
ployment to 1,267 wage-earners and 



144 salaried officials and clerks. The 
value of the product was $2.246,274. 
The number of completed machines 
was 151.403, the number of horns, 28,- 
423, and the number of records pro- 
duced was 2,763,277. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



299 



VALUE OF EXPORTS OF AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS, 1S96 TO 1900, INCLUSIVE. 



Countries and Classes. 


1896. 


1897. 


1898. 


1899. 


1900. 


Aggregate 


$5,176,775 


$5,240,686 


$7,609,732 


$12,432,197 


$16,099,149 


Mowers, reapers, and parts of same: 
Total 


3 212,423 


3,127 415 


5,500,665 


9,053 830 


11 243 763 














France 


360,577 


494,469 


1,146 551 


1,678 865 


2 652 795 


Germany. . . 


480,773 


538,430 


1,100,210 


1,503,968 


2,529 422 


Russia 


387,316 


265,442 


409,368 


863 476 


710 066 


United Kingdom 
Canada 


333,791 
132,945 


360,079 
248,359 


874,296 
440,878 


1,040,059 
934 962 


982,188 
1 192 458 


Argentina 
British Australasia 


570,332 
195,533 
751,156 


228,391 
302,586 
689 659 


182,283 
421,975 
925 104 


1,074,749 

358,862 
1 598 889 


1,194,961 
466,397 
1 515 476 


Plows, cultivators, and parts of same: 
Total 


746 604 


590 779 


927 250 


1 545 410 


2 178 098 


France 


15,048 


7 992 


49 330 


."><) 10.") 


68 197 


Germany 
Russia 


6,402 
23,777 


11,206 
3,129 


15,450 
29 566 


38,898 
14 902 


227,378 
45 993 


United Kingdom 
Canada. . . 


43,105 
40,533 


36,142 
73,0 9 3 


74,763 
182,809 


69,737 
207 480 


179,950 
247 306 


Argentina 
British Australasia 
All other countries 
All other implements, and parts of 
same: 
Total 


161,347 
32,450 
423,942 

1,217 748 


104,072 
39,527 
315,688 

1,522,492 


151,737 
108,116 
315,479 

1,181,817 


440,996 
166,035 
548,257 

1,832,957 


388,903 
162,109 

858,262 

2,677,288 


France. . . . . 


91,359 


121,495 


56,286 


43 689 


189 583 


Germany 
Russia 
United Kingdom 
Canada 
Argentina 
British Australasia 
All other countries 


94,552 

65,236 
211,654 
186,166 
122,488 
57,739 
388,554 


161,182 
253,495 
246,096 
143,455 
82,849 
148,872 
365,048 


116,582 
19,653 
195,966 
157,728 
43,034 
167,474 
425,094 


103,845 
59,848 
262,597 
378,612 
163,274 
243,775 
577,317 


129,654 

271,671 
188,305 
571,442 
221,880 
269,776 
834,977 



United States Treasury Department: Report on Commerce and Navigation, 1900. 



VALUE OF IMPLEMENTS ON FARMS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES, 1900. 



States and Territories. 


Value of 
Implements 
on Farms. 


States and Territories. 


Value of 
Implements 
on Farms. 


United States 


$749,776,660 


Missouri 


$23,602,680 


Alabama 


$8,675,500 ' 


Nebraska 


24 940 450 


Alaska. ... 


690 : 


Nevada 


888 560 


Arizona . . 


765 200 ; 




5 163 090 


Arkansas 
California 
Colorado 


8,750,060 
21,311,670 
4 746 755 


New Jersey 
New Mexico. . . 


9,330,030 
1,151,610 
56 006 000 


Connecticut 
Delaware 


4,948,300 
2 150 560 


North Carolina 
North Dakota 


9,072,600 
14 055 560 


District of Columbia 
Florida 
Georgia 
Idaho; 
Illinois 


136,060 
1,963,210 
9,804,010 
3,295,045 
44,977,310 


Ohio 
Oklahoma 
Oregon 
Pennsylvania 
Rhode Inland 


36,354,150 
6,573,015 
6,506,725 
50,917,240 
1 270 270 


Indiana 
Indian Territory 


27,330,370 
3,939,480 
57 960 660 


South Carolina 
South Dakota 


6,629,770 
12,218,680 
15 232 670 


Kansas 
Kentucky 
Louisiana 
Maine 
Maryland 
Massachusetts 
Michigan - 


29,490,580 
15,301,860 
28,536,790 
8,802,720 
8,611,220 
8,828,950 
28,795,380 


Texas. . . 

utah : : 

Vermont. . 
Virginia 
Washington 
West Virginia 


30,125,705 
2,922,550 
7,538,490 
9,911,040 
6,271,630 
5,040,420 
29 237 010 


Minnesota 
Mississippi 


30,099,230 
9,556,805 


Wyoming 


1,366,000 



300 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF PROGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES 
Compiled from "Territorial and Commercial Expansion of the United States," 



Area, Population, and Industries. 


In 


1800. 


1850. 


AREA AND POPULATION: 
Area 1 


Sq. miles. . . 


827,844 


2,980,959 


Population 2 


Number. . . 


5,308,483 


23,191,876 


Per square mile - 


Number. . . 


6.41 


7.78 


WEALTH: 








Total 3 


Dollars .... 




7,135,780,000 


Per capita 


Dollars 




307.69 


PUBLIC-DEBT STATEMENT: 








Public debt, less cash in the Treasury 5 


Dollars 


82,976,294.35 


63,452.773.55 


Per capita, less cash in Treasury 


Dollars .... 


15.63 


2.V4 


Interest-bearing debt 6 


Dollars 


82,976,294 


63,452,774 


Annual interest charge 


Dollars 


3,402,601 


3,782,393 


Per capita 


Dollars .... 


0.64 


0.16 


COINAGE: 








Gold coined 


Dollars .... 


317,760 


31,981,739 


Silver coined. 


Dollars 


224,296 


1,866,100 


Commercial ratio of silver to gold 


Dollars .... 


15.68 


15.70 


MONEY IN CIRCULATION: 








Gold in circulation 7 I 
Silver in circulation 7 ) 


Dollars 


8 16,000,000 


8 147,395,456 


Gold certificates in circulation 


Dollars . . 






Silver certificates in circulation 


Dollars .... 






United States notes (greenbacks) in circulation. . 


Dollars. . . 







National-bank notes in circulation (October 31). 


Dollars. . . . 






Miscellaneous currency in circulation ^ 


Dollars. . . . 


10,566,006 


131,366,526 


Total money in circulation 


Dollars . . 


26,500,000 


278,761,982 


Per capita 


Dollars .... 


5.00 


12.02 


NATIONAL BANKS: 








Reporting nearest June 30 


Number. . . 






Capital 


Dollars .... 






Loans and discounts. 


Dollars ... 






BANK CLEARINGS: 








New York 


Dollars . . 






Total United States 


Dollars .... 







BANK DEPOSITS: 








National banks (individual) 


Dollars . . 






Savings banks 


Dollars .... 




43,431,130 


State banks 


Dollars .... 




109,586,595 


Loan and trust companies 


Dollars .... 







Private banks 10 


Dollars. . . . 






Total bank deposits 


Dollars .... 






Depositors in savings banks. . . 


Number. . . 




251,354 


GOVERNMENT RECEIPTS: 








Net ordinary u 


Dollars . . 


10,848,749 


43,592,889 


Customs 


Dollars 


9,080,933 


39,668,686 


Internal revenue 


Dollars. . . . 


809,397 




GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES: 








Net ordinary 12 


Dollars. . . . 


7,411,370 


37,165,990 


War 


Dollars. . . . 


2,560,879 


9,687,025 


Navy 


Dollars .... 


3.448,716 


7,904,725 


Pensions 


Dollars .... 


64,131 


1,866,886 



1 Exclusive of Alaska and islands belonging to the United States. 

2 No official figures in other than census years. 

3 True valuation of real and personal property. 

4 Estimated. 

5 1800 to 1840, outstanding principal of the public debt January 1 ; 1850 to 1855, out- 
standing principal of the public debt July 1. 

6 Figures for the years 1800 to 1855 include the total public debt. 

7 Gold and silver cannot be stated separately prior to 1876. From 1862 to 1875, inclu- 
sive, gold and silver were not in circulation except on the Pacific coast, where it is esti- 
mated that the average snecie circulation was about $25,000,000, and this estimate is 
continued for the three following years under the head of gold. After that period gold 
was available for circulation. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



301 



IN ITS AREA, POPULATION, AND MATERIAL INDUSTRIES. 

Issued by the Bureau of Statistics, Department of Commerce and Labor. 



1860. 


1870. 


1880. 


1890. 


1900. 


1903. 


3,025,600 
31,443,321 
10.39 


3,025,600 
38,558,371 
12.74 


3,025,600 
50,155,783 
16.57 


3,025,600 
62,622,250 
20.70 


3,025,600 
76,303,387 
25.22 


3,025,600 
80,372,000 
26.56 


16,159,616,000 
513.93 


30,068,518,000 
779.83 


42,642,000,000 
850.20 


65,037,091,000 
1,038.57 


4 94,300,000,000 
1,235.86 




59,964,402.01 
1.91 
64,640,838 
3,443,687 
0.11 


2,331.169,956.21 
60.46 
2,046,455,722 


1,919,326,747.75 
38.27 
1,723,993,100 


890,784,370.53 
14.22 
725,313,110 
29,417,603 
0.47 


1,107,711,257.89 
14.52 
1,023,478,860 
33,545,130 
0.44 


925,011,637.31 
11.51 
914,541,410 
25,541,573 
0.32 


118,784,960 
3.08 


79,633,981 
1.59 


23,473,654 
2.259,390 
15.29 


23,198,788 
1,378,256 
15.57 


62,308,279 
27,411,694 
18.05 


20,467,183 
39,202,908 
19.75 


99,272,943 
36,345,321 
33.33 


43,683,971 
19,874,440 
38.10 


8 228,304,775 

' "267,162,477 
435,407,252 
13.85 


25,000,000 

' '324,962,638 
288,648,081 
36,602,075 
675,212,794 
17.50 


j 225,695,779 
1 68,622,345 
7,963,900 
5,789,569 
327,895,457 
337,415,178 

973,382,228 
19.41 


374,258,923 
110,311,336 
130,830,859 
297,556,238 
334,688,977 
181,604,937 


610,806,472 
142,050,334 
200,733,019 
408,465,574 
313,971,545 
300,115,112 
79,008,942 
2,055,150,998 
26.94 


617,260,739 
165,117,934 
377,258,559 
454,733,013 
334,248,567 
399,996,709 
19,076,648 
2,367,692,169 
29.42 


1,429,251,270 

22.82 




1,612 
427,235,701 
719,341,186 


2,076 
455,909,565 
994,712,646 


3,484 
642,073,ti76 
1,933,509,333 


3,732 

621,536,461 
2,623,512,201 


4,939 
743,506,048 
3,415,045,751 


7,231,143,057 


27,804,539,406 


37,182,128,621 


37,660,686,572 
58,845,279,505 

1,521,745,665 
1,524,844,506 
553,054,584 
336,456,592 
99,521,667 
4,035,622,914 
4,258,893 


51,964,588,564 
84,582,450,081 

2,458,092,758 
2,449,547,885 
1,266,735,282 
1,028,232,407 
96,206,049 
7,298,814,381 
6,107,083 


70,833,655,940 
114,068,837,569 

3,200,993,509 
2,935,204,845 
1,814,570,163 
1,589,398,796 
133,217,990 
9,673,385,303 
7,305,228 


"149,277,504 

257,229,562 


542,261,563 
549,874,358 


833,701,034 
819,106,973 
208,751,611 
90,008,008 
182,667,235 
2,134,234,861 
2,335,582 


693,870 


1,630,846 


56,054,600 
53,187,512 


395,959,834 
194,538,374 
184,899,756 

164,421,507 
57,655,675 
21,780,230 
28,340,202 


333,526,501 
186,522,065 
124,009,374 

119,090,062 
38,116,916 
13,536,985 
56,777,174 


403,080,983 
229,668,585 
142,606,706 

261,637,203 
44,582,838 
22,006,206 
106,936,855 


567,240,852 
233,164,871 
295,327,927 

447,553,458 
134,774,768 
55,953,078 
140,877,316 


560,396,674 
284,479,582 
230,810,124 

477,542,658 
118,619,520 
82,618,034 
138,425,646 


60,056.755 
16,472,203 
11,514,650 
1,100,802 



8 Total specie in circulation; gold and silver were not separately stated prior to 1876. 

9 Includes notes of bank of United States, State bank notes, demand notes of 1862 and 
1863; fractional currency 1863 to 1878; Treasury notes of 1890, 1891 to date, and currency 
certificates, act of June 8, 1872, 1892 to 1900. 

10 Includes all private banks from 1875 to 1882; from 1887 to date includes only those 
voluntarily reporting, estimated at one-fourth of total private banks. 

"Net ordinary receipts" include receipts from customs, internal revenue, direct 
tax, public lands, and "miscellaneous," but do not include receipts from loans, premiums, 
or Treasury notes, or revenues of Post-office Department. 

12 "Net ordinary expenses" include expenditures for war, Navy. Indians, pensions, 
"miscellaneous," but do not include payments for interest, premiums, or principal 



and 



of public debt, or expenditures for postal service. 



302 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF PROGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES IN ITS 



Area, Population, and Industries. 


In 


1800. 


1850. 


Government Expenditures Continued. 
Interest on public debt 


Dollars 
Number. 


3,402,601 


3,782,393 


IMPORTS OF MERCHANDISE: 
Total . 


Dollars . . . 


91,252,768 


173,509,526 




Dollars 


17.19 


7.48 


EXPORTS OF MERCHANDISE: 
Total . ... 


Dollars . . . 


70,971,780 


144,375,726 




Dollars 


13.37 


6.23 


IMPORTS OF GOLD AND SILVER: 
Gold 


Dollars 




1,776,706 


Silver 


Dollars 




2,852,086 


EXPORTS OF GOLD AND SILVER: 
Gold 3 


Dollars 




4,560,627 




Dollars .... 




2,962,367 


IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION, GROUPED ACCORDING 
TO DEGREE OF MANUFACTURE AND USES: 
Food and live animals 


Dollars 





32,718,076 
18.86 


Crude articles for domestic industries 
Per cent of total 


Dollars 




18,105,147 
10.44 


Articles manufactured wholly or partially for use 
as materials in the mechanic arts 


Dollars 




30,857,522 








17.78 




Dollars 




65,887,552 


Per cent of total 






37.97 


Articles of voluntary use, luxuries, etc 
Per cent of total 


Dollars 




25,941,229 
14.95 


Total imports 
DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE EXPORTED, GROUPED AC- 
CORDING TO SOURCES OF PRODUCTION: 
Agricultural products 
Per cent of total. . 


Dollars .... 
Dollars 


25,590,534 
80.37 


173,509,528 

108,605,713 
80.51 


Manufactures 
Per cent of total. . ... . 


Dollars.... 


2,493,755 
7.83 


17,580,456 
13.03 




Dollars 




167,090 








0.12 


Forest 


Dollars 


2,228,863 


4,590,747 


Per cent of total 




7.00 


3.40 


Fisheries. 


Dollars 


1,098,511 


2,824,818 


Per cent of total 




3.45 


2.10 


Miscellaneous 
Per cent of total 


Dollars 


429,240 
1.35 


1,131,409 
0.84 


Total domestic exports 
IMPORTS BY GRAND DIVISIONS OF THE WORLD: 4 
Europe 
Per cent of total 
North America 


Dollars 
Dollars .... 
Dollars 


31,840,903 

46,857,960 
51.35 
32,116,092 


134,900,233 

124,954,302 
70.14 
24,136,879 


Per cent of total 
South America. 


Dollars 


35.19 


13.55 
16,647,637 








9.35 


Asia 
Per cent of total. 


Dollars 


11,560,810 
12.67 


10,315,486 
5.79 


Oceania 5 
Per cent of total 


Dollars 
Dollars 


142,969 
0.16 
551,496 


1,401,340 
0.79 
682,151 


Per cent of total 
EXPORTS BY GRAND DIVISIONS OF THE WORLD: 5 . . 
Europe 


Dollars 


0.60 
41,348,088 


0.38 
113,862,253 


Per cent of total 
North America 


Dollars .... 


58.26 
27,208,618 
38.34 


74.96 
24,722,610 
16.27 











1 Based on total imports to 1860; after that on imports for consumption only. 

2 Based on total exports to 1860; after that on domestic exports only. 

3 Gold and sil.ver cannot be separately stated in domestic exports before 1864, but it 
is probable that the greater portion of the exports was gold. Gold and silver contained 
in ore are included under gold and silver since 1894. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



303 



AREA, POPULATION, AND MATERIAL INDUSTRIES Continued. 



1860. 


1870. 


1880. 


1890. 


1900. 


1903. 


3,144,121 


129,235,498 


95,757,575 


36,099,284 


40,160,333 


28,556,349 


8,636 


198,686 


250,802 


537,944 


993,529 


996,585 


353,616,119 


435,958,408 


667,954,746 


789,310,409 


849,941,184 


1,025,719,237 


11.25 


11.06 


12.51 


12.35 


10.88' 


12.54 


333,576,057 


392,771,768 


835,638,658 


857,828,684 


1,394,483,082 


1,420,141,679 


10.61 


9.77 


16.43 


13.50 


17.96 


17.32 


2,508,786 


12,056,950 


80,758,396 


12,943,342 


44,573,184 


44,982,027 


6,041,349 


14,362,229 


12,275,914 


21,032,984 


35,256,302 


24,163,491 


58,446,039 


33,635,962 


3,639,025 


17,274,491 


48,266,759 


47,090,595 


8,100,200 


24,519,704 


13,503,894 


34,873,929 


56,712,275 


44,250,259 


78,338,514 


139,213,092 


199,165,963 


288,600,646 


216,107,303 


212,057,293 


22.15 


32.65 


31.72 


32.13 


26.02 


21.04 


61,570,477 


66,909,565 


160,055,876 


178,435,512 


299,351,033 


383,634,293 


17.41 


15.69 


25.52 


23.06 


36.04 


38.06 


31,939,551 


53,658,296 


73,186,963 


84,700,568 


80,575,042 


97,194,094 


9.03 


12.59 


11.66 


10.94 


9.70 


9.64 


123,741,654 


119,298,235 


130,004,643 


154,469,354 


130,577,155 


169,259,497 


35.00 


27.98 


20.72 


19.96 


15.72 


16.79 


58,025,923 


47,266,822 


65,141,826 


107,468,732 


103,908,719 


145,814,933 


16.41 


11.09 


10.38 


13.91 


12.51 


14.47 


353,616,119 


426,346,010 


627,555,271 


773,674,812 


830,519,252 


1,007,960,110 


256,560,972 


361,188,483 


685,961,091 


629,820,808 


835,858,123 


873,322,882 


81.13 


79.35 


83.25 


74.51 


60.98 


62.73 


40,345,892 


68,279,764 


102,856,015 


151,102,376 


433,851,756 


407,526,159 


12.76 


15.00 


12.48 


17.87 


31.65 


29.28 


999,465 


5,026,111 


5,863,232 


22,297,755 


37,843,742 


39,311,239 


0.31 


1.10 


0.71 


2.64 


2.76 


2.81 


10,299,959 


14,897,963 


17,321,268 


29,473,084 


52,218,112 


57,835,896 


3.26 


3.27 


2.11 


3.49 


3.81 


4.16 


4,156,480 


2,835,508 


5,255,402 


7,458,385 


6,326,620 


7,805,538 


1.31 


0.62 


0.64 


0.88 


0.46 


0.56 


3,879,655 


2,980,512 


6,689,345 


5,141,420 


4,665,218 


6,429,588 


1.23 


0.66 


0.81 


0.61 


0.34 


0.46 


316,242,423 


455,208,341 


823,946,353 


845,293,828 


1,370,763,571 


1,392,231,302 


216,831,353 


249,540,283 


370,821, 78 


449,987,266 


440,567,314 


547,226,887 


59.87 


53.98 


55.52 


57.14 


51.84 


53.35 


75,082,583 


126,544,611 


130,07" 225 


148,368,706 


130,035,221 


189,736,475 


20.73 


27.42 


19.47 


18.84 


15.30 


18.49 


35,992,719 


43,596,045 


8::., 120,922 


90,006,144 


93,666,774 


107,428,323 


9.94 


9.41 


12.30 


11.43 


11.02 


10.48 


26,201,603 


31,413,378 


67,008,793 


67,506,833 


139,842,330 


147,702,374 


7.24 


6.78 


10.02 


8.57 


16.45 


14.40 


3,495,220 


1,423,212 


14,130,604 


28,356,568 


34,611,108 


21,043,527 


0.96 


0.31 


2.13 


3.60 


4.07 


2.05 


3,798,518 


7 9,860,058 


3,789,420 


3,321,477 


11,218,437 


12,581,651 


1.05 


2.10 


0.56 


0.42 


1.32 


1.23 


310,272,818 


420,184,014 


719,433,788 


683,736,397 


1,040,167,763 


1,029,256,657 


77.54 


79.35 


86.10 


79.74 


74.60 


72.48 


53,325,937 


68,962,006 


69,437,783 


94,100,410 


187,594,625 


215,482,769 


13.33 


13.03 


8.31 


10.98 


13.45 


15.16 



4 In 1870 specie is included in totals, but excluded in following years. 

5 Hawaiian Islands not included since 1900. 

6 Includes "All other Spanish possessions. " 

7 Includes "All other countries." 



304 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF PROGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES IN ITS 



Area, Population, and Industries. 


In 


1800. 


1850. 


Exports by Grand Divisions of the World Cont'd. 
South America 
Per cent of total 

Per cent of total 
Oceania * 
Per cent of total 
Africa 
Per rent of total. . 


Dollars .... 
'Dollars '.'.'.'. 
Dollars.' '. '. '. 
'Dollars! ! ! ! 


' 'l, 177,846 
1.66 
14,112 
0.02 
1,110,374 
1.56 


9,076,724 
5.98 
3,051,720 
2.01 
208,129 
0.14 
977,284 
0.64 


TRANSPORTATION OF FOREIGN COMMERCE: 
Imports 
R , c* J In American vessels 
By sea ( In foreigll vesge ls 
Total 
Share carried in American vessels 


Dollars . . 
Dollars 
Dollars 
Per cent . 




139,657,043 
38,481,275 
178,138,318 
78 4 


By land vehicles 
Total by land and sea. . , 
Exports 
-D j In American ^essels. , 


Dollars . . 
Dollars 

Dollars 




'178,138,318 
99,615,041 




Dollars 




52 283 679 


Total 


Dollars 




151,998,720 


Share carried in American vessels 
By land vehicles . 


Per cent. . . 
Dollars 




65.4 


Total by land and sea 


Dollars 




151,998 720 


FOREIGN COMMERCE OF PRINCIPAL CUSTOMS DIS- 
TRICTS : 
Boston -1 I m P rts - 


Dollars .... 






on j Exports. . . . 
New York.... J 8gS ! ! ! 


Dollars 
Dollars 
Dollars 






pv^iarioinViia J Imports. . . . 


Dollars .... 






Philadelphia -j Exports 
T> ii- j Imports. 


Dollars 
Dollars 






Baltimore i Exports. .:: 

New Orleans. . . j jggjjjg; ; - ; 
San Francisco j jfigSS ] ! 


Dollars 
Dollars .... 
Dollars 
Dollars .... 
Dollars .... 






FARM STATISTICS: 
Farms 


Number. . . 




1,449,073 


Persons engaged in agriculture , 
Value of farms and farm property 
Value of farm products. . 


Number. . . 
Dollars .... 
Dollars 




3,967,343,580 


FARM ANIMALS: 
Total value 
Cattle 
Horses : 
Sheep. 
Mules 
Swine 
PRODUCTION OF PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES: 
Wool 
Wheat 
Corn 
Cotton 
Cane-sugar 


Dollars 
Number. . . 
Number. . . 
Number. . . 
Number. . . 
Number. . . 

Pounds. , . . 
Bushels 
Bushels 
Bales 

Tons 


155,556 


544,180,516 
17,778,907 
4,336,719 
21,773,220 
559,331 
30,354,213 

52,516,959 
100,485,944 
592,071,104 
2,333,718 
110 526 


PRODUCTION OF PRINCIPAL MINERALS: 
Precious metals 
Gold 


Dollars 




50 000 000 


Silver 
Coal 6 . 


Dollars 
Tons 




50,000 
3 358 899 


Petroleum 


Gallons 






Pig iron. . . . ... 


Tons 




563,755 











1 Hawaiian Islands not included since 1900. 

2 Includes "All other Spanish possessions." 
5 Includes "All other countries." 

4 Gold values. 

5 Does not include value of products fed to live stock. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



305 



AREA, POPULATION, AND MATERIAL INDUSTRIES Continued. 



1860. 


1870. 


1880. 


1890. 


1900. 


1903. 


16,742,100 


21,651,459 


23,190,220 


38,752,648 


38,945,763 


41,137,872 


4.18 


4.09 


2.77 


4.52 


2.79 


2.90 


11,067,921 


10,972,064 


11,645,703 


19,696,820 


64,913,807 


58,359,016 


2.77 


2.07 


1.39 


2.30 


4.66 


4.11 


5,373,497 


4,334,991 


2 6,846,698 


16,460,269 


43,391,275 


37,468,512 


1.34 


0.82 


0.82 


1.92 


3.11 


2.64 


3,227,760 


33,414,768 


2 5,084,466 


4,613,702 


19,469,849 


38,436,853 


0.84 


0.64 


0.61 


0.54 


1.79 


2.71 


228,164,855 


153,237,077 


149,317,368 


124,948,948 


104,304,940 


123,666,832 


134,001,399 


309,140,510 


503,494,913 


623,740,100 


701,223,735 


835,844,210 


362,166,254 


462,377,587 


652,812,281 


748,689,048 


805,528,675 


959,511,042 


63.0 


33.1 


22.9 


16.7 


12.9 


12.9 






15,142,465 


40,621,361 


44,412,509 


66,208,195 


' '362,166,254 


'462,377,587 


667,954,746 


789,310,409 


849,941,184 


1,025,719,237 


279,082,902 


199,732,324 


109,029,209 


77,502,138 


90,779,252 


91,028,200 


121,039,394 


329,786,978 


720,770,521 


747.376,644 


1,193,220,689 


1,190,262,178 


400,122,296 


529,519,302 


829,799,730 


824,878,782 


1,283,999,941 


1,281,290,378 


70.0 


37.7 


13.1 


9.4 


7.1 


7.1 






5,838,928 


32,949,902 


110,483,141 


138,851,301 


' '400,122,296 


'529, 5 19, 302 


835,638,658 


857,828,684 


1,394,483,082 


1,420,141,679 


39,333,684 
12,747,945 
231,310,086 


47,484,060 
14,126,429 
281,048,813 


68,503,136 
59,238,241 
459,937,153 


62,876,666 
71,201.944 
516,426,693 


72,195,939 
112,195,555 
537,237,282 


86,310,586 
88,126,444 
618,705,662 


80,047,978 


196,614,746 


392,560,090 


349,051,791 


518,834,471 


505,829,694 


14,611,934 


14,483,211 


35,944,500 


53,936,315 


51,866,002 


59,995,431 


5,526,967 


16,927,610 


49,649,693 


37,410,683 


78,406,031 


73,531,968 


9,781,205 


19,512,468 


19,945,989 


13,140,203 


19,045,279 


27,803,167 


8,940,100 


14,510,733 


76,253,566 


73,983,693 


115,530,378 


81,704,497 


20,636,316 


14,377,471 


10,611,353 


14,658,163 


17,490,811 


28,880,744 


108,164,812 


107,586,952 


90,442,019 


108,126,891 


115,858,764 


149,072,519 


7,367,016 


15,982,549 


35.221,751 


48,751,223 


47,869,628 


36,454,283 


4,868,090 


13,991,781 


32,358,929 


36,876,091 


40,368,288 


33,502,616 


2,044,077 


2,659,985 


4,008,907 


4,564,641 


5,739,657 






5,922,471 


7,713,875 


8,565,926 


10,438,219 




7,980,493,060 


4 8,944,857,749 


12 180,501,538 


16,082,267,689 


20,514,001,838 






4 1,958,030,927 


2,212,540,927 


2,460,107,454 


5 3,764,177,706 





1,089,329,915 


1,524,960,149 


1,576,917,556 


2,418,766,028 


2,228,123,134 


3,102,515,540 


25,616,019 


25,484,100 


33,258,000 


52,801,907 


43,902,414 


61,764,433 


6,249,174 
22,471,275 


8,248,800 
40,853,000 


11,201,800 
40,765,900 


14,213,837 
44,336,072 


13,537,524 
41,883,065 


16,557,373 
63,964,876 


1,151,148 


1,179,500 


1,729,500 


2,331,027 


2,086,027 


2,728,088 


33,512,867 


26,751,400 


34,034,100 


51,602,780 


37,079,356 


46,922,624 


60,264,913 


162,000,000 


232,500,000 


276,000,000 


288,636,621 


287,450,000 


173,104,924 


235,884,700 


498,549,868 


399,262,000 


522,229,505 


637,821,835 


838,792,740 


1,094,255,000 


1,717,434,543 


1,489,970,000 


2,105,102,516 


2,244,176,925 


4,861,292 


3,114,592 


5,761,252 


7,311,322 


9,436,416 


10,727,559 


119,040 


46,800 


92,802 


136,503 


149,191 


293,397 


46,000,000 


50,000,000 


36,000,000 


32,845,000 


79,171,000 


74,425,340 


150,000 


16,000,000 


39,200,000 


70,485,714 


74,533,495 


73,076,106 


18,513,123 


32,863,000 


63,822,830 


140,866,931 


240,789,309 




21,000,000 


220,951,290 


1,104,017,166 


1,924,552,224 


2,661,233,568 




821,223 


1,665,179 


3,835,191 


9,202,703 


13,789,242 


i8,'009',252 



6 Pennsylvania anthracite shipments only from 1820 to 1867; entire coal product from 
1868 to 1902. 

7 In addition to this it is estimated that 10,000,000 barrels ran to waste in and prior 
to 1862 for want of a market. 



306 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF PROGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES IN ITS 



Area, Population, and Industries. 


In 


1800. 


1850. 


Production of Principal Minerals Continued. 
Steel 


Tons 








Tons 




650 


Total value all mineral production in U. S. . . . 
MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES OF THE U. S. : 
Manufacturing establishments * 


Dollars 
Number. . . 




123,025 




Number. 




957,059 




Dollars 




236,755,464 


Value of products l 
MANUFACTURES OF IRON AND STEEL: l 
Establishments 


Dollars 
Number. . . 




1,019,106,616 


Wages and salaries paid 
Value of products 


Dollars .... 
Dollars .... 








Dollars 




20,145,067 


Exports 
TIN PLATES: 


Dollars 
Pounds . 


52,144 


1,953,702 


Production 
MANUFACTURES OF COTTON : 3 
Establishments J 
Wages and salaries paid l 
Value of products l 
Exports 
Imports 
COTTON MOVEMENT: 
Domestic cotton taken by United States mills 


Lbs., net. . . 

Number. . . 
Dollars .... 
Dollars 
Dollars .... 
Dollars .... 

Bales 




1,094 

'61,869,184 
4,734,424 
20,108,719 

595,000 


Exports of domestic cotton j 


Pounds. . . . 
Dollars 




635,381,607 
71,984,616 


Raw cotton imported. . . 


Pounds 


4 239 987 


269 114 


MANUFACTURES OF WooL: 3 
Establishments '. . 


Number 




1 675 


Wages and salaries paid * 
Value of products ] 
Imports . . 


Dollars 
Dollars .... 
Dollars 




'48,608,779 
19 620 619 


Raw wool imported 
MANUFACTURES OF SILK: 
Establishments l 
Wages and salaries paid '.... 


Pounds. . . . 

Number. . . 
Dollars 




18,695,294 
67 


Value of products l 
Imports 


Dollars 
Dollars 




1,809,476 
17,639,624 


Raw silk imported. . . 


Pounds 






Imports of crude rubber 
SUGAR: 

Imports ] 


Pounds. . . . 
Pounds. . . . 




218,430,764 


Average cost per pound in foreign countries. . . . 
Wholesale prices of granulated, at New York . . . 
Total consumption 


Dollars .... 
Cents 
Cents 
Tons . . 




7,555,603 
3.46 

239,409 


Consumption per capita 


Pounds . 




23.1 


COFFEE: 
Imports - 

Average import price per pound at New York. . . 
Consumption per capita 6 
TEA: 

Imports \ 


Pounds. . . . 
Dollars .... 
Cents 
Pounds. . . . 

Pounds. . . . 




145,272,687 
11,234,835 
7.6 
5.60 

29,872,654 


Average import price per pound at New York. . 


Dollars .... 
Cents 




4,719,232 
14.1 


Consumption per capita G . 






1 22 


RAILWAYS: 
In operation 
Passengers carried 
Freight carried one mile 


Miles 
Number. . . 
Tons 




9,021 











1 No official figures in other than census years. 

2 1891, last six months. 

3 Does not include hosiery and knit goods. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



so 1 ; 



AREA, POPULATION, AND MATERIAL INDUSTRIES Continued. 



1860. 


1870. 


1880. 


1890. 


1900. 


1903. 




68,750 
12,600 
218,598,994 

252,148 
2,053,996 
775,584,343 
4,232,325,442 

808 
40,514,981 
207,208,696 
40,273,682 
13,483,163 

150,932,768 


1,247,335 
27,000 
369,319,000 

253,852 
2,732,595 
947,953,795 
5,369,579,191 

1,005 
55,476,785 
296,557,685 
71,266,699 
14,716,524 

379,902,880 


4,277,071 
115,966 
619,648,925 

355,415 
4,712,622 
2,283,216,529 
9,372,437,283 

719 
95,736,192 
478,687,519 
41,679,591 
25,542,208 

680,060,925 
2 2,236,743 

905 

69,489,272 
267,981,724 
9,999,277 
29,918,055 

2,325.000 
2,471,799,853 
250,968,792 
8,606,049 

1,693 
58,397,470 
270,527,511 
56,582,432 
105,431,285 

472 
17,762,441 
87,298,454 
38,686,374 
7,347,909 
33,842,374 

2,934,011,560 
96,094,532 
3.28 
6.27 
1,476,377 
52.8 

499,159,120 

78,267,432 
16.0 
7.83 

83,886,829 
12,317,493 
15.0 
1.33 

166,703 
520,439,082 
79,192,985,125 


10,188,329 
270,588 
1,063,620,548 

512,734 
5,719,137 
2,735,430,848 
13,039,279,566 

725 
134,739,004 
835,759,034 

20,478,728 
121,913,548 

147,963,804 
677,969,600 

1,055 
94,039,951 
339,200,320 
24,003,087 
41,296,239 

3,644,000 
3,100,583,188 
241,832,737 
67,398,521 

1,414 
64,389,312 
296,990,484 
16,164,446 
155,928,455 

483 
20,982,194 
107,256,258 
30,894,373 
13,043,714 
49,377,138 

4,018,086,530 
100,250,974 
2.49 
5.32 

2,219,847 
65.2 

787,991,911 
52,467,943 
6.7 
9.81 

84,845,107 
10,558,110 
12.4 
1.09 

194,334 
584,695,935 
141,162,109,413 


:::::::::::: 


7,200 


140.433 
1,311,246 

378,878,966 
1,885,861,676 


' '26,158,235 
5,870,114 


:::::::::: :: 


51,617,312 
96,642,467 

109,913,293 




1,091 
23,940,108 
115,681,774 
10,934,796 
33,215,541 

979,000 
1,767,686,338 
191,806,555 
2,005,529 

1,476 
11,699,630 
73,454,000 
43,141,988 
( 4 ) 

139 
1,050,224 
6,607,771 
32,726,134 


956 
39,044,132 
177,489,739 
3,787,282 
23,380,053 

857,000 
958,558,523 
227,074,624 
1,698,133 

3,208 
35,928,150 
199,257,262 
34,490,668 
49,230,199 

86 
1,942,286 
12,210,662 
23,904,048 
583,589 
9,624,098 

1,196,773,569 
56,923,745 
4.95 
13.51 
607,834 
35.3 

235,256,574 
24,234,879 
10.3 
6.00 

47,408,481 
13,863,273 
29.4 
1.10 

52,922 


756 
45,614,419 
192,090,110 
9,981,418 
29,929,366 

1,795,000 
1,822,061,114 
211,535,905 
3,547,792 

2,330 

40,687,612 
238,085,686 
33,911,093 
128,131,747 

382 
9,146,705 
41,033,045 

32,188,690 
2,562,236 
16,826,099 

1,829,291,684 
80,087,720 
4.18 
9.80 
956,784 
42.9 

446,850,727 
60,360,769 
13.5 

8.78 

72,162,936 
19,782,631 
27.4 
1.39 

93,262 




32,216,304 
52,462,755 

3,924,000 
3,543,043,022 
316,180,429 
74,874,426 


' '19,546,385 
177,137,796 


"3'5,963,552 

15,270,600 
55,010,571 

54,216,108,106 
72,088,973 
1.71 
4.64 
2,549,643 
71.1 

915,086,380 
59,200,749 
6.5 
10.79 

108,574,905 
15,659,229 
14.5 
1.30 


694,838,197 
31,078,970 
4.38 


428,785 
30.5 

202,144,733 

21,883,797 
10.8 
5.79 

31,696,657 
8,915,327 
26.3 
0.84 

30,626 















4 Quantity not stated 

5 Does not include sugar from Hawaii and Porto Rico, 
s Consumption per capita based on net imports. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF PROGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES IN ITS 



Area, Population, and Industries. 


In 


1800. 


1850. 


Railways Continued. 
Freight rates per ton per mile. 
Passenger cars 


Cents 
Number 






Freight cars 


Number. 






AMERICAN VESSELS: 
Built. 


Tons 


106 261 


279 25 


Engaged in foreign trade. . 
Engaged in domestic trade 
Engaged in commerce of Great Lakes 
Vessels passing through the Sault Ste. Marie Canal . 
FREIGHT RATES ON WHEAT, CHICAGO TO NEW YORK : 
Lake and canal l 
Lake and rail 
All rail 
CONSUMPTION OF WINKS AND LIQUORS: 
Wines- 
Consumption 
Consumption per capita. 
Malt liquors 
Consumption 
Consumption per capita 
Distilled spirits 
Consumption 


Tons ...... 
Tons 
Tons 
Tonnage. . . 

Cts. per bu. 
Cts. per bu. 
Cts. per bu. 

Gallons. . . . 
Gallons. . . . 

Gallons. . . . 
Gallons. . . . 

Gallons. 


669,921 
301,919 


1,585,71 
1,949,74 
108,26 

6,315,87 
0.2 

36,563,00 
1.5 

51,833 47 


Consumption per capita 
Total consumption of wines and liquors. . . 
Total consumption per capita 
PRICES OF STAPLE COMMODITIES: 3 
Pig iron, No. 1, foundry, per ton 


Gallons. . . . 
Proof galk. 
Proof galls . 

Dollars 




2.2 
94,712,35 
4.0 

20 8 


Steel rails, standard sections, per ton 
Middling cotton, per pound 4 . . 
Standard sheetings, per yard 
Standard prints, per yard 
Washed Ohio fleece wool, July 1 
Fine 
Medium 
Coarse 
COMMERCIAL FAILURES: 
Reported 
Amount of liabilities 


Dollars .... 
Cents 
Cents 
Cents 

Cents. . . . 
Cents 
Cents 

Number. . . 
Dollars 




' 'l2.3 

7.8 
10.6 

4 
3 
3 


POST-OFFICE STATISTICS: 
Post-offices. . . 




903 


18 41 


Receipts of Post-office Department. . 
Telegraph messages sent 5 
Newspapers and periodicals published 
PUBLIC SCHOOLS: 
Pupils enrolled 
Average daily attendance 


Dollars ... 
Number. . 
Number. . . 

Number. . . 
Number. 


280,804 


5,499,98 
'2,52 


Salaries paid superintendents and teachers 
Total expenditures. 


Dollars 
Dollars 






STUDENTS IN COLLEGES, UNIVERSITIES, AND 
SCHOOLS OF TECHNOLOGY: 
Men 


Number. 






Women 








Total 
Patents issued 
Immigrants arrived 


Number. . . 
Number. . . 
Number. . . 




"99 
310,00 



1 Including canal tolls under 1882, but not Buffalo transfer charges. 

2 For domestic consumption; local rate for exports only 9.08 cents in 1900. 

3 At Philadelphia. 

4 Net prices. 

5 Western Union to 1885; includes Postal Telegraph 1885 to date. 
Figures from 1870 to date; from Rowell's Newspaper Directory. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



309 



AREA, POPULATION, AND MATERIAL INDUSTRIES Continued. 



1860. 


1870. 


1880. 


1890. 


1900. 


1903. 








93 


75 








12,788 


21,664 


26 786 








544,185 


1,099,205 


1,350,258 




214,797 
2,546,237 
2,807,631 
467,774 
403,657 

24.83 

11,059,141 
0.35 

101,346,669 
3.22 

89,968,651 
2.86 
202,374,461 
6.44 

22.75 

'ii'.bo 

8.73 
9.50 

55 
50 
40 

3,676 
79,807,000 

28,498 
8,518,067 

'4,05i 


276,953 
1,516,800 
2,729,707 
684,704 
690,826 

17.11 
22.0 
33.3 

12,225,067 
0.32 

204,756,156 
5.31 

79,895,708 
2.07 
296,876,931 
7.70 

33.25 

106.75 
23.98 
14.58 
12.41 

46 
45 
43 

3,546 
88,242,000 

28,492 
19,772,221 
9,157,646 
6 5,871 

6,871,522 
4,077,347 


157,409 
1,352,810 
2,715,224 
605,102 
1,734,890 

12.27 
15.7 

19.9 

28,329,541 
0.56 

414,220,165 
8.26 

63,526,694 
1.27 
506,076,400 
10.09 

28.50 
67.50 
11.51 
8.51 
7.41 

46 
48 
42 

4,735 
65,752,000 

42,989 
33,315,479 
29,215,509 
9,723 

6,867,505 
6 144,143 


294,122 
946,695 
3,477,802 
1,063,063 
8,454,435 

5.85 
8.5 
14.31 

28,956,981 
0.46 

855,792,335 
13.67 

87,829,562 
1.40 
972,578,878 
15.53 

18.40 
31.75 
11.07 
7.00 
6.00 

33 
37 

29 

10,907 

189,856,964 

62,401 
60,882.097 
63,258,762 
16,948 

12,722,581 
8 153 635 


393,790 
826,694 
4,338,145 
1,565,587 
22,315,834 

4.42 
5.05 
2 9.98 

30,427,491 
0.40 

1,221,500,160 
16.01 

97,248,382 
1.27 
1,349,176,033 
17.68 

19.98 
32.29 
9.25 
6.05 
5.00 

28* 
31* 

27} 

10,774 
138,495,673 

76,688 
102,354,579 
79,696,227 
20,806 

15,503,110 
10 632 772 


436,152 
888.776 
5,198,569 
1,902,698 
27,736,444 

5.44 
6.17 
11.33 

39,413,201 
0.49 

1,449,879,952 
18.04 

117,252,148 
1.46 
1,606,545,301 
19.99 

19.92 
28.00 
11.18 
6.25 
5.00 

31* 

3H 

27" 

12,069 
155,444,185 

74,169 
134,224,443 
91,391,443 
20,485 




37 832 566 


55 942 972 


91 836 484 


137 687 746 






63,396,666 


78,094,687 


140,506,715 
44 926 


214,964,618 
72 159 










10 761 


26 764 








7 38 227 


55 687 


98 9 9 3 




4,778 
8 150,237 


13,333 
9 387,203 


13,947 
457,257 


26,292 
455,302 


26,499 
448,572 


31,699 
857,046 



' Figures for the year 1880 are for the calendar year preceding the fiscal year, and 
include non-resident graduates; figures of later years are exclusive of non-resident grad- 
uate students. 

8 Calendar year. 

9 Years ending June 30 to date. 



310 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




COMPARISON OF THE CHINESE EMPIRE WITH EASTERN UNITED STATES. 

Booklover's Magazine. 



CHAPTER XI. 



THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, 



The following is a brief resume of the work carried on by the Depart- 
ments of the Government service, and in many cases the individual bureaus 
and divisions are noted. Information germane to the work of the bureaus, 
etc., is cheerfully given. 



THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE. 



The Attorney-General is the head of 
the Department of Justice and the 
chief law officer of the Government. 
He represents the United States in 
matters involving legal questions ; he 
gives his advice and opinion, when 
they are required hy the President or 
by the heads of the other Executive 
Departments, on questions of law aris- 



ing in the administration of their re- 
spective Departments ; he exercises a 
general superintendence and direction 
over United States attorneys and mar- 
shals in all judicial districts in the 
States and Territories ; and he pro- 
vides special counsel for the United 
States whenever required by any De- 
partment of the Government. 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE. 



The Secretary of State is charged, 
under the direction of the Presi- 
dent, with the duties appertain- 
ing to correspondence with the 
public ministers and the consuls 
of the United States, and with 
the representatives of foreign powers 
accredited to the United States ; and 
to negotiations of whatever character 
relating to the foreign affairs of the 
United States. He is also the medium 
of correspondence between the Presi- 
dent and the chief executives of the 
several States of the United States ; 
he has the custody of the Great Seal 
of the United States, and countersigns 
and affixes such seal to all executive 
proclamations, to various commissions, 
and to warrants for the extradition of 



fugitives from justice. He is regard- 
ed as the first in rank among the mem- 
, ers of the Cabinet. 

The Secretary of State is also the, 
custodian of the treaties made with 
foreign States, and of the laws of the 
United States. He grants and issues 
passports, and exequaturs to foreign 
consuls in the United States are is- 
sued through his office. He publishes 
the laws and resolutions of Congress, 
amendments to the Constitution, and 
proclamations declaring the admission 
of new States into the Union. He is 
also charged with certain annual re- 
ports to Congress rehiting to commer- 
cial information received from diplo- 
matic and consular officers of the 
United States. 



THE DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY. 



The Secretary of the Treasury is 
charged by law with the management 
of the national finances. He prepares 
plans for the improvement of the rev- 
enue and for the support of the public 
credit ; superintends the collection of 
the revenue, and directs the forms of 
keeping and rendering public accounts 
and of making returns ; grants war- 
rants for all moneys drawls, from the 
Treasury in pursuance of appropria- 
tions made by law, and for the pay- 
ment of moneys into the Treasury ; 



and annually submits to Congress es- 
timates of the probable revenues and 
disbursements of the Government. He 
also controls the construction of pub- 
lic buildings ; the coinage and printing 
of money ; the administration of the 
Life-Saving, Revenue-Cutter, and the 
Public Health and Marine-Hospital 
branches of the public service, and fur- 
nishes generally such information as 
may be required by either branch of 
Congress on all matters pertaining to 
the foregoing. 



311 



312 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



THE DEPARTMENT OF WAR. 



The Secretary of War is head of the 
War Department, and performs such 
duties as are required of him by law 
or may be enjoined upon him by the 
President concerning the military ser- 
vice. He is charged by law with the 
supervision of all estimates of appro- 
priations for the expenses of the De- 
partment, including the military es- 
tablishment ; of all purchases of army 
supplies : of all expenditures for the 
support, transportation, and mainte- 
nance of the Army, and of such expen- 
ditures of a civil nature as may be 
placed by Congress under his direction. 
He ilso has supervision of the United 
States Military Academy at West 
Point and of military education in the 
Army, of the Board of Ordnance and 
Fortification, of the various battle- 
field commissions, and of the publica- 
tion of the official Records of the War 
of the Rebellion. He has charge of all 
matters relating to national defense 
and seacoast fortifications, army ord- 
nance, river and harbor improvements, 
the prevention of obstruction to navi- 
gation, and the establishment of har- 
bor lines, and all plans and locations of 
bridges authorized by Congress to be 
constructed over the navigable waters 
of the United States require his ap- 
proval. He also has charge of the es- 
tablishment or abandonment of mili- 
tary posts, and of all matters relating 
to leases, revocable licenses, and all 
other privileges upon lands under the 
control of the War Department. 

THE GENERAL STAFF. 

The General Staff Corps was organ- 
ized under the provisions of an act of 
Congress approved February 14, 1903. 
Its principal duties are to prepare 
plans for the national defense and for 
the mobilization of the military forces 
in time of war ; to investigate and re- 
port upon all questions affecting the 
efficiency of the Army and its state 
of preparation for military operations ; 
to render professional aid and assist- 
ance to the Secretary of War and to 
general officers and other superior 
commanders and to act as their agents 
in informing and co-ordinating the ac- 
tion of all the different officers who are 
subject to the supervision of the Chief 
of Staff, and to perform such other 
military duties not otherwise assigned 
by law as may be from time to time 
prescribed by the President. The 
Chief of Staff, under direction of the 



President, or of the Secretary of War 
under the direction of the President, 
has supervision of all troops of 
the line and of the Adjutant-Gen- 
eral's, Inspector-General's, Judge-Ad- 
vocate-General's, Quartermaster's, Sub- 
sistence, Medical, Pay, and Ord- 
nance Departments, the Corps of En- 
gineers and the Signal Corps, and per- 
forms such other military duties not 
otherwise assigned by law as may be 
assigned to him by the President. Du- 
ties formerly prescribed by statute for 
the Commanding General of the Army 
as a member of the Board of Ord- 
nance and Fortification and of the 
Board of Commissioners of the Sol- 
diers' Home are performed by the 
Chief of Staff or some other officer des- 
ignated by the President. 

SOME OF THE MILITARY BUREAUS. 

The chiefs of the military bureaus 
of the War Department are officers of 
the Regular Army of the United States 
and part of the military establishment, 
viz. : 

The Adjutant-General's Depart- 
ment is the bureau of orders and rec- 
ords of the Army. Orders and instruc- 
tions emanating from the War De- 
partment and all regulations are issued 
by the Secretary of War through the 
Chief of Staff, and are communicated 
to troops and individuals in the mili- 
tary service through the Adjutant- 
General. His office is the repository 
for the records of the War Depart- 
ment which relate to the personnel of 
the permanent military establishment 
and militia in the service of the United 
States, to the military history of every 
commissioned officer and soldier there- 
of, and to the movements and oper- 
ation of troops. The records of all ap- 
pointments, promotions, resignations, 
deaths, and other casualties in the 
Army, the preparation and distribu- 
tion of commissions, and the compila- 
tion and issue of the Army Register 
and of information concerning exami- 
nations for appointment and promo- 
tions pertain to the Adjutant-General's 
Office. The Adjutant-General is 
charged, under the direction of the 
Secretary of War, with the manage- 
ment of the recruiting service, the 
communication of instructions to offi- 
cers detailed to visit encampments of 
militia, and the digesting, arranging, 
and preserving of their reports ; also 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



313 



the preparation of the annual returns 
of the militia required by law to be 
submitted to Congress. 

The Quartermaster-General, aided 
by his assistants, provides transporta- 
tion for the Army ; also clothing and 
equipage, horses, mules, and wagons, 
vessels, forage, stationery, and other 
miscellaneous quartermaster stores 
and property for the Army, and of 
clothing and equipage for the mi- 
litia ; constructs necessary buildings, 
wharves, roads, and bridges at 
military posts, and repairs the same ; 
furnishes water, heating and light- 
ing apparatus ; pays guides, spies, and 
interpreters, and is in charge of na- 
tional cemeteries. 

The Chief of Engineers commands 
the Corps of Engineers, which is 
charged with all duties relating to 
construction and repair of fortifica- 
tions, whether permanent or tempo- 
rary ; with all works of defense; with 
all military roads and bridges, and 
with such surveys as may be required 
for these objects, or the movement of 
armies in the field. It is also charged 
with the river and harbor improve- 
ments, with military and geographical 
explorations and surveys, with the 
survey of the lakes, and with any other 
engineering work specially assigned 
to the corps by acts of Congress or 
orders of the Secretary of War. 



The Chief of Ordnance commands 
the Ordnance Department, the duties 
of which consist in providing, preserv- 
ing, distributing, and accounting for 
every description of artillery, small 
arms, and all the munitions of war 
which may be required for the for- 
tresses of the country, the armies in 
the field, and for the whole body of the 
militia of the Union. In these duties 
are comprised those of determining the 
general principles of construction and 
of prescribing in detail the models and 
forms of all military weapons employ- 
ed in war. They comprise also the 
duty of prescribing the regulations for 
the proof and inspection of all these 
weapons, for maintaining uniformity 
and economy in their fabrication, for 
insuring their good quality, and for 
their preservation and distribution. 

The Chief Signal Officer is charged 
with the supervision of all military 
signal duties, and of books, papers, and 
devices connected therewith, including 
telegraph and telephone apparatus and 
the necessary meteorological instru- 
ments for use on target ranges and 
other military uses; the construction, 
repair, and operation of military tele- 
graph lines, and the duty of collecting 
and transmitting information for the 
Army by telegraph or otherwise, and 
all other duties usually pertaining to 
military signaling. 



THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



The Secretary of Agriculture is 
charged with the supervision of all 
public business relating to the agricul- 
tural industry. He appoints all the 
officers and employees of the Depart- 
ment, with the exception of the Assist- 
ant Secretary and the Chief of the 
Weather Bureau, who are appointed 
by the President, and directs the man- 
agement of all the bureaus, divisions, 
and offices embraced in the Depart- 
ment. He exercises advisory super- 
vision over agricultural experiment 
stations deriving support from the Na- 
tional Treasury. He controls the im- 
port and export of cattle, including 
cattle-carrying vessels, and directs in- 
terstate quarantine when rendered nec- 
essary by contagious cattle diseases. 
His duties and powers include the 
preservation, distribution, and intro- 
duction of birds and animals, game 
birds and other wild birds and ani- 
mals in the United States, and the 
protection of wild game animals and 
wild birds in the district of Alaska. 



He is charged generally with carrying 
out the chief purpose of the Depart- 
ment, which is "to acquire and diffuse 
among the people of the United States 
useful information on subjects con- 
nected with agriculture, in the most 
comprehensive sense of that word, and 
to procure, propagate, and distribute 
among the' people new and valuable 
seeds and plants." 

THE WEATHER BUREAU. 

The Chief of the Weather Bureau, 
under the direction of the Secretary of 
Agriculture, has charge of the fore- 
casting of weather ; the issue of storm 
warnings ; the display of weather and 
flood signals for the benefit of agricul- 
ture, commerce, and navigation ; the 
gauging and reporting of rivers ; the 
maintenance and operation of seacoast 
telegraph lines, and the collection and 
transmission of marine intelligence 
for the benefit of commerce and navi- 
gation ; the reporting of temperature 



314 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



and rain-fall conditions for the cotton 
interests ; the display of frost and cold- 
wave signals ; the distribution of me- 
teorological information in the inter- 
ests of agriculture and commerce, and 
the taking of such meteorological 
observations as may be necessary 
to establish and record the climatic 
conditions of the United States or 
as are essential for the proper execu- 
tion of the foregoing duties. 

THE BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

The Bureau of Animal Industry 
makes investigations as to the exist- 
ence of dangerous communicable dis- 
eases of live stock ; superintends the 
measures for their extirpation, and 
makes original investigations as to the 
nature and prevention of such dis- 
eases. It inspects live stock and their 
products slaughtered for food consump- 
tion ; has charge of the inspection of 
import and export animals, of the in- 
spection of vessels for the transporta- 
tion of export animals, and of the 
quarantine stations for imported neat 
cattle, other ruminants, and swine ; 
generally supervises the interstate 
movement of animals and reports on 
the condition and means of improving 
the animal industries of the country. 
It makes special investigations in re- 
gard to dairy subjects, inspects and 
certifies dairy products for export, and 
supervises the manufacture and inter- 
state commerce of renovated butter. 

BUREAU OF CHEMISTRY. 

The Bureau of Chemistry makes in- 
vestigations of fertilizers, and agricul- 
tural products, and such analyses as 
pertain in general to the interests of 
agriculture. It investigates the com- 
position and adulteration of foods and 
the composition of field products in re- 
lation to their nutritive value and to 
the constituents which they derive 
from the soil, fertilizers, and the air. 
It inspects imported food products and 
excludes from entry those injurious to' 
health. It inspects food products ex- 
ported to foreign countries where phy- 
sical and chemical tests are required 
for such products. It co-operates 
with the chemists of the agricultural 
experiment stations in all matters per- 
taining to the relations of chemistry 
to agricultural interests. It also co- 
operates with the other scientific di- 
visions of the Department in all mat- 
ters relating to chemistry, and con- 
ducts investigations of a chemical na- 



ture for other Departments of the Gov- 
ernment at the request of their respect- 
ive Secretaries. 

BUREAU OF STATISTICS. 

The statistician collects information 
as to crop production and the numbers 
and status of farm animals, through 
a corps of county and township corre- 
spondents, traveling agents, and other 
agencies, and obtains similar informa- 
tion from foreign countries through 
special agents, assisted by consular, 
agricultural, and commercial authori- 
ties. He records, tabulates, and co- 
ordinates statistics of agricultural pro- 
duction, distribution, and consumption, 
the authorized data of governments, 
institutes, societies, boards of trade, 
and individual experts ; and issues a 
monthly crop report for the informa- 
tion of producers and consumers. 

DIVISION OF FOREIGN MARKETS. 

The division of foreign markets has 
for its object the extension of the ag- 
ricultural export trade of the United 
States. It investigates the require- 
ments of foreign markets, studies the 
conditions of demand and supply as 
disclosed by the records of production, 
importation, and exportation, inquires 
into the obstacles confronting trade ex- 
tension, and disseminates through 
printed reports and otherwise the in- 
formation collected. 

OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 

The Office of Experiment Stations 
represents the Department in its re- 
lations to the agricultural colleges and 
experiment stations, which are now in 
operation in all the States and Terri- 
tories, and directly manages the ex- 
periment stations in Alaska, Hawaii, 
and Porto Rico. It seeks to promote 
the interests of agricultural education 
and investigation throughout the Uni- 
ted States. It collects and dissemi- 
nates general information regarding 
the colleges and stations, and publishes 
accounts of agricultural investigations 
at home and abroad. It also indicates 
lines of inquiry, aids in the conduct of 
co-operative experiments, reports upon 
the expenditures and work of the sta- 
tions, and in general furnishes them 
with such advice and assistance as will 
best promote the purposes for which 
they were established. It is also 
charged with investigations on the nu- 
tritive value and economy of human 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



315 



foods and on irrigation and agricul- 
tural engineering, which are largely 
conducted in co-operation with the col- 
leges and stations. 

DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY. 

The entomologist obtains and dis- 
seminates information regarding inju- 
rious insects ; investigates insects sent 
him in order to give appropriate reme- 
dies ; conducts investigations of this 
character in different parts of the 
country, and mounts and arranges 
specimens for illustrative and museum 
purposes. 

DIVISION OF BIOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

The division of biological survey 
studies the geographic distribution of 
animals and plants, and maps the na- 
tural life zones of the country ; it also 
investigates the economic relations of 
birds and mammals, recommends meas- 
ures for the preservation of beneficial 
and the destruction of injurious spe- 
cies, and has been charged with carry- 
ing into effect .the provisions of the 
Federal law for the importation and 
protection of birds, contained in the 
act of Congress of May 25, 1900. 

BUREAU OF FORESTRY. 

The Bureau of Forestry gives prac- 
tical assistance to farmers, lumber- 
men, and others in the conservative 
handling of forest lands ; investigates 
methods and trees for planting in the 
treeless West, and gives practical as- 
sistance to tree planters ; studies com- 
mercially valuable trees to determine 
their special uses in forestry ; tests the 
strength and durability of construction 
timbers and railroad ties ; investigates 
forest fires, grazing, and other forest 
problems ; and makes plans for practi- 
cal forestry in the national forest re- 
serves at the request of the Secretary 
of the Interior. 

BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY. 

The Bureau of Plant Industry stud- 
ies plant life in all its relations to ag- 
riculture. It includes vegetable patho- 
logical and physiological investigations, 
botanical investigations and experi- 
ments, pomological investigations, 
grass and forage plant investigations, 
experimental gardens and grounds, the 
Arlington experimental farm, Con- 
gressional seed distribution, seed and 
plant introduction, and tea-culture ex- 
periments. 



VEGETABLE PATHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIO- 
LOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 

These investigations have for their 
objects the study of diseases of agri- 
cultural crops and economic plants, 
nutrition of plants, rotation of crops, 
and the general application of the prin- 
ciples of pathology and. physiology to 
agriculture, the problems of crop im- 
provement, and the production of bet- 
ter varieties of agricultural plants and 
of crops resistant to disease by means 
of breeding and selection. 

BOTANICAL INVESTIGATIONS AND EX- 
PERIMENTS. 

This office investigates botanical 
problems, including the purity and 
value of seeds ; methods of controlling 
the spread of weeds and preventing 
their introduction into this country ; 
the injurious effects and antidotes in 
the case of poisonous plants; the na- 
tive plant resources of the country, 
and other phases of economic botany. 

GRASS AND FORAGE PLANT INVESTIGA- 
TIONS. 

This office studies the natural his- 
tory, geographical distribution, and 
uses of grasses and forage plants, as 
well as their adaptation to special 
soils and climates ; introduces prom- 
ising foreign varieties, and investigates 
the methods of cultivation of native 
and foreign sorts. 

POMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 

This branch of the Bureau collects 
and distributes information in regard 
to the fruit interests of the United 
States : investigates the habits and pe- 
culiar qualities of fruits ; their adapt- 
ability to various soils and climates, 
and conditions of culture. It studies 
the methods of harvesting, handling, 
and storing fruits, with a view to im- 
proving our own markets and extend- 
ing them into foreign countries. 

EXPERIMENTAL GARDENS AND GROUNDS. 

This branch is charged with the 
care and ornamentation of the parks 
surrounding the Department build- 
ings ; with the duties connected with 
the conservatories and gardens, and 
with the testing and propagating of 
economic plants. It carries on inves- 
tigations for the purpose of determin- 
ing the best methods of improving the 



316 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



culture of plants under glass, and 
other lines of investigation connected 
with intensive horticulture. 

CONCESSIONAL SEED DISTRIBUTION. 

This office is charged with the pur- 
chase and distribution of valuable 
seed. The seeds are distributed in al- 
lotments to Senators, Representatives, 
Delegates in Congress, and the agri- 
cultural experiment stations, and also 
by the Secretary of Agriculture, as 
provided for by the law. 

SEED AND PLANT INTRODUCTION. 

This work has for its object the se- 
curing from all parts of the world of 
seeds and plants of new and valuable 
agricultural crops adapted to different 
parts of the United States. 

ARLINGTON EXPERIMENTAL FARM. 

The experiment farm is designed ul- 
timately to become an adjunct to all 
branches of the Department. It will 
carry on investigations in the testing 
of agricultural crops, fruits, and vege- 
tables. 

TEA CULTURE EXPERIMENTS. 

This branch of the Bureau has for 
its object the study of tea with a view 
to producing it in this country. Ex- 
periments are conducted in tea cul- 
ture, and methods of growing, curing, 
and handling the tea are being worked 
out. The work is carried on at Sum- 
merville, S. C., and at Pierce, Texas. 



BUREAU OF SOILS. 

The Bureau of Soils has for its ob- 
ject the investigation of soils in their 
relation to crops, the mapping of soils, 
the investigation, mapping, and re- 
clamation of alkali lands, and investi- 
gations of the growth, curing, and fer- 
mentation of tobacco. 

OFFICE OF PUBLIC-ROAD INQUIRIES. 

The Office of Public-Road Inquiries 
collects information concerning the 
systems of road management through- 
out the United States, conducts and 
promotes investigations and experi- 
ments regarding the best methods of 
road making and road-making ma- 
terials, and prepares publications on 
this subject. 

DIVISION OF PUBLICATIONS. 

The division of publications edits all 
publications of the Department, in- 
cluding Farmers' Bulletins and other 
agricultural reports ordered printed by 
the Congress, with the exception of 
those issued by the Weather Bureau. 
It supervises all printing, binding, and 
illustration work of the Department. 
It directs the distribution of publica- 
tions with the exception of those turn- 
ed over by law to the Superintendent 
of Documents for sale at the price 
fixed by him ; issues, in the form of 
press notices, official information of in- 
terest to agriculturists, and distributes 
to agricultural and other periodicals 
and writers synopses of Department 
publications. 



THE POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT. 



The Postmaster-General has the di- 
rection and management: of the Post- 
office Department. He appoints all 
officers and employees of the Depart- 
ment, except the four Assistant Post- 
masters-General, who are appointed 
by the President, by and with the ad- 
vice and consent of the Senate ; ap- 



points all postmasters whose compen- 
sation does not exceed $1,000 ; makes 
postal treaties with foreign Govern- 
ments, by and with the advice and con- 
sent of the President, awards and ex- 
ecutes contracts, and directs the man- 
agement of the domestic and foreign 
mail service. 



THE DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY. 



The Secretary of the Navy performs 
such duties as the President of the 
United States, who is Commander in 
Chief, may assign him, and has the 
general superintendence of construc- 
tion, manning, armament, equipment, 
and employment of vessels of war. 

BUREAU OF NAVIGATION. 

The duties of the Bureau of Navi- 
gation comprise all that relates to the 



promulgation, record, and enforcement 
of the Secretary's orders to the fleets 
and to the officers of the Navy, except 
such orders as pertain to the Office of 
the Secretary ; the education of officers 
and men, including the Naval Acade- 
my and technical schools for officers 
Oxeept the War College and Torpedo 
School), the apprentice establishment, 
and schools for the technical education 
of enlisted men, and to the supervision 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



317 



and control of the Naval Home, Phila- 
delphia ; the enlistment and discharge 
of all enlisted persons, including ap- 
pointed petty officers for general and 
special service. It controls all rendez- 
vous and receiving ships, and provides 
transportation for all enlisted persons 
and appointed petty officers ; estab- 
lishes the complement of the crews of 
all vessels in commission ; keeps the 
records of service of all squadrons, 
ships, officers, and men, and prepares 
the annual Naval Register for publica- 
tion ; has under its direction the prep- 
aration, revision, and enforcement of 
all tactics, drill books, signal codes, ci- 
pher codes, and the uniform regula- 
tions. 

BUREAU OF YARDS AND DOCKS. 
The duties of the Bureau of Yards 
and Docks comprise all that relates to 
the planning, construction, and main- 
tenance of all docks (including dry 
docks), wharves, slips, piers, quay 
walls, and buildings of all kinds, for 
whatever purpose needed, within the 
limits of the navy-yards, but not of 
hospitals and magazines outside of 
those limits, nor of buildings for which 
it does not estimate. It repairs and 
furnishes all buildings, stores and of- 
fices in the several navy-yards, and is 
charged with the purchase, sale, and 
transfer of -ill land and buildings con- 
nected with the navy-yards ; has un- 
der its sole control the general admin- 
istration of the navy-yards ; provides 
and has sole control of all landings, 
derricks, shears, cranes, sewers, dredg- 
ing, railway tracks, cars, and wheels, 
trucks, grading, paving, walks, shade 
trees, inclosure walls and fences, ditch- 
ing, reservoirs, cisterns, fire engines, 
and apparatus, all watchmen, and all 
things necessary, including labor, for 
the cleaning of the yards and the pro- 
tection of the public property. 

BUREAU OF EQUIPMENT. 

The duties of the Bureau of Equip- 
ment comprise all that relates to the 
equipment of all vessels with rigging, 
sails, anchors, yeomen's stores, furni- 
ture not provided by other bureaus, 
navigation stores and supplies of all 
kinds, including nautical and navigat- 
ing instruments and books, stationery, 
and blank books for commanding and 
navigating officers ashore and afloat, 
binnacles, flags, signal lights, running 
lights, and standing lights on board 
vessels, including all electrical ap- 
paratus for lighting purposes and 
searchlights, logs, leads, lines, and 



glasses, log books, ships' libraries, il- 
luminating oil for all purposes, except 
that used in the engineer department 
of steamers, and fuel for steamers, the 
ropewalks, and the shops for making 
anchors and cables, rigging, sails, gal- 
leys, and cooking utensils, the Naval 
Observatory, Nautical Almanac, com- 
pass offices, and pilotage. It has un- 
der its control the Hydrographic 
Office, the collection of foreign sur- 
veys, publication and supply charts, 
sailing directions, and nautical works, 
and the dissemination of nautical and 
hydrographic information to the Navy 
and mercantile marine. 

BUREAU OF ORDNANCE. 

The duties of the Bureau of Ord- 
nance comprise all that relates to the 
torpedo station, naval proving grounds, 
and magazines on shore ; to the manu- 
facture of offensive and defensive arms 
and apparatus (including torpedoes), 
all ammunition and war explosives ; 
procures all machinery, apparatus, 
equipment, material, and supplies re- 
quired by or for use with the above ; 
recommends the armament to be car- 
ried by vessels of the Navy : the ma- 
terial, kind, and quality of the armor : 
the interior dimensions of revolving 
turrets and their requirements as re- 
gards rotation. It fixes, within the 
carrying power of vessels as deter- 
mined by the Bureau of Construction 
and Repair, the location and command 
of the armament, and distributes the 
thickness of the armor ; inspects the 
installation of the permanent fixtures 
of the armament and its accessories on 
board ship, and the methods of stor- 
ing, handling, and transporting am- 
munition and torpedoes ; designs and 
constructs turret ammunition hoists ; 
determines the requirements of all am- 
munition hoists, and the method of 
construction of armories and ammuni- 
tion rooms on board ship, and in con- 
junction with the Bureau of Construc- 
tion and Repair, determines upon their 
location and that of ammunition 
hoists. It installs the armament and 
its accessories which are not perma- 
nently attached to any portion of the 
structure of the hull, excepting tur- 
ret guns, turret mounts, and ammu- 
nition hoists, etc. ; has cognizance of 
all electrically operated ammunition 
hoists, rammers, and gun-elevating 
gear which are in turrets, of electric 
range finders, of electric training and 
elevating gear for gun mounts not in 
turrets, of electrically operated air 



318 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



compressors for charging torpedoes, 
and of all battle-order and range trans- 
mitters and indicators ; designs inter- 
nal arrangements of buildings at navy- 
yards where ordnance work is per- 
formed ; designs, erects, and maintains 
all shops and buildings constructed 
for its own purpose outside the lim- 
its of navy-yards. It is charged 
with the purchase, sale, and transfer 
of all land and buildings in connec- 
tion therewith, except at navy-yards, 
and with the preservation of public 
property under its control. It deter- 
mines upon and procures all the tools, 
stores, stationery, blank books, forms, 
material, means, and appliances of 
every kind required in its shops, in- 
cluding fuel and transportation. It 
superintends all work done under it, 
and estimates for and defrays from its 
own funds the cost necessary to carry 
out. its duties as above defined. 

BUREAU OF CONSTRUCTION AND RE- 
PAIR. 

The duties of the Bureau of Con- 
struction and Repair comprise the re- 
sponsibility for the structural strength 
and stability of all ships built for the 
Navy ; all that relates to designing, 
building, fitting, and repairing the 
hulls of ships, turrets, spars, capstans, 
windlasses, steering gear, and venti- 
lating apparatus, and, after consul- 
tation with the Bureau of Ordnance, 
and according to the requirements 
thereof as determined by that Bureau, 
the designing, construction, and in- 
stallation of independent ammunition 
hoists, and the installation of the 
permanent fixtures of all other am- 
munition hoists and their appurte- 
nances ; placing and securing armor 
after the material, quality, and 
distribution of thickness have been de- 
termined by the Bureau of Ordnance ; 
placing and securing on board ship, to 
the satisfaction of the Bureau of Ord- 
nance, the permanent fixtures of the 
armament and its accessories as manu- 
factured and supplied by that Bureau : 
installing the turret guns, turret 
mounts, and ammunition hoists, 
and such other mounts as require 
simultaneous structural work in 
connection with installation or re- 
moval : care and preservation of 
ships in ordinary, and requisitioning 
for or manufacturing all the equipage 
and supplies for ships prescribed by 
the authorized allowance lists. The 
Bureau of Construction and Repair 
also, after conference with the Bureau 



of Ordnance, designs the arrangements 
for centering the turrets, the character 
of the roller paths and their supports, 
and furnishes the Bureau every oppor- 
tunity to inspect the installation on 
board of all permanent fixtures of the 
armament and. accessories supplied by 
said Bureau. It has cognizance of ail 
electric turret-turning machinery and 
of all electrically operated ammunition 
hoists (except turret hoists), the same 
to conform uo the requirements of the 
Bureau of Ordnance as to power, 
speed* and control. It also has cog- 
nizance of stationary electrically oper- 
ated fans or blowers for hull ventila- 
tion, boat cranes, deck winches, cap- 
stans, steering engines and telemotors 
therefor, and hand pumps not in the 
engine or fire rooms, and of electric 
launches and other boats supplied with 
electric motive power. It has charge 
of the docking of ships, and also de- 
signs the slips and the various build- 
ings and shops, so far as their internal 
arrangements are concerned, where its 
work is executed, and is charged with 
the operating and cleaning of dry 
docks. 

BUREAU OF STEAM ENGINEERING. 

The duties of the Bureau of Steam 
Engineering comprise all that relates 
to the designing, building, fitting out, 
repairing, and engineering of the steam 
machinery used for the propulsion of 
naval vessels, and will also include 
steam pumps, steam heaters and con- 
nections, and the steam machinery 
necessary for actuating the apparatus 
by which turrets are turned. 

MARINE CORPS. 

The Commandant of the Marine 
Corps is responsible to the Secretary 
of the Navy for the general efficiency 
and discipline of the corps ; makes 
such distribution of officers and men 
for duty at the several shore stations 
as shall appear to him to be most ad- 
vantageous for the interests of the ser- 
vice ; furnishes guards for vessels of 
the Navy, according to the authorized 
scale of allowance ; under the direction 
of the Secretary of the Navy, issues 
orders for the movement of officers and 
troops, and such other orders and in- 
structions for their guidance as may 
be necessary ; and has charge and ex- 
ercises general supervision and con- 
trol of the recruiting service of the 
corps, and of the necessary expenses 
thereof, including the establishment of 
recruiting offices. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



319 



THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 



The Secretary of the Interior is 
charged with the supervision of pub- 
lic business relating to Patents for In- 
ventions ; Pensions and Bounty Lands ; 
the Public Lands and Surveys ; the In- 
dians ; Education ; railroads ; the Geo- 
logical Survey ; the Hot Springs Res- 
ervation, Arkansas ; Yellowstone Na- 
tional Park, Wyoming, and the Yose- 
mite, Sequoia, and General Grant 
parks, California ; forest reservations ; 
distribution of appropriations for agri- 
cultural and mechanical colleges in the 
States and Territories ; the custody 
and distribution of certain public docu- 
ments ; and supervision of certain hos- 
pitals and eleemosynary institutions in 
the District of Columbia. He also ex- 
ercises certain powers and duties in re- 
lation to the Territories of the United 
States. 

COMMISSIONER OF PATENTS. 

The Commissioner of Patents is 
charged with the administration of the 
patent laws, and supervises all mat- 
ters relating to the issue of letters 
patent for new and useful inventions, 
discoveries, and improvements thereon, 
and also the registration of trade- 
marks, prints, and labels. He is by 
statute made the tribunal of last re- 
sort in the Patent Office, and has ap- 
pellate jurisdiction in the trial of in- 
terference cases, of the patentability 
of inventions, and of registration of 
trade-marks. He is aided by an 
assistant Commissioner, chief clerk, 
three examiners in chief, an examiner 
of interferences, and thirty-nine prin- 
cipal examiners. 

COMMISSIONER OF PENSIONS. 

The Commissioner of Pensions su- 
pervises the examination and adjudica- 
tion of all claims arising under laws 
passed by Congress granting bounty 
land or pension on account of service 
in the Army or Navy during the Revo- 
lutionary War and all subsequent wars 
in which the United States has been 
engaged. He is aided by two Deputy 
Commissioners and the chief clerk of 
the Bureau, each of whom has super- 



vision over business arising in divi- 
sions of the Bureau assigned, under or- 
der of the Commissioner, to his imme- 
diate charge. 

COMMISSIONER OF THE GENERAL LAND 
OFFICE. 

The Commissioner of the General 
Land Office is charged with the survey, 
management, and sale of the public do- 
main, and the issuing of titles there- 
for, whether derived from confirma- 
tions of grants made by former govern- 
ments, by sales, donations, or grants 
for schools, railroads, military boun- 
ties, or public improvements. He is 
aided by an Assistant Commissioner 
and chief clerk. 

COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

The duties of the Commissioner of 
Education are to collect such statis- 
tics arid facts as shall show the condi- 
tion and progress of education in the 
several States and Territories, and to 
diffuse such information respecting